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首页 胡壮麟语言学教程笔记精华

胡壮麟语言学教程笔记精华.doc

胡壮麟语言学教程笔记精华

laryvinea
2010-03-09 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《胡壮麟语言学教程笔记精华doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

Linguistics胡壮麟《语言学教程》学习指导目录目录……………………………………………………………………………………………第一部分各章节提纲笔记……………………………………………………………………ChapterInvitationstoLinguistics……………………………………………………………ChapterSpeechSounds………………………………………………………………………ChapterLexicon………………………………………………………………………………ChapterSyntax………………………………………………………………………………ChapterMeaning………………………………………………………………………………ChapterLanguageProcessinginMind………………………………………………………ChapterLanguage,CultureandSociety………………………………………………………ChapterLanguageinUse………………………………………………………………………ChapterLanguageandLiterature………………………………………………………………ChapterLanguageandComputer……………………………………………………………ChapterLinguisticsandForeignLanguageTeaching………………………………………ChapterTheoriesandSchoolsofModernLinguistics………………………………………第二部分重点章节测试题……………………………………………………………………TestOneInvitationstoLinguistics………………………………………………………………TestTwoPhoneticsandPhonology……………………………………………………………TestThreeMorphology…………………………………………………………………………TestFourSyntax…………………………………………………………………………………TestFiveSemantics……………………………………………………………………………TestSixPragmatics………………………………………………………………………………TestSevenLanguage,CultureandSociety………………………………………………………TestEightTheoriesandSchoolsofModernLinguistics………………………………………第三部分测试题参考答案……………………………………………………………………参考书目………………………………………………………………………………………第一部分各章节提纲笔记ChapterInvitationstoLinguisticsWhystudylanguageLanguageisveryessentialtohumanbeingsInlanguagetherearemanythingsweshouldknowForfurtherunderstanding,weneedtostudylanguagescientificallyWhatislanguageLanguageisameansofverbalcommunicationItisasystemofarbitraryvocalsymbolsusedforhumancommunicationDesignfeaturesoflanguageThefeaturesthatdefineourhumanlanguagescanbecalleddesignfeatureswhichcandistinguishhumanlanguagefromanyanimalsystemofcommunicationArbitrarinessArbitrarinessreferstothefactthattheformsoflinguisticsignsbearnonaturalrelationshiptotheirmeaningsDualityDualityreferstothepropertyofhavingtwolevelsofstructures,suchthatunitsoftheprimarylevelarecomposedofelementsofthesecondarylevelandeachofthetwolevelshasitsownprinciplesoforganizationCreativityCreativitymeansthatlanguageisresourcefulbecauseofitsdualityanditsrecursivenessRecursivenessreferstotherulewhichcanbeappliedrepeatedlywithoutanydefinitelimitTherecursivenatureoflanguageprovidesatheoreticalbasisforthepossibilityofcreatingendlesssentencesDisplacementDisplacementmeansthathumanlanguagesenabletheiruserstosymbolizeobjects,eventsandconceptswhicharenotpresent(intimeandspace)atthemomentofconversationOriginoflanguageThebowwowtheoryInprimitivetimespeopleimitatedthesoundsoftheanimalcallsinthewildenvironmenttheylivedandspeechdevelopedfromthatThepoohpoohtheoryInthehardlifeofourprimitiveancestors,theyutterinstinctivesoundsofpains,angerandjoywhichgraduallydevelopedintolanguageThe“yoheho”theoryAsprimitivepeopleworkedtogether,theyproducedsomerhythmicgruntswhichgraduallydevelopedintochantsandthenintolanguageFunctionsoflanguageAsisproposedbyJacobson,languagehassixfunctions:Referential:toconveymessageandinformationPoetic:toindulgeinlanguageforitsownsakeEmotive:toexpressattitudes,feelingsandemotionsConative:topersuadeandinfluenceothersthroughcommandsandentreatiesPhatic:toestablishcommunionwithothersMetalingual:toclearupintentions,wordsandmeaningsHalliday()proposesatheoryofmetafunctionsoflanguageItmeansthatlanguagehasthreemetafunctions:Ideationalfunction:toconveynewinformation,tocommunicateacontentthatisunknowntothehearerInterpersonalfunction:embodyingalluseoflanguagetoexpresssocialandpersonalrelationshipsTextualfunction:referringtothefactthatlanguagehasmechanismstomakeanystretchofspokenandwrittendiscourseintoacoherentandunifiedtextandmakealivingpassagedifferentfromarandomlistofsentencesAccordingtoHuZhuanglin,languagehasatleastsevenfunctions:InformativeTheinformativefunctionmeanslanguageistheinstrumentofthoughtandpeopleoftenuseittocommunicatenewinformationInterpersonalfunctionTheinterpersonalfunctionmeanspeoplecanuselanguagetoestablishandmaintaintheirstatusinasocietyPerformativeTheperformativefunctionoflanguageisprimarilytochangethesocialstatusofpersons,asinmarriageceremonies,thesentencingofcriminals,theblessingofchildren,thenamingofashipatalaunchingceremony,andthecursingofenemiesEmotivefunctionTheemotivefunctionisoneofthemostpowerfulusesoflanguagebecauseitissocrucialinchangingtheemotionalstatusofanaudiencefororagainstsomeoneorsomethingPhaticcommunionThephaticcommunionmeanspeoplealwaysusesomesmall,seeminglymeaninglessexpressionssuchasGoodmorning,Godblessyou,Niceday,etc,tomaintainacomfortablerelationshipbetweenpeoplewithoutanyfactualcontentRecreationalfunctionTherecreationalfunctionmeanspeopleuselanguageforthesheerjoyofusingit,suchasababy’sbabblingorachanter’schantingMetalingualfunctionThemetalingualfunctionmeanspeoplecanuselanguagetotalkaboutitselfEgIcanusetheword“book”totalkaboutabook,andIcanalsousetheexpression“thewordbook”totalkaboutthesign“book”itselfWhatislinguisticsLinguisticsisthescientificstudyoflanguageItstudiesnotjustonelanguageofanyonecommunity,butthelanguageofallhumanbeingsMainbranchesoflinguisticsPhoneticsPhoneticsisthestudyofspeechsounds,itincludesthreemainareas:articulatoryphonetics,acousticphonetics,andauditoryphoneticsPhonologyPhonologystudiestherulesgoverningthestructure,distribution,andsequencingofspeechsoundsandtheshapeofsyllablesMorphologyMorphologystudiestheminimalunitsofmeaning–morphemesandwordformationprocessesSyntaxSyntaxreferstotherulesgoverningthewaywordsarecombinedtoformsentencesinalanguage,orsimply,thestudyoftheformationofsentencesSemanticsSemanticsexamineshowmeaningisencodedinalanguagePragmaticsPragmaticsisthestudyofmeaningincontextMacrolinguisticsMacrolinguisticsisthestudyoflanguageinallaspects,distinctfrommicrolinguistics,whichdealtsolelywiththeformalaspectoflanguagesystemPsycholinguisticsPsycholinguisticsinvestigatestheinterrelationoflanguageandmind,inprocessingandproducingutterancesandinlanguageacquisitionforexampleSociolinguisticsSociolinguisticsisatermwhichcoversavarietyofdifferentinterestsinlanguageandsociety,includingthelanguageandthesocialcharacteristicsofitsusersAnthropologicallinguisticsAnthropologicallinguisticsstudiestherelationshipbetweenlanguageandcultureinacommunityComputationallinguisticsComputationallinguisticsisaninterdisciplinaryfieldwhichcentersaroundtheuseofcomputerstoprocessorproducehumanlanguageImportantdistinctionsinlinguisticsDescriptivevsprescriptiveTosaythatlinguisticsisadescriptivescienceistosaythatthelinguisttriestodiscoverandrecordtherulestowhichthemembersofalanguagecommunityactuallyconformanddoesnotseektoimposeuponthemotherrules,ornorms,ofcorrectnessPrescriptivelinguisticsaimstolaydownrulesforthecorrectuseoflanguageandsettlethedisputesoverusageonceandforallForexample,“Don’tsayX”isaprescriptivecommand“Peopledon’tsayX”isadescriptivestatementThedistinctionliesinprescribinghowthingsoughttobeanddescribinghowthingsareInthethcentury,allthemainEuropeanlanguageswerestudiedprescriptivelyHowever,modernlinguisticsismostlydescriptivebecausethenatureoflinguisticsasasciencedeterminesitspreoccupationwithdescriptioninsteadofprescriptionSynchronicvsdiachronicAsynchronicstudytakesafixedinstant(usuallyatpresent)asitspointofobservationSaussure’sdiachronicdescriptionisthestudyofalanguagethroughthecourseofitshistoryEgastudyofthefeaturesoftheEnglishusedinShakespeare’stimewouldbesynchronic,andastudyofthechangesEnglishhasundergonesincethenwouldbeadiachronicstudyInmodernlinguistics,synchronicstudyseemstoenjoypriorityoverdiachronicstudyThereasonisthatunlessthevariousstateofalanguagearesuccessfullystudieditwouldbedifficulttodescribethechangesthathavetakenplaceinitshistoricaldevelopmentLangueparoleSaussuredistinguishedthelinguisticcompetenceofthespeakerandtheactualphenomenaordataoflinguisticsaslangueandparoleLangueisrelativestableandsystematic,paroleissubjecttopersonalandsituationalconstraintslangueisnotspokenbyanindividual,paroleisalwaysanaturallyoccurringeventWhatalinguistshoulddo,accordingtoSaussure,istodrawrulesfromamassofconfusedfacts,ietodiscovertheregularitiesgoverningallinstancesofparoleandmakethemthesubjectoflinguisticsCompetenceandperformanceAccordingtoChomsky,alanguageuser’sunderlyingknowledgeaboutthesystemofrulesiscalledthelinguisticcompetence,andtheactualuseoflanguageinconcretesituationsiscalledperformanceCompetenceenablesaspeakertoproduceandunderstandandindefinitenumberofsentencesandtorecognizegrammaticalmistakesandambiguitiesAspeaker’scompetenceisstablewhilehisperformanceisofteninfluencedbypsychologicalandsocialfactorsSoaspeaker’sperformancedoesnotalwaysmatchhissupposedcompetenceChomskybelievesthatlinguistsoughttostudycompetence,ratherthanperformanceChomsky’scompetenceperformancedistinctionisnotexactlythesameas,thoughsimilarto,Saussure’slangueparoledistinctionLangueisasocialproductandasetofconventionsofacommunity,whilecompetenceisdeemedasapropertyofmindofeachindividualSaussurelooksatlanguagemorefromasociologicalorsociolinguisticpointofviewthanChomskysincethelatterdealswithhisissuespsychologicallyorpsycholinguisticallyEticvsemicThesetwotermsarestillveryvaguetomeAfterIreadJiDaohong’sbook,Icanunderstandthembetter,butbecausetheyarevaguelymentionedinHu’sbook,itseemsverydifficultformetounderstandthemfully–icywarmteaBeingeticmeansresearchers’makingfartoomany,aswellasbehaviorallyandinconsequential,differentiations,justasoftenthecasewithphoneticsvsphonemicsanalysisinlinguisticsproperAnemicsetofspeechactsandeventsmustbeonethatisvalidatedasmeaningfulviafinalresourcetothenativemembersofaspeechcommunityratherthanviaappealtotheinvestigator’singenuityorintuitionaloneFollowingthesuffixformationsof(phon)eticsvs(phon)emics,thesetermswereintroducedintothesocialsciencesbyKennethPike()todenotethedistinctionbetweenthematerialandfunctionalstudyoflanguage:phoneticsstudiestheacousticallymeasurableandarticulatorilydefinableimmediatesoundutterances,whereasphonemicsanalyzesthespecificselectioneachlanguagemakesfromthatuniversalcataloguefromafunctionalaspectEndofChapterChapterSpeechSoundsSpeechproductionandperceptionPhoneticsisthestudyofspeechsoundsItincludesthreemainareas:Articulatoryphonetics–thestudyoftheproductionofspeechsoundsAcousticphonetics–thestudyofthephysicalpropertiesofthesoundsproducedinspeechAuditoryphonetics–thestudyofperceptionofspeechsoundsMostphoneticiansareinterestedinarticulatoryphoneticsSpeechorgansSpeechorgansarethosepartsofthehumanbodyinvolvedintheproductionofspeechThespeechorganscanbeconsideredasconsistingofthreeparts:theinitiatoroftheairstream,theproducerofvoiceandtheresonatingcavitiesSegments,divergences,andphonetictranscriptionSegmentsanddivergencesAstherearemoresoundsinEnglishthanitsletters,eachlettermustrepresentmorethanonesoundPhonetictranscriptionInternationalPhoneticAlphabet(IPA):thesystemofsymbolsforrepresentingthepronunciationofwordsinanylanguageaccordingtotheprinciplesoftheInternationalPhoneticAssociationThesymbolsconsistsoflettersanddiacriticsSomelettersaretakenfromtheRomanalphabet,somearespecialsymbolsConsonantsConsonantsandvowelsAconsonantisproducedbyconstrictingorobstructingthevocaltractatsomeplacestodivert,impede,orcompletelyshutofftheflowofairintheoralcavityAvowelisproducedwithoutobstructionsonoturbulenceoratotalstoppingoftheaircanbeperceivedConsonantsThecategoriesofconsonantareestablishedonthebasisofseveralfactorsThemostimportantofthesefactorsare:theactualrelationshipbetweenthearticulatorsandthusthewayinwhichtheairpassesthroughcertainpartsofthevocaltract(mannerofarticulation)whereinthevocaltractthereisapproximation,narrowing,ortheobstructionoftheair(placeofarticulation)MannersofarticulationStopplosive:AspeechsoundwhichisproducedbystoppingtheairstreamfromthelungsandthensuddenlyreleasingitInEnglish,arestopsandarenasalstopsFricative:AspeechsoundwhichisproducedbyallowingtheairstreamfromthelungstoescapewithfrictionThisiscausedbybringingthetwoarticulators,egtheupperteethandthelowerlip,closetogetherbutnotclosesenoughtostoptheairstreamscompletelyInEnglish,arefricatives(Median)approximant:Anarticulationinwhichonearticulatorisclosetoanother,butwithoutthevocaltractbeingnarrowedtosuchanextentthataturbulentairstreamisproducedInEnglishthisclassofsoundsincludesLateral(approximant):Aspeechsoundwhichisproducedbypartiallyblockingtheairstreamfromthelungs,usuallybythetongue,butlettingitescapeatoneorbothsidesoftheblockageistheonlylateralinEnglishOtherconsonantalarticulationsincludetrill,taporflap,andaffricatePlacesofarticulationBilabial:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetwolipsLabiodental:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththelowerlipandtheupperfrontteethDental:AspeechsoundwhichismadebythetonguetiporbladeandtheupperfrontteethAlveolar:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetonguetiporbladeandthealveolarridgePostalveolar:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetonguetipandthebackofthealveolarridgeRetroflex:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetonguetiporbladecurledbacksothattheundersideofthetonguetiporbladeformsastricturewiththebackofthealveolarridgeorthehardpalatePalatal:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththefrontofthetongueandthehardpalateVelar:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththebackofthetongueandthesoftpalateUvular:Aspeechsoundwhichismadewiththebackofthetongueandtheuvula,theshortprojectionofthesofttissueandmuscleattheposteriorendofthevelumPharyngeal:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththerootofthetongueandthewallsofthepharynxGlottal:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetwopiecesofvocalfoldspushedtowardseachotherTheconsonantsofEnglishReceivedPronunciation(RP):ThetypeofBritishStandardEnglishpronunciationwhichhasbeenregardedastheprestigevarietyandwhichshowsnoregionalvariationIthasoftenbeenpopularlyreferredtoas“BBCEnglish”or“OxfordEnglish”becauseitiswidelyusedintheprivatesectoroftheeducationsystemandspokenbymostnewsreadersoftheBBCnetworkAchartofEnglishconsonantsMannerofarticulationPlaceofarticulationBilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPostalveolarPalatalVelarGlottalStopNasalFricativeApproximantLateralAffricateInmanycasestherearetwosoundsthatsharethesameplaceandmannerofarticulationThesepairsofconsonantsaredistinguishedbyvoicing,theoneappearingontheleftisvoicelessandtheoneontherightisvoicedTherefore,theconsonantsofEnglishcanbedescribedinthefollowingway:pvoicelessbilabialstopbvoicedbilabialstopsvoicelessalveolarfricativezvoicedalveolarfricativembilabialnasalnalveolarnasallalveolarlateraljpalatalapproximanthglottalfricativeralveolarapproximantVowelsThecriteriaofvoweldescriptionThepartofthetonguethatisraised–front,center,orbackTheextenttowhichthetonguerisesinthedirectionofthepalateNormally,threeorfourdegreesarerecognized:high,mid(oftendividedintomidhighandmidlow)andlowThekindofopeningmadeatthelips–variousdegreesofliproundingorspreadingThepositionofthesoftpalate–raisedfororalvowels,andloweredforvowelswhichhavebeennasalizedThetheoryofcardinalvowelsIcywarmteadoesn’tquiteunderstandthistheoryCardinalvowelsareasetofvowelqualitiesarbitrarilydefined,fixedandunchanging,intendingtoprovideaframeofreferenceforthedescriptionoftheactualvowelsofexistinglanguagesByconvention,theeightprimarycardinalvowelsarenumberedfromonetoeightasfollows:CV,CV,CV,CV,CV,CV,CV,CVAsetofsecondarycardinalvowelsisobtainedbyreversingtheliproundingforagiveposition:CV–CVIamsorryIcannottypeoutmanyoftheseIfyouwanttoknow,youmayconsultthetextbookp–icywarmteaVowelglidesPure(monophthong)vowels:vowelswhichareproducedwithoutanynoticeablechangeinvowelqualityVowelglides:VowelswherethereisanaudiblechangeofqualityDiphthong:Avowelwhichisusuallyconsideredasonedistinctivevowelofaparticularlanguagebutreallyinvolvestwovowels,withonevowelglidingtotheotherThevowelsofRPhighfronttenseunroundedvowelhighbacklaxroundedvowelcentrallaxunroundedvowellowbacklaxroundedvowelCoarticulationandphonetictranscriptionCoarticulationCoarticulation:ThesimultaneousoroverlappingarticulationoftwosuccessivephonologicalunitsAnticipatorycoarticulation:Ifthesoundbecomesmorelikethefollowingsound,asinthecaseoflamp,itisknownasanticipatorycoarticulationPerseverativecoarticulation:Ifthesounddisplaystheinfluenceoftheprecedingsound,asinthecaseofmap,itisperseverativecoarticulationNasalization:ChangeorprocessbywhichvowelsorconsonantsbecomenasalDiacritics:Anymarkinwritingadd

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