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首页 Charles Dickens.pdf

Charles Dickens.pdf

Charles Dickens.pdf

上传者: Justin和Jane 2010-03-24 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Charles Dickenspdf》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含wwwHomeEnglishruACHILD'SHISTORYOFENGLANDByCHARLESDICKENSCHAPTERIANCIENTENG符等。

wwwHomeEnglishruACHILD'SHISTORYOFENGLANDByCHARLESDICKENSCHAPTERIANCIENTENGLANDANDTHEROMANSIfyoulookataMapoftheWorld,youwillsee,inthelefthanduppercorneroftheEasternHemisphere,twoIslandslyingintheseaTheyareEnglandandScotland,andIrelandEnglandandScotlandformthegreaterpartoftheseIslandsIrelandisthenextinsizeThelittleneighbouringislands,whicharesosmallupontheMapastobemeredots,arechieflylittlebitsofScotland,brokenoff,Idaresay,inthecourseofagreatlengthoftime,bythepoweroftherestlesswaterIntheolddays,along,longwhileago,beforeOurSaviourwasbornonearthandlayasleepinamanger,theseIslandswereinthesameplace,andthestormysearoaredroundthem,justasitroarsnowButtheseawasnotalive,then,withgreatshipsandbravesailors,sailingtoandfromallpartsoftheworldItwasverylonelyTheIslandslaysolitary,inthegreatexpanseofwaterThefoamingwavesdashedagainsttheircliffs,andthebleakwindsblewovertheirforestsbutthewindsandwavesbroughtnoadventurerstolandupontheIslands,andthesavageIslandersknewnothingoftherestoftheworld,andtherestoftheworldknewnothingofthemItissupposedthatthePhoenicians,whowereanancientpeople,famousforcarryingontrade,cameinshipstotheseIslands,andfoundthattheyproducedtinandleadbothveryusefulthings,asyouknow,andbothproducedtothisveryhourupontheseacoastThemostcelebratedtinminesinCornwallare,still,closetotheseaOneofthem,whichIhaveseen,issoclosetoitthatitishollowedoutunderneaththeoceanandtheminerssay,thatinstormyweather,whentheyareatworkdowninthatdeepplace,theycanhearthenoiseofthewavesthunderingabovetheirheadsSo,thePhoenicians,coastingabouttheIslands,wouldcome,withoutmuchdifficulty,towherethetinandleadwereThePhoenicianstradedwiththeIslandersforthesemetals,andgavetheIslanderssomeotherusefulthingsinexchangeTheIslanderswere,atfirst,poorsavages,goingalmostnaked,oronlydressedintheroughskinsofbeasts,andstainingtheirbodies,asothersavagesdo,withcolouredearthsandthejuicesofplantsButthePhoenicians,sailingovertotheoppositecoastsofFranceandBelgium,andsayingtothepeoplethere,'Wehavebeentothosewhitecliffsacrossthewater,whichyoucanseeinfineweather,andfromthatcountry,whichiscalledBRITAIN,webringthistinandlead,'temptedsomeoftheFrenchandBelgianstocomeoveralsoThesepeoplesettledthemselvesonthesouthcoastofEngland,whichisnowcalledKentand,althoughtheywereawwwHomeEnglishruroughpeopletoo,theytaughtthesavageBritonssomeusefularts,andimprovedthatpartoftheIslandsItisprobablethatotherpeoplecameoverfromSpaintoIreland,andsettledthereThus,bylittleandlittle,strangersbecamemixedwiththeIslanders,andthesavageBritonsgrewintoawild,boldpeoplealmostsavage,still,especiallyintheinteriorofthecountryawayfromtheseawheretheforeignsettlersseldomwentbuthardy,brave,andstrongThewholecountrywascoveredwithforests,andswampsThegreaterpartofitwasverymistyandcoldTherewerenoroads,nobridges,nostreets,nohousesthatyouwouldthinkdeservingofthenameAtownwasnothingbutacollectionofstrawcoveredhuts,hiddeninathickwood,withaditchallround,andalowwall,madeofmud,orthetrunksoftreesplacedoneuponanotherThepeopleplantedlittleornocorn,butliveduponthefleshoftheirflocksandcattleTheymadenocoins,butusedmetalringsformoneyTheywerecleverinbasketwork,assavagepeopleoftenareandtheycouldmakeacoarsekindofcloth,andsomeverybadearthenwareButinbuildingfortressestheyweremuchmorecleverTheymadeboatsofbasketwork,coveredwiththeskinsofanimals,butseldom,ifever,venturedfarfromtheshoreTheymadeswords,ofcoppermixedwithtinbut,theseswordswereofanawkwardshape,andsosoftthataheavyblowwouldbendoneTheymadelightshields,shortpointeddaggers,andspearswhichtheyjerkedbackaftertheyhadthrownthematanenemy,byalongstripofleatherfastenedtothestemThebuttendwasarattle,tofrightenanenemy'shorseTheancientBritons,beingdividedintoasmanyasthirtyorfortytribes,eachcommandedbyitsownlittleking,wereconstantlyfightingwithoneanother,assavagepeopleusuallydoandtheyalwaysfoughtwiththeseweaponsTheywereveryfondofhorsesThestandardofKentwasthepictureofawhitehorseTheycouldbreaktheminandmanagethemwonderfullywellIndeed,thehorses(ofwhichtheyhadanabundance,thoughtheywererathersmall)weresowelltaughtinthosedays,thattheycanscarcelybesaidtohaveimprovedsincethoughthemenaresomuchwiserTheyunderstood,andobeyed,everywordofcommandandwouldstandstillbythemselves,inallthedinandnoiseofbattle,whiletheirmasterswenttofightonfootTheBritonscouldnothavesucceededintheirmostremarkableart,withouttheaidofthesesensibleandtrustyanimalsTheartImean,istheconstructionandmanagementofwarchariotsorcars,forwhichtheyhaveeverbeencelebratedinhistoryEachofthebestsortofthesechariots,notquitebreasthighinfront,andopenattheback,containedonemantodrive,andtwoorthreeotherstofightallstandingupThehorseswhodrewthemweresowelltrained,thattheywouldtear,atfullgallop,overthemoststonyways,andeventhroughthewoodsdashingdowntheirmasters'enemiesbeneaththeirhoofs,andcuttingthemtopieceswiththebladesofswords,orscythes,whichwerefastenedtothewheels,andstretchedoutbeyondthecaroneachside,forthatcruelpurposeInamoment,whileatfullspeed,thehorseswwwHomeEnglishruwouldstop,atthedriver'scommandThemenwithinwouldleapout,dealblowsaboutthemwiththeirswordslikehail,leaponthehorses,onthepole,springbackintothechariotsanyhowand,assoonastheyweresafe,thehorsestoreawayagainTheBritonshadastrangeandterriblereligion,calledtheReligionoftheDruidsItseemstohavebeenbroughtover,inveryearlytimesindeed,fromtheoppositecountryofFrance,ancientlycalledGaul,andtohavemixeduptheworshipoftheSerpent,andoftheSunandMoon,withtheworshipofsomeoftheHeathenGodsandGoddessesMostofitsceremonieswerekeptsecretbythepriests,theDruids,whopretendedtobeenchanters,andwhocarriedmagicians'wands,andwore,eachofthem,abouthisneck,whathetoldtheignorantpeoplewasaSerpent'segginagoldencaseButitiscertainthattheDruidicalceremoniesincludedthesacrificeofhumanvictims,thetortureofsomesuspectedcriminals,and,onparticularoccasions,eventheburningalive,inimmensewickercages,ofanumberofmenandanimalstogetherTheDruidPriestshadsomekindofvenerationfortheOak,andforthemistletoethesameplantthatwehangupinhousesatChristmasTimenowwhenitswhiteberriesgrewupontheOakTheymettogetherindarkwoods,whichtheycalledSacredGrovesandtheretheyinstructed,intheirmysteriousarts,youngmenwhocametothemaspupils,andwhosometimesstayedwiththemaslongastwentyyearsTheseDruidsbuiltgreatTemplesandaltars,opentothesky,fragmentsofsomeofwhichareyetremainingStonehenge,onSalisburyPlain,inWiltshire,isthemostextraordinaryoftheseThreecuriousstones,calledKitsCotyHouse,onBluebellHill,nearMaidstone,inKent,formanotherWeknow,fromexaminationofthegreatblocksofwhichsuchbuildingsaremade,thattheycouldnothavebeenraisedwithouttheaidofsomeingeniousmachines,whicharecommonnow,butwhichtheancientBritonscertainlydidnotuseinmakingtheirownuncomfortablehousesIshouldnotwonderiftheDruids,andtheirpupilswhostayedwiththemtwentyyears,knowingmorethantherestoftheBritons,keptthepeopleoutofsightwhiletheymadethesebuildings,andthenpretendedthattheybuiltthembymagicPerhapstheyhadahandinthefortressestooatallevents,astheywereverypowerful,andverymuchbelievedin,andastheymadeandexecutedthelaws,andpaidnotaxes,Idon'twonderthattheylikedtheirtradeAnd,astheypersuadedthepeoplethemoreDruidstherewere,thebetteroffthepeoplewouldbe,Idon'twonderthattherewereagoodmanyofthemButitispleasanttothinkthattherearenoDruids,now,whogooninthatway,andpretendtocarryEnchanters'WandsandSerpents'Eggsandofcoursethereisnothingofthekind,anywhereSuchwastheimprovedconditionoftheancientBritons,fiftyfiveyearsbeforethebirthofOurSaviour,whentheRomans,undertheirgreatGeneral,JuliusCaesar,weremastersofalltherestoftheknownworldJuliusCaesarhadthenjustconqueredGaulandhearing,inGaul,agooddealabouttheoppositeIslandwiththewhitecliffs,andaboutthebraveryoftheBritonswhoinhabiteditsomeofwhomhadbeenfetchedovertohelptheGaulsinthewaragainsthimheresolved,ashewassowwwHomeEnglishrunear,tocomeandconquerBritainnextSo,JuliusCaesarcamesailingovertothisIslandofours,witheightyvesselsandtwelvethousandmenAndhecamefromtheFrenchcoastbetweenCalaisandBoulogne,'becausethencewastheshortestpassageintoBritain'justforthesamereasonasoursteamboatsnowtakethesametrack,everydayHeexpectedtoconquerBritaineasily:butitwasnotsucheasyworkashesupposedfortheboldBritonsfoughtmostbravelyand,whatwithnothavinghishorsesoldierswithhim(fortheyhadbeendrivenbackbyastorm),andwhatwithhavingsomeofhisvesselsdashedtopiecesbyahightideaftertheyweredrawnashore,herangreatriskofbeingtotallydefeatedHowever,foroncethattheboldBritonsbeathim,hebeatthemtwicethoughnotsosoundlybutthathewasverygladtoaccepttheirproposalsofpeace,andgoawayBut,inthespringofthenextyear,hecamebackthistime,witheighthundredvesselsandthirtythousandmenTheBritishtribeschose,astheirgeneralinchief,aBriton,whomtheRomansintheirLatinlanguagecalledCASSIVELLAUNUS,butwhoseBritishnameissupposedtohavebeenCASWALLONAbravegeneralhewas,andwellheandhissoldiersfoughttheRomanarmy!Sowell,thatwheneverinthatwartheRomansoldierssawagreatcloudofdust,andheardtherattleoftherapidBritishchariots,theytrembledintheirheartsBesidesanumberofsmallerbattles,therewasabattlefoughtnearCanterbury,inKenttherewasabattlefoughtnearChertsey,inSurreytherewasabattlefoughtnearamarshylittletowninawood,thecapitalofthatpartofBritainwhichbelongedtoCASSIVELLAUNUS,andwhichwasprobablynearwhatisnowSaintAlbans,inHertfordshireHowever,braveCASSIVELLAUNUShadtheworstofit,onthewholethoughheandhismenalwaysfoughtlikelionsAstheotherBritishchiefswerejealousofhim,andwerealwaysquarrellingwithhim,andwithoneanother,hegaveup,andproposedpeaceJuliusCaesarwasverygladtograntpeaceeasily,andtogoawayagainwithallhisremainingshipsandmenHehadexpectedtofindpearlsinBritain,andhemayhavefoundafewforanythingIknowbut,atallevents,hefounddeliciousoysters,andIamsurehefoundtoughBritonsofwhom,Idaresay,hemadethesamecomplaintasNapoleonBonapartethegreatFrenchGeneraldid,eighteenhundredyearsafterwards,whenhesaidtheyweresuchunreasonablefellowsthattheyneverknewwhentheywerebeatenTheyneverdidknow,Ibelieve,andneverwillNearlyahundredyearspassedon,andallthattime,therewaspeaceinBritainTheBritonsimprovedtheirtownsandmodeoflife:becamemorecivilised,travelled,andlearntagreatdealfromtheGaulsandRomansAtlast,theRomanEmperor,Claudius,sentAULUSPLAUTIUS,askilfulgeneral,withamightyforce,tosubduetheIsland,andshortlyafterwardsarrivedhimselfTheydidlittleandOSTORIUSSCAPULA,anothergeneral,cameSomeoftheBritishChiefsofTribessubmittedOthersresolvedtofighttothedeathOfthesebravemen,thebravestwasCARACTACUS,orCARADOC,whogavebattletotheRomans,withhisarmy,amongthemountainsofNorthWales'Thisday,'saidhetohissoldiers,'decidesthefateofBritain!Yourliberty,oryoureternalslavery,datesfromthishourRememberyourbraveancestors,whodrovethegreatwwwHomeEnglishruCaesarhimselfacrossthesea!'Onhearingthesewords,hismen,withagreatshout,rushedupontheRomansButthestrongRomanswordsandarmourweretoomuchfortheweakerBritishweaponsincloseconflictTheBritonslostthedayThewifeanddaughterofthebraveCARACTACUSweretakenprisonershisbrothersdeliveredthemselvesuphehimselfwasbetrayedintothehandsoftheRomansbyhisfalseandbasestepmother:andtheycarriedhim,andallhisfamily,intriumphtoRomeButagreatmanwillbegreatinmisfortune,greatinprison,greatinchainsHisnobleair,anddignifiedenduranceofdistress,sotouchedtheRomanpeoplewhothrongedthestreetstoseehim,thatheandhisfamilywererestoredtofreedomNooneknowswhetherhisgreatheartbroke,andhediedinRome,orwhetherheeverreturnedtohisowndearcountryEnglishoakshavegrownupfromacorns,andwitheredaway,whentheywerehundredsofyearsoldandotheroakshavesprungupintheirplaces,anddiedtoo,veryagedsincetherestofthehistoryofthebraveCARACTACUSwasforgottenStill,theBritonswouldnotyieldTheyroseagainandagain,anddiedbythousands,swordinhandTheyrose,oneverypossibleoccasionSUETONIUS,anotherRomangeneral,came,andstormedtheIslandofAnglesey(thencalledMONA),whichwassupposedtobesacred,andheburnttheDruidsintheirownwickercages,bytheirownfiresBut,evenwhilehewasinBritain,withhisvictorioustroops,theBRITONSroseBecauseBOADICEA,aBritishqueen,thewidowoftheKingoftheNorfolkandSuffolkpeople,resistedtheplunderingofherpropertybytheRomanswhoweresettledinEngland,shewasscourged,byorderofCATUSaRomanofficerandhertwodaughterswereshamefullyinsultedinherpresence,andherhusband'srelationsweremadeslavesToavengethisinjury,theBritonsrose,withalltheirmightandrageTheydroveCATUSintoGaultheylaidtheRomanpossessionswastetheyforcedtheRomansoutofLondon,thenapoorlittletown,butatradingplacetheyhanged,burnt,crucified,andslewbythesword,seventythousandRomansinafewdaysSUETONIUSstrengthenedhisarmy,andadvancedtogivethembattleTheystrengthenedtheirarmy,anddesperatelyattackedhis,onthefieldwhereitwasstronglypostedBeforethefirstchargeoftheBritonswasmade,BOADICEA,inawarchariot,withherfairhairstreaminginthewind,andherinjureddaughterslyingatherfeet,droveamongthetroops,andcriedtothemforvengeanceontheiroppressors,thelicentiousRomansTheBritonsfoughttothelastbuttheywerevanquishedwithgreatslaughter,andtheunhappyqueentookpoisonStill,thespiritoftheBritonswasnotbrokenWhenSUETONIUSleftthecountry,theyfelluponhistroops,andretooktheIslandofAngleseyAGRICOLAcame,fifteenortwentyyearsafterwards,andretookitoncemore,anddevotedsevenyearstosubduingthecountry,especiallythatpartofitwhichisnowcalledSCOTLANDbut,itspeople,theCaledonians,resistedhimateveryinchofgroundTheyfoughtthebloodiestbattleswithhimtheykilledtheirverywivesandchildren,topreventhismakingprisonersofthemtheyfell,fighting,insuchgreatnumbersthatcertainhillsinScotlandareyetsupposedtobevastheapsofstonespiledupabovetheirgravesHADRIANcame,thirtyyearswwwHomeEnglishruafterwards,andstilltheyresistedhimSEVERUScame,nearlyahundredyearsafterwards,andtheyworriedhisgreatarmylikedogs,andrejoicedtoseethemdie,bythousands,inthebogsandswampsCARACALLA,thesonandsuccessorofSEVERUS,didthemosttoconquerthem,foratimebutnotbyforceofarmsHeknewhowlittlethatwoulddoHeyieldedupaquantityoflandtotheCaledonians,andgavetheBritonsthesameprivilegesastheRomanspossessedTherewaspeace,afterthis,forseventyyearsThennewenemiesaroseTheyweretheSaxons,afierce,seafaringpeoplefromthecountriestotheNorthoftheRhine,thegreatriverofGermanyonthebanksofwhichthebestgrapesgrowtomaketheGermanwineTheybegantocome,inpirateships,totheseacoastofGaulandBritain,andtoplunderthemTheywererepulsedbyCARAUSIUS,anativeeitherofBelgiumorofBritain,whowasappointedbytheRomanstothecommand,andunderwhomtheBritonsfirstbegantofightupontheseaBut,afterthistime,theyrenewedtheirravagesAfewyearsmore,andtheScots(whichwasthenthenameforthepeopleofIreland),andthePicts,anorthernpeople,begantomakefrequentplunderingincursionsintotheSouthofBritainAlltheseattackswererepeated,atintervals,duringtwohundredyears,andthroughalongsuccessionofRomanEmperorsandchiefsduringallwhichlengthoftime,theBritonsroseagainsttheRomans,overandoveragainAtlast,inthedaysoftheRomanHONORIUS,whentheRomanpowerallovertheworldwasfastdeclining,andwhenRomewantedallhersoldiersathome,theRomansabandonedallhopeofconqueringBritain,andwentawayAndstill,atlast,asatfirst,theBritonsroseagainstthem,intheiroldbravemannerfor,averylittlewhilebefore,theyhadturnedawaytheRomanmagistrates,anddeclaredthemselvesanindependentpeopleFivehundredyearshadpassed,sinceJuliusCaesar'sfirstinvasionoftheIsland,whentheRomansdepartedfromitforeverInthecourseofthattime,althoughtheyhadbeenthecauseofterriblefightingandbloodshed,theyhaddonemuchtoimprovetheconditionoftheBritonsTheyhadmadegreatmilitaryroadstheyhadbuiltfortstheyhadtaughtthemhowtodress,andarmthemselves,muchbetterthantheyhadeverknownhowtodobeforetheyhadrefinedthewholeBritishwayoflivingAGRICOLAhadbuiltagreatwallofearth,morethanseventymileslong,extendingfromNewcastletobeyondCarlisle,forthepurposeofkeepingoutthePictsandScotsHADRIANhadstrengtheneditSEVERUS,findingitmuchinwantofrepair,hadbuiltitafreshofstoneAboveall,itwasintheRomantime,andbymeansofRomanships,thattheChristianReligionwasfirstbroughtintoBritain,anditspeoplefirsttaughtthegreatlessonthat,tobegoodinthesightofGOD,theymustlovetheirneighboursasthemselves,anddountoothersastheywouldbedonebyTheDruidsdeclaredthatitwasverywickedtobelieveinanysuchthing,andcursedallthepeoplewhodidbelieveit,veryheartilyBut,whenthepeoplefoundthattheywerenonethebetterfortheblessingsoftheDruids,andnonetheworseforthecursesoftheDruids,but,thatthesunshoneandtherainfellwithoutconsultingtheDruidsatall,theyjustbegantothinkthattheDruidsweremeremen,wwwHomeEnglishruandthatitsignifiedverylittlewhethertheycursedorblessedAfterwhich,thepupilsoftheDruids

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