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首页 马尔库塞 单向度的人(英文原著)One.Dimensional.Man

马尔库塞 单向度的人(英文原著)One.Dimensional.Man.

马尔库塞 单向度的人(英文原著)One.Dimensional…

Johnadonis
2010-03-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《马尔库塞 单向度的人(英文原著)One.Dimensional.Manpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

OneDimensionalMan"InOneDimensionalManHerbertMarcusehasmovedontowhatisthecentralproblemofourcivilizationhowtoreconcileorginalityandspontaneityandallthecreativeaspectsofourhumannaturewithaprevailingdrivetorationalitythattendstoreduceallvarietiesoftemperamentanddesiretooneuniversalsystemofthoughtandbehaviorHedoesnotclaimtosolvethisproblem,butbypresentingthealternativesinclearandcriticalterms,hemakesthechoiceinevitabletoeverysociallyresponsibleindividualThatistosay,hemakesusrealizethatthechoiceisnowbetweenthelifeandthedeathofourcivilization"HerbertRead"Thisisaprovocativebookoffundamentalsignificance"Transaction"Oneofthemostradicalandforcefulthinkersofthistime"TheNation"TheforemostliterarysymboloftheNewLeft"TheNewYorkTimesHerbertMarcuseOneDimensionalManStudiesintheideologyofadvancedindustrialsocietyWithanintroductionbyDouglasKellnerLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedtheUnitedKingdombyRoutledgeKeganPaulSecondeditionpublishedReprinted,,FirstpublishedinRoutledgeClassicsbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNoMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NYiooiReprinted,RoutledgeisanimprintoftheTayloratFrancisGroup,aninformabusiness©HerbertMarcuseIntroductiontosecondedition©BeaconPressTypesetinJoannabyRefineCatchLimited,Bungay,SuffolkPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyBiddiesLtd,King'sLynn,NorfolkAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)ForIngeCONTENTSACKNOWLEDGMENTSixINTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONbyDouglasKellnerxiINTRODUCTIONTOTHEFIRSTEDITIONTheParalysisofCriticism:SocietyWithoutOppositionPARTIOneDimensionalSocietyTheNewFormsofControlTheClosingofthePoliticalUniverseTheConquestoftheUnhappyConsciousness:RepressiveDesublimationTheClosingoftheUniverseofDiscoursePARTIIOneDimensionalThoughtNegativeThinking:theDefeatedLogicofProtestVIIICONTENTSFromNegativetoPositiveThinking:TechnologicalRationalityandtheLogicofDominationTheTriumphofPositiveThinking:OneDimensionalPhilosophyPARTillTheChanceoftheAlternativesTheHistoricalCommitmentofPhilosophyTheCatastropheofLiberation,oConclusionINDEXACKNOWLEDGMENTSMywifeisatleastpartlyresponsiblefortheopinionsexpressedinthisbookIaminfinitelygratefultoherMyfriendBarringtonMoore,Jr,hashelpedmegreatlybyhiscriticalcommentsindiscussionsoveranumberofyears,hehasforcedmetoclarifymyideasRobertSCohen,ArnoJMayer,HansMeyerhoff,andDavidOberreadthemanuscriptatvariousstagesandofferedvaluablesuggestionsTheAmericanCouncilofLearnedSocieties,theLouisMRabinowitzFoundation,theRockefellerFoundation,andtheSocialScienceResearchCouncilhaveextendedtomegrantswhichgreatlyfacilitatedthecompletionofthesestudiesINTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONbyDouglasKellnerHerbertMarcuse'sOneDimensionalManwasoneofthemostimportantbooksofthesFirstpublishedin,itwasimmediatelyrecognizedasasignificantcriticaldiagnosisofthepresentageandwassoontakenupbytheemergentNewLeftasadamningindictmentofcontemporaryWesternsocieties,capitalistandcommunistConceivedandwritteninthesandearlys,thebookreflectsthestiflingconformityoftheeraandprovidesapowerfulcritiqueofnewmodesofdominationandsocialcontrolYetitalsoexpressesthehopesofaradicalphilosopherthathumanfreedomandhappinesscouldbegreatlyexpandedbeyondtheonedimensionalthoughtandbehaviorprevalentintheestablishedsocietyHoldingontothevisionofliberationarticulatedinhisearlierbookErosandCivilization,'`Forafullerdiscussionofthethemes,contributions,andinfluenceofOneDimensionalMan,seeChaptersofmybookHerbertMarcuseandtheCrisisofMarxism(LondonandBerkeleyMacMillanPressandUniversityofCaliforniaPress,)HerbertMarcuse,ErosandCivilization(Boston:BeaconPress,)xiiINTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONMarcuse,inhiscritiqueofexistingformsofdominationandoppression,urgesthatwhatisbeconstantlycomparedwithwhatcouldbe:afreerandhappiermodeofhumanexistenceOnonehand,OneDimensionalManisanimportantworkofcriticalsocialtheorythatcontinuestoberelevanttodayastheforcesofdominationthatMarcusedissectedhavebecomeevenstrongerandmoreprevalentintheyearssincehewrotethebookInaprospectusdescribinghiswork,Marcusewrites:"ThisbookdealswithcertainbasictendenciesincontemporaryindustrialsocietywhichseemtoindicateanewphaseofcivilizationThesetendencieshaveengenderedamodeofthoughtandbehaviorwhichunderminestheveryfoundationsofthetraditionalcultureThechiefcharacteristicofthisnewmodeofthoughtandbehavioristherepressionofallvalues,aspirations,andideaswhichcannotbedefinedintermsoftheoperationsandattitudesvalidatedbytheprevailingformsofrationalityTheconsequenceistheweakeningandeventhedisappearanceofallgenuinelyradicalcritique,theintegrationofalloppositionintheestablishedsystem"'Thebookcontainsatheoryof"advancedindustrialsociety"thatdescribeshowchangesinproduction,consumption,culture,andthoughthaveproducedanadvancedstateofconformityinwhichtheproductionofneedsandaspirationsbytheprevailingsocietalapparatusintegratesindividualsintotheestablishedsocietiesMarcusedescribeswhathasbecomeknownasthe"technologicalsociety,"inwhichtechnologyrestructureslaborandleisure,influencinglifefromtheorganizationoflabortomodesofthoughtHealsodescribesthemechanismsthroughwhichconsumercapitalismintegratesindividualsintoitsworldofthoughtandbehaviorRatherthanseeingthesedevelopmentsasbeneficialtotheindividual,MarcuseseesthemasathreattoHerbertMarcuse,prospectusforOneDimensionalMan,BeaconPressarchives,nodateINTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONXiiihumanfreedomandindividualityinatotallyadministeredsocietyJustifyingtheseclaimsrequiresMarcusetodevelopacritical,philosophicalperspectivefromwhichhecancriticizeexistingformsofthought,behavior,andsocialorganizationThus,OneDimensionalManisalsoMarcuse'smajorphilosophicalwork,articulatinghisHegelianMarxianconceptofphilosophyandcritiqueofdominantphilosophicalandintellectualcurrents:positivism,analyticphilosophy,technologicalrationality,andavarietyofmodesofconformistthinkingInthistext,hebothexplicateshisconceptionofdialecticalphilosophyandproducesanalysesofsocietyandculturewhichexemplifyhisdialecticalcategoriesandmethodConsequently,OneDimensionalManpresentsamodelbothofMarcuse'scriticalsocialtheoryandofhiscriticalphilosophyinspiredbyhisphilosophicalstudiesandhisworkwiththeFrankfurtSchool'THEFRANKFURTSCHOOLANDONEDIMENSIONALMANDuringthesandearlysMarcusestudiedwithMartinHeideggerinFreiburg,GermanyandintenselyappropriatedtheworksofHegel,Marx,phenomenology,existentialism,Germanidealism,andtheclassicsoftheWesternphilosophicaltraditionWhilehelaterbrokewithHeideggeraftertheriseofNationalSocialisminGermanyandHeidegger'saffiliationwiththeNaziparty,hewasinfluencedbyHeidegger'scritiqueofWesternphilosophyandhisattemptstodevelopanewphilosophyHefollowedHeideggerandexistentialisminseekingtodealwiththeconcreteproblemsoftheexistingindividualandwasOntheFrankfurtSchool,seeMartinJay,TheDialecticalImagination(Boston:Little,BrownandCompany,)andDouglasKellner,CriticalTheory,Marxism,andModernity(CambridgeandBaltimore:PolityPressandJohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,)xivINTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONimpressedwiththephenomenologicalmethodofHusserlandHeideggerwhichattemptedtobreakwithabstractphilosophicaltheorizingandtoconceptualize"thethingsthemselves"astheyappearedtoconsciousnessInhisearlyworks,MarcusehimselfattemptedtosynthesizeHeidegger'sphenomenologicalexistentialismwithMarxism,andinOneDimensionalManonerecognizesHusserlianandHeideggerianmotifsinMarcuse'scritiquesofscientificcivilizationandmodesofthoughtInparticular,Marcusedevelopsaconceptionofatechnologicalworld,similarinsomerespectstothatdevelopedbyHeidegger,and,likeHusserlandHeidegger,seestechnologicalrationalitycolonizingeverydaylife,robbingindividualsoffreedomandindividualitybyimposingtechnologicalimperatives,rules,andstructuresupontheirthoughtandbehaviorMarcusethoughtthatdialecticalphilosophycouldpromotecriticalthinkingOneDimensionalManisperhapsMarcuse'smostsustainedattempttopresentanddevelopthecategoriesofthedialecticalphilosophydevelopedbyHegelandMarxForMarcuse,dialecticalthinkinginvolvedtheabilitytoabstractone'sperceptionandthoughtfromexistingformsinordertoformmoregeneralconceptsThisconceptionhelpsexplainthedifficultyofOneDimensionalManandthedemandsthatitimposesuponitsreaderForMarcuseabstractsfromthecomplexityandmultiplicityoftheexistingsocietyitsfundamentaltendenciesandconstituents,aswellasthosecategorieswhichconstituteforhimtheformsofcriticalthinkingThisdemandsthatthereaderalsoabstractfromexistingwaysoflookingatsocietyandmodesofthinkingandattempttoperceiveandthinkinanewwayUncriticalthinkingderivesitsbeliefs,norms,andvaluesfromexistingthoughtandsocialpractices,whilecriticalthoughtseeksalternativemodesofthoughtandbehaviorfromwhichitcreatesastandpointofcritiqueSuchacriticalstandpointrequiresdevelopingwhatMarcusecalls"negativethinking,"INTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONXVwhich"negates"existingformsofthoughtandrealityfromtheperspectiveofhigherpossibilitiesThispracticepresupposestheabilitytomakeadistinctionbetweenexistenceandessence,factandpotentiality,andappearanceandrealityMereexistencewouldbenegatedinfavorofrealizinghigherpotentialitieswhilenormsdiscoveredbyreasonwouldbeusedtocriticizeandovercomelowerformsofthoughtandsocialorganizationThusgraspingpotentialitiesforfreedomandhappinesswouldmakepossiblethenegationofconditionsthatinhibitedindividuals'fulldevelopmentandrealizationInotherwords,perceivingthepossibilityofselfdeterminationandconstructingone'sownneedsandvaluescouldenableindividualstobreakwiththeexistingworldofthoughtandbehaviorPhilosophywasthustosupplythenormsforsocialcriticismandtheidealofliberationwhichwouldguidesocialchangeandindividualselftransformationItisprobablyMarcuse'sinvolvementwiththeCriticalTheoryoftheFrankfurtSchoolthatmostdecisivelyinfluencedthegenesisandproductionofOneDimensionalManAftertheemergenceofHeidegger'spublicsupportofNationalSocialism,andjustontheeveofthetriumphoftheNaziparty,MarcusehadajobinterviewwiththeFrankfurtInstituteforSocialResearch,receivedapositionwiththem,andjoinedtheminexileafterHitler'sascendancytopowerFirstinGeneva,Switzerland,andtheninNewYork,wheretheInstituteaffiliatedwithColumbiaUniversity,MarcuseenthusiasticallyjoinedintheInstitute'scollectiveattempttodevelopacriticaltheoryofsocietyAlongwiththeInstitute'sdirector,MaxHorkheimer,MarcusewasoneoftheirphilosophyspecialistsHebeganhisworkwiththeInstitutebyproducingacritiqueoffascistideologyhavingturnedawayfromhisformerteacher,henowappraisedHeidegger'sworkaspartofthenewtendencytowardtotalitarianthoughtthatwasdominantinGermanyandwhichthreatenedtherestoftheworldaswellXVIINTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONDuringthes,Marcuseworkedintensively,attemptingtoexplicateanddevelopphilosophicalconceptsthatwouldbemostusefulforcriticalsocialtheoryThisprojectinvolvedtheinterrogationoftheconceptsofessence,happiness,freedom,and,especially,criticalreason,whichhebelievedwasthecentralcategoryofphilosophicalthoughtandcritiqueIneachcase,hetookstandardphilosophicalcategoriesandprovidedthemwithamaterialistbase,showinghowconceptsofessence,forinstance,aredirectlyrelevanttoconcretehumanlife'Understandingtheessentialfeaturesofthehumanbeing,onthisview,illuminatesthepotentialitiesthatcanberealizedbyindividualsandthesocialconditionsthatinhibitorfostertheirdevelopmentThisconcernwithcriticalreasonandHegelianandMandanmodesofdialecticalthinkingisevidentinReasonandRevolution(),Marcuse'sfirstmajorworkinEnglish,'inwhichhetracestheriseofmodernsocialtheorythroughHegel,Marx,andpositivismMarcuse'sHegelisacriticaldialecticalthinkerwhomhetriestoabsolveofresponsibilityforthetotalitarianstateswithwhichHegelwasoftenassociatedasaspiritualprogenitorMarcuseclaimsthatHegelinstitutedamethodofrationalcritiquethatutilizedthe"powerofnegativethinking"tocriticizeirrationalformsofsociallifeThecloseconnectionbetweenHegelandMarxandthewaysthatMarxdevelopedandconcretizedHegel'sdialecticalmethodarethefocalpointsofMarcuse'sinterpretation,whichremainstothisdayoneofthemostinsightfulstudiesoftherelationbetweenHegelandMarxandtheoriginsofmodernsocialtheoryThecontrastbetweenonedimensionalanddialecticalthinkingismadealreadyinhissessaysForMarcuse,onedimensionalthoughtandactionderivetheirstandardsandsSeetheessaysinHerbertMarcuse,Negations(Boston:BeaconPress,)HerbertMarcuse,ReasonandRevolution,ded(Boston:BeaconPress,)INTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONxviicriteriafromtheexistingsociety,eschewingtranscendentstandardsandnormsCriticalanddialecticalthinking,bycontrast,postulatesnormsofcriticism,basedonrationalpotentialsforhumanhappinessandfreedom,whichareusedtonegateexistingstatesofaffairsthatoppressindividualsandrestricthumanfreedomandwellbeingDialecticalthoughtthuspositstheexistenceofanotherrealmofideas,images,andimaginationthatservesasapotentialguideforasocialtransformationthatwouldrealizetheunrealizedpotentialitiesforabetterlifeMarcusebelievesthatgreatphilosophyandartarethelocusofthesepotentialitiesandcriticalnorms,andhedecodesthebestproductsofWesterncultureinthislightThroughoutthefirstdecadeoftheirperiodofexile,therewasconstantdiscussionwithintheInstituteforSocialResearchoftheneedforasystematictreatiseondialecticswhichwouldlayoutthecategories,modesofthought,andmethodofdialecticalandcriticaltheory'MaxHorkheimerwasespeciallyinterestedinthisprojectandconsultedwithMarcuse,TheodorAdorno,KarlKorsch,andothersconcerninghowsuchanambitiousprojectmightbedevelopedIntheUnitedStates,HorkheimerandhisassociatesfoundthemselvesinanenvironmentinwhichscientificandpragmaticmodesofthinkingweredominantanddialecticswasseenasasortofobscurantistthinkingConcernedtoestablishtheimportanceofdialecticalthinking,HorkheimerandhisassociatesdiscussedhowthegreatbookondialecticsmightbeconceivedandwrittenMarcusewasextremelyeagertoworkonthisprojectwithHorkheimer,whofelthimselftobetooinvolvedinhisworkasdirectoroftheInstitutetobeabletodevotesufficienttimeandenergytotheprojectDuringthes,however,Horkheimer,Marcuse,andAdornomovedtoCaliforniawheretheyhadan'SeeRolfWiggershaus,DieFrankfurterSauk(Munich:Hanser,),espppffxviiiINTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONopportunitytodevotethemselvesfulltimetophilosophicalstudiesSoonafter,followingtheoutbreakofWorldWarTwo,MarcusewenttoWashingtontoworkfortheOfficeofStrategicServicesandthentheStateDepartmentashiscontributiontothefightagainstfascismThusAdornoendedupasHorkheimer'scollaboratorontheprojectondialectics,whichbecametheirbookDialecticofEnlightemnentTHEGENESISANDDEVELOPMENTOFONEDIMENSIONALMANInretrospect,OneDimensionalManarticulatespreciselytheHegelianMarxianphilosophicalprojectthatMarcusebegandevelopinginthesinhisworkwiththeFrankfurtSchoolInparticular,inthesectionson"OneDimensionalThought"and"TheChanceoftheAlternatives"MarcusedevelopsthemodesofcriticalthinkingandideologycritiquedistinctiveoftheFrankfurtSchoolmostfullyHisanalyseshereexemplifyHegelianMarxiandialecticalphilosophybothinhisrelentlesscritiqueofexistingmodesofwhatheconsidersuncriticalthoughtandinhisworkingoutofthecategoriesofcriticalanddialecticalthinkingChaptersthroughofOneDimensionalMan,bycontrast,connectwiththeFrankfurtSchool'sprojectofdevelopingaCriticalTheoryofcontemporarysociety,whichtheybeganproducinginthesTheFrankfurtSchoolcriticalsocialtheoristswereamongthefirsttoanalyzethenewconfigurationsofthestateandeconomyincontemporarycapitalistsocieties,tocriticizeMaxHorkheimerandTheodorWAdorn,DialecticofEnlightenment(NewYork:Seabury,original)nthecriticalsocialtheoryoftheFrankfurtSchool,seeKellner,CriticalTheory,Marxism,andModernityandtheessayscollectedinStephenBronnerandDouglasKellner,eds,CriticalTheoryandSocietyAReader(NewYorkandLondon:Routledge,)INTRODUCTIONTOTHESECONDEDITIONxixthekeyrolesofmasscultureandcommunications,toanalyzenewmodesoftechnologyandformsofsocialcontrol,todiscussnewmodesofsocializationandthedeclineoftheindividualinmasssociety,andvisivisclassicalMarxismtoanalyzeandconfronttheconsequencesoftheintegrationoftheworkingclassesandthestabilizationofcapitalismfortheprojectofradicalsocialchangeMarcuse'sOneDimensionalManisperhapsthefullestandmostconcretedevelopmentofthesethemeswithinthetraditionofFrankfurtSchoolCriticalTheoryOnecantracethegenesisofthemajorthemesofMarcuse'smagnusopusinhisworksfromtheearlysuntilitspublicationinInessaysfromtheearlys,MarcuseisalreadydescribinghowtendenciestowardtechnologicalrationalitywereproducingasystemoftotalitariansocialcontrolanddominationInaarticle,"SomeSocialImplications

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