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grammar_for_teachers

grammar_for_teachers

jinlubaqifang
2010-03-24 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《grammar_for_teacherspdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

GrammarforTeachersAndreaDeCapuaGrammarforTeachersAGuidetoAmericanEnglishforNativeandNonNativeSpeakersAuthorAndreaDeCapua,EdDCollegeofNewRochelleNewRochelle,NYadecapuacnreduISBN:eISBN:LibraryofCongressControlNumber:c©SpringerScienceBusinessMedia,LLCAllrightsreservedThisworkmaynotbetranslatedorcopiedinwholeorinpartwithoutthewrittenpermissionofthepublisher(SpringerScienceBusinessMedia,LLC,SpringStreet,NewYork,NY,USA),exceptforbriefexcerptsinconnectionwithreviewsorscholarlyanalysisUseinconnectionwithanyformofinformationstorageandretrieval,electronicadaptation,computersoftware,orbysimilarordissimilarmethodologynowknownorhereafterdevelopedisforbiddenTheuseinthispublicationoftradenames,trademarks,servicemarks,andsimilarterms,eveniftheyarenotidentifiedassuch,isnottobetakenasanexpressionofopinionastowhetherornottheyaresubjecttoproprietaryrightsPrintedonacidfreepaperspringercomPrefaceGrammarforTeachers:AGuidetoAmericanEnglishforNativeandNonNativeSpeakersisaresultofmyfrustrationsovermanyyearsofteachinggraduatelevelstructurecoursesandnotbeingabletofindanappropriategrammartextforthepreandinserviceteachersenrolledintheseclassesThestudentsinthesecourseshaverepresentedavarietyofteachingbackgrounds:ESLandEFLteachers,nativeandnonnativespeakersofEnglish,andmainstreamcontentareateacherswithESLstudentsintheirclasses,tonameafewSomeofthesestudentshavehadastrongknowledgeofEnglishgrammar,butoftenhavedifficultiesinapplyingtheirknowledgetoreallifediscourseOtherstudents’exposurehasbeenlimitedtolessonsin“correctness,”andaregenerallyunawareofwhichlanguagefeaturesarecentraltoteachingESLEFLlearnersSomestudentsareresistanttotakingthiscourse,butarerequiredtodoso,whethertosatisfyspecificdegreerequirements,forstateorprofessionalcertification,orforotherreasonsAfewstudentshavehadsomelinguistics,manynotThechallengehasbeenfindingawaytoconveytheessentialsofAmericanEnglishgrammarclearly,toengagestudentsactivelyintheirownlearningandunderstandingofgrammarasapplicabletoESLEFLlearners,andtomotivatethemtoundertakeperceptiveanalysesofgrammaticalelementsandstructures,andofESLEFLlearnerneedsanddifficultiesTheoverallaimofGrammarforTeachersistomakegrammaraccessibleandcomprehensibleThetextassumesnopriorknowledgeandcanbeusedwithactiveandprospectiveteacherswhohavelittleornobackgroundingrammar,linguistics,foreignlanguages,orotherrelatedfieldsItisalsointendedforthoseuserswhoseexposuretoEnglishgrammarhasbeenprimarilylimitedtoprescriptiverulesofwhatspeakersshouldsayandwritewithlittleornoconsiderationoftheconcernsandproblemsESLEFLlearnersfaceinlearningandusingEnglishThetextencouragesuserstodevelopasolidunderstandingoftheuseandfunctionofthegrammaticalstructuresinAmericanEnglishsothattheymaybetterappreciatethelanguagedifficultiesofESLEFLlearnersTheunderlyingpremiseisthatteachersofESLEFLlearnersneedtounderstandhowEnglishworksfromapractical,everydayapproachof“WhatdoesthelearnerneedtoknowinordertoproduceX”WhenteachersunderstandthegrammarofAmericanEnglishandtheproblemsandneedsofESLEFLlearner,theyareinabetterpositiontoteachandexplainelementsofgrammarvviPrefaceThetextreviewsessentialgrammarstructuresclearlyandconcisely,whileavoidingjargonortechnicaltermsThetextapproachesgrammarfromadescriptiveratherthanaprescriptiveapproachandfocusesonthestructuresofgrammarofgreatestimportancetoESLEFLlearnersGrammarforTeachersencouragesuserstotapintotheirown,generallysubconscious,knowledgeofthegrammarofEnglishandmakeitaconsciousknowledgethattheycanapplytotheirownvariedteachingsettingsThetextstrivestomakethestudyofgrammarinterestingandrelevantbypresentinggrammarincontextandbyusingauthenticmaterialfromavarietyofsourcesDiscussionsofareasofpotentialdifficultiesforESLEFLlearnersareincludedthroughoutthetextGrammarforTeachersalsoexploresdifferencesinformsacceptedinformalversuscasualorinformalwritingandspeakingbasedonthetypesofquestionsandconcernslearnersarelikelytohaveIneachchapter,usersofthetextworkthroughnumerousDiscoveryActivitiesthatencouragethemtoexploreforthemselvesdifferentelementsofgrammarandtoconsiderhowtheseelementsworktogethertoformmeaningfuldiscourseAdditionalPracticalActivitiesattheendofeachchapterprovidemorepracticeonstructurespresentedinthatchapterIncludedinthePracticeActivitiesaresamplesofrelevantlearnererrorsanderroranalysisexercisesTheseexercisesexposeuserstoauthenticESLEFLlearnerdiscourseatdifferentlevelsofproficiencyandfrommanydifferentnativelanguages,andaffordthemopportunitiestopracticefocusingonspecificerrorsatanygivenmomentAcknowledgmentsIespeciallythankthestudentsatNewYorkUniversity,TheCollegeofNewRochelle,NewYorkandLongIslandUniversity,PurchaseCampuswhousedvariousdraftsofthetextovertheyearsandprovidedfeedbackSpecialthanksareduetoHelaineMarshall,atLongIslandUniversity,Purchase,NewYorkCampusandWillSmathers,NewYorkUniversitywhopilotedearlierversionsofthetextTheircomments,insightsandsuggestionswereinvaluableThanksalsotoJudyHausman,SusannahHealy,BetsyReitbauer,CherylSerrano,andWalterOerlemannfortheirhelpandencouragementviiContentsWhatisGrammarIntroductionGrammarasaSetofRulesDiscoveryActivityLanguageandChangeDiscoveryActivityLinguistsandGrammarLanguageisRuleGovernedDiscoveryActivityLanguageasaSetofRulesversusLanguageasRuleGovernedPrescriptiveversusDescriptiveGrammarPrescriptiveGrammarDescriptiveGrammarDiscoveryActivityDiscoveryActivitySummaryPracticeActivitiesAnswerKey:ChapterDiscoveryActivitiesMorphologyIntroductionSection:WordClassesDiscoveryActivityContextandFunctionWordPlaysandContext:AnAdditionalIllustrationDiscoveryActivityDiscoveryActivityPartsofSpeechorLexicalCategoriesOpenWordClassesDiscoveryActivityClosedWordClassesDiscoveryActivityixxContentsOverview:MajorPartsofSpeechNounsAdjectivesVerbsAdverbsSection:MorphologyDiscoveryActivityBoundandFreeMorphemesDerivationalandInflectionalMorphemesDerivationalMorphemesInflectionalMorphemesRedundancyinLanguageDiscoveryActivitySummaryPracticeActivitiesTheNounPhraseIntroductionSection:IdentifyingNounsContextandFunctionSemanticCluesStructuralCluesDerivationalCluesMorphologicalCluesSection:DifferentTypesofNounsCountandNoncountNounsDiscoveryActivityDiscoveryActivityDiscoveryActivityCrossoverNounsDiscoveryActivitySection:StructureWordsthatSignalNounsDiscoveryActivityDiscoveryActivityDemonstrativesDiscoveryActivityDiscoveryActivityQuantifiersDiscoveryActivityDiscoveryActivitySection:PronounsDiscoveryActivityTypesofPronounsbyFunctionSubjectPronounsObjectPronounsPossessivePronounsandPossessiveAdjectivesContentsxiDiscoveryActivityReflexivePronounsIndefinitePronounsSummaryPracticeActivitiesAnswerKey:ChapterDiscoveryActivitiesAdjectivesandAdverbsIntroductionSection:AdjectivesIdentificationofAdjectivesSemanticCluesDiscoveryActivityMorphologicalCluesDerivationalDiscoveryActivityInflectionalDiscoveryActivityStructuralCluesDiscoveryActivityDiscoverActivity:IdentifyingAdjectivesOrderofAdjectivesAdjectiveTypesDiscoveryActivitySpecialTypesofAdjectivesNounsFunctioningasAdjectivesDiscoveryActivityParticipialAdjectivesDiscoveryActivitySection:AdverbsDiscoveryActivityDifferentSubclassesofAdverbsFrequencyAdverbsDiscoveryActivityTimeandPlaceAdverbsThe“Other”AdverbsDiscoveryActivityDiscoveryActivitySummaryPracticeActivitiesAnswerKey:ChapterDiscoveryActivitiesIntroductiontoVerbsandVerbPhrasesIntroductionSection:IdentifyingVerbsSemanticCluesxiiContentsMorphologicalCluesDerivationalInflectionalStructuralClues

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