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首页 英语句子分析词典

英语句子分析词典.pdf

英语句子分析词典

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2010-03-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语句子分析词典pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

EnglishSentenceAnalysisEnglishSentenceAnalysisAnIntroductoryCourseMarjolijnVerspoorandKimSauterUniversityofGroningenJohnBenjaminsPublishingCompanyAmsterdamPhiladelphiaTMThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciences–PermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ansizDesignbyFrançoiseBerserikLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataVerspoor,MarjolijnEnglishsentenceanalysis:anintroductorycourseMarjolijnVerspoorandKimSauterpcmEnglishlanguageSentencesEnglishlanguageSyntaxISauter,KimIITitlepevdcisbn(Eur)(us)(alkpaper)©–JohnBenjaminsBVNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyform,byprint,photoprint,micro¼lm,oranyothermeans,withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherJohnBenjaminsPublishingCompany·POBox·meAmsterdam·TheNetherlandsJohnBenjaminsNorthAmerica·POBox·Philadelphiapa·usaInstallingthePracticeProgramThePracticeProgramCDRomrunsonWindowsNTXPVista(andWindows,seeCDRomforinstructions)TostartusingthePracticeProgram,youmustinstallitonyourharddiskasfollows:ClickSETUPEXEfromtheCDRomdrive(usuallyDriveD)ClickonNextonthepagewiththeEnglishSentenceAnalysislogoClickonNextontheWelcomescreenReadthelicenceagreementcarefullyselectIaccceptthetermsinthelicenseagreementandclickonNextClickonNextontheSupportscreenOnthenextscreen,acceptthefolderinwhichtheprogramisinstalled(ThePracticeProgramisinstalledbydefaultinthefolderC:HOLOGRAM)warningIfyoumustchangethedefaultdirectoryavoidalong¼lename,suchasC:PROGRAMFILESHOLOGRAMItwon’tworkTheprogramisnowinstalledandhasautomaticallyaddedtwoiconstotheWindowsStartmenustartingupClickStartontheWindowsStartmenuonthelefthandbottomofyourscreenThenpointtoProgramsºHologramºEnglishSentenceAnalysisInstallingthePracticeProgramEnteryournametoidentifyyourselftothePracticeProgramYournamecanbenolongerthancharacters(Ifyourteacherwantsyoutoreportresults,besuretouseanameyourinstructorrecognizes)ClickYesonthequestionAreyouanewuserKeepusingthesamenameeverytimeyouentertheprogramastheprogramsavesyourresultsunderthatname(Ifyouwant,though,youcanenteranewnameandstartdoingtheexercisesalloverYoucanenteruptothreedi¬erentnames)hardwarespecificationsProcessorIntelMHzorbetter(PentiumMHzorbetterrecommended)Mbinternalmemory(Mbormorerecommended)MbfreediskspaceGraphiccardwithcolorsormoreScreenresolutionofpixelsormorerestrictionsonuseYouaregrantedalimited,nonexclusiveandnontransferablelicencetousethisCDRomonasingleworkstationYoumayprintoutselecteddataorcopyittoacomputerdiskexclusivelyforyourownpersonaluseYoumayonlycopythesoftwareinaccordancewiththeinstallationproceduressupplied(above),andyoumaynotalterthesoftwareinanywayByusingthisCDRomyouacceptthetermsandconditionsoftheLicenceAgreementnoliabilityforconsequentialdamagesInnoeventshalltheCopyrightowneroritssuppliersbeliableforanydamagewhatsoeverarisingoutoftheuseoforinabilitytousethisproductInanycase,theCopyrightowner’sentireliabilityunderanyprovisionofthisagreementshallbelimitedtotheamountactuallypaidbyyouforthesoftwaresupportForcommentsandqueries,writetocustomerservicesbenjaminsnlMakesureyouputESAinthesubjectlineWebsite:http:wwwbenjaminscomjbpesaInstallingthePracticeProgramTableofcontentsListoftablesAcknowledgementsIntroductionChapterSentences:CommunicativefunctionsandtypicalpatternsIntroductionDeclarative,interrogative,imperativeandexclamatorysentencepatternsParticipants,process,attributes,andsettingSubject,predicator,object,attribute,andadverbialTypicalsentencepatternsTherunningpattern(intransitiveverbs)Thebeingpattern(copulaverbs)Thedoingseeingpattern(monotransitiveverbs)Thegivingbuyingpattern(ditransitiveverbs)Themakingconsideringpattern(complextransitiveverbs)Sameverb,di¬erentpatternsEnglishwordorderSummaryTableofcontentsChapterSentences:Simple,compoundandcomplexIntroductionSentencesversusclausesSentencetypesSimplesentencesCompoundsentencesComplexsentencesCompoundcomplexsentencesPhrasesSummaryChapterVerbs�IIntroductionSimpleversuscomplexverbphrasesLexicalversusauxiliaryverbsFiniteversusnon¼niteverbformsFiniteverbformsNon¼niteverbformsAuxiliaryverbsProgressivebepresentparticiplePerfecthavepastparticipleModals(to)in¼nitivesPassivebepastparticipleDoforquestions,negationandemphasisOrderingofauxiliaryverbsOneform,severalsenses:be,haveanddoSummaryTableofcontentsChapterVerbs�IIIntroductionSubtypesoflexicalverbsIntransitiveverbsCopulaverbsTransitiveverbsSubtypesoftransitiveverbsMonotransitiveverbsDitransitiveverbsComplextransitiveverbsDirectobjectformsPassiveconstructionsDitransitiveverbsandpassiveconstructionsComplextransitiveverbsandpassiveconstructionsNon¼niteclausesandpassiveconstructionsPastparticiplesasadjectivesIdentifyingtypeoflexicalverbsincomplexsentencesMultiwordverbsSummaryChapterWordclassesIntroductionNounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbsPronounsPersonalpronounsPossessivepronounsTableofcontentsRelativepronounsInterrogativepronounsDemonstrativepronounsRe½exivepronounsReciprocalpronounsInde¼nitepronounsSoNumeralsandarticlesConnectorsCoordinatorsSubordinatorsPrepositionsInterjectionsSummaryChapterPhrasesIntroductionNounphrasesDeterminersSpecifyingversusclassifyinggenitivesPostmodi¼ersofnounsRestrictiveversusnonrestrictivepostmodi¼ersRelativepronounsEllipsisinrelativeclausesVerbphrasesAdjectivephrasesAdverbphrasesPrepositionalphrasesFunctionsofphrasesSummaryTableofcontentsChapterSentenceconstituentsrealizedasclausesIntroductionSubjects,objects,andattributesFiniteclausesNon¼niteclausesExtraposedsubjectorobjectclausesAdverbialsPunctuationmarksPunctuationofcompoundstructuresPunctuatingsentenceclauseconstituentsSummaryChapterHowtoanalyzesentencesatalllevelsIntroductionHowtoanalyzenoncanonicalconstructionsPassiveconstructionsExtraposedconstructionsEllipsisExistentialconstructionswiththereCleftconstructionsHowtogoaboutanalyzinglongandcomplexsentencesHowtogoaboutanalyzinglongandcomplexnounphrasesHowtogoaboutanalyzingsentencesatdi¬erentlevelsAnalyzingsentencesatdi¬erentlevelsonyourownSummaryKeytotheexercisesUsers’GuidetothePracticeProgramIndexTableofcontentsListoftablesTableRolesandfunctionsofsentenceconstituentsCopulaverbs(verbsusedinthebeingpattern)Sentenceconstituents:AcompleteoverviewCoordinatorsFiniteverbformsNon¼niteverbformsBasicverbformsofregularandirregularverbsAuxiliaryversuslexicalverbsVerbforms:AcompleteoverviewAuxiliaryverbs:AcompleteoverviewOrderingofauxiliariesandlexicalverbintheverbphraseMultiwordverbsTypesoflexicalverbsPassiveconstructionsAnalyzingconventionalizedpassiveconstructions‘Open’versus‘closed’wordclassesOpenwordclassesPronouns,articles,andnumeralsConnectorsPrepositions,subordinators,coordinators,andconjunctiveadverbsTypesofphrasesNounPhraseAdjectivephraseAdverbPhrasePrepositionalphraseVerbphraseDistinguishingsentences,clausesandphrasesReviewoftypicalsentencepatternsListoftablesAcknowledgementsManythanksaredue…ToourstudentsatGroningenUniversityWhoenduredandworkedthroughEarlierversionsofthiscoursepatientlyToEllyvanGelderenandHansJansenfortheircorrectionsAndMariekeRijpmaforreformattingtimeSpentontheCourseBook’smanysectionsToPaulvanLinde,IreneVisser,AllanWilcoxforproseandrhymeToSakeJager,whoseelectroniccreationFormedthebasisofthevirtualpublicationToprogrammerAndréRosendaalforbustingbugsInthePracticeProgramandnotpullingtheplugsToallthoseauthorswequotedeclecticallyand¼nally,TotheArtsFacultyofGroningenUniversityandJohnBenjaminsPublishingCompanyMarjolijnVerspoor(authoroftheCourseBook)KimSauter(authorofthePracticeProgram)AcknowledgementsIntroductionEnglishSentenceAnalysisconsistsofatextbookandasupportinginteractivepracticeprogramItisanintroductiontoEnglishsyntaxforstudentsattheuniversitylevelmajoringinEnglishliteratureorlinguisticsoranotherlanguagerelated¼eldwhoarenotfamiliarwithsyntactictermsandanalysesThecoursepreparesnotonlyformoretheoreticalcoursesinsyntacticargumentationbutalsoforpracticalcoursessuchasgrammarandwritingThemainpurposeofEnglishSentenceAnalysisistomakestudentsawareofdi¬erentlevelsofanalysisatthesentence,clauseandphraselevelItisalsomeanttomakestudentsfamiliarwithtraditionalterminologyforsentenceconstituentssuchassubject,predicate,anddirectobjectwordclassessuchasnoun,verb,adjectiveandphraseconstituentssuchashead,premodi¼er,postmodi¼ersThematerialismeantforaclassroomtaughtintroductorycourseofaboutweeks,butstudentsmayalsouseitasaselfstudyguideBecausethechaptersareincrementallyordered,theyaremeanttobedealtwithinsequenceEachchaptercontainsafewexercisestohelpseewhetherthematerialisunderstoodTheanswerstotheseexercisesareinthebackofthebookMoreexercisesareavailableontheCDEachchapterofthePracticeProgramhasaboutexerciseswithfeedback,presentedintwoorthreesetsOnesetmaytakeanywherefromminutestoafewhoursdependingonthelevelofthestudentIfthestudentscoreslessthanonaset,heorsheispresentedwithacompletelynewsetShouldthestudentstillnotscoreadequately,heorsheispresentedwithrandomsetsmadeupofpreviouslypresentedmaterialThePracticeProgramalsocontainstheorymoduleslinkedtotheexercises,andfeedbackIntroductionHowtouseEnglishSentenceAnalysisEnglishSentenceAnalysisconsistsofatextbookandanexerciseprogramForbestresults,youshouldproceedasfollows:–FirstreadandstudyabookchapteranddotheexercisesCheckyouranswersinthebackofthebook–Onceyouunderstandthetermsandconcepts,dotheexercisesEventhoughyoumaybetemptedtostarttheexercisesonthecomputerandexpecttolearnbygoingthroughtheprogram,wehavefoundthatthisdoesnotworke¬ectivelynore~cientlyTheexercisesaremeanttohelpyoupracticethatwhatyoualreadyunderstand–Ifyoudonotunderstandwhyananswerisincorrect(orcorrect),youcangetfeedback,andyoucanreadtheinformationinthetheorymodule–ThePracticeProgramkeepsarecordofallyourattempts,soyoucanleaveandreentertheprogramwheneveryouwantanddetermineyourownpaceInstructionsforinstallingtheCDonyourcomputerandsendingresultstoyourteacherareintheUsers’Guide(pp–)andinthePracticeProgramitselfIntroductionSentencesCommunicativefunctionsandtypicalpatternsIntroductionIfwewanttodescribetheEnglishlanguage,we¼rsthavetodecidewhichtypeoflanguagewearegoingtofocusonNotonlyaretherehundredsofdi¬erentEnglishdialectsallovertheworld,evenwithindialectstherearevarieties,rangingfromsubstandardandslangtoinformalandformalones,whichinturnmaybespokenorwrittenInthisbook,wewillconcentratemainlyonaratherformal,standard,writtenvariety,notonlybecausethisisthevarietythatwewillcomeacrossmostinacademicbooksandarticles,butespeciallybecauseitismorecarefullythoughtaboutbeforeputonpaperandthereforedoesnotshowthekindsofgapsandun¼nishedsentencesthatmayoccurinspokenlanguageAnotherreasonisthatamoreformalwrittenvarietyoftencontainssentencesthatarelongerandarethereforemorecomplexthanspokensentencesActually,manyoftheexercisesinthisbookcontainpassagesfromfamousauthors,whoareknowntobeespeciallycreativeintheirsentenceuseInthePracticeProgramyouwillalso¼nd‘real’examplesfrom¼ctionandpopsongsInthischapter,wewill¼rsttakealookatsentencesingeneraltonarrowdownourobjectofanalysis,thenwewillintroduceyoutothebasicconstituentsofasentence,and¼nallywewillshowyouhowthesemayormaynotbecombinedintypicalsentencepatternsDeclarative,interrogative,imperativeandexclamatorysentencepatternsWhenpeoplecommunicate,theydosoforvariousreasonsthefourmainreasonsare:Sentences:Communicativefunctionsandtypicalpatternstoinformsomeoneofsomethingtogetinformationfromsomeonetogetsomeonetodosomethingtoexpressone’sattitudeaboutsomethingEachofthesecommunicativefunctionshasatypicalsentencepattern:JohnisleavingIsJohnleavingLeave!HowawfulJohnisleaving!WhatashockJohnisleaving!Thesepatternshavethefollowingsyntacticcharacteristics:subject–wholeverbpartofverb–subject–restofverbverbbyitselfHow…orWhata…followedbyremainderofsentenceThesesentencetypeswiththesepatternsarenamedasfollows:declarativeinterrogativeimperativeexclamatoryIfyouweretolookatanylargebodyofwrittentext,youwould¼ndthatmostsentencesareinformativeandwillhavethedeclarativesentencepatternThatiswhywewillconcentratemostlyonthose,butnotethatalmostanylinguisticsign(includingatypicalsentencepattern)mayhavemorethanonesenseForsentencetypesthismeansthatintherightcontext,withtherightintonation,asentencetypemayverywellbeusedtoexpressadi¬erentcommunicativefunctionDeclarative,interrogative,imperativeandexclamatorysentencepatternsexerciseSaythewords“Johnisleaving”insuchawaythatitexpressesthefollowingcommunicativefunctions:informingaskingforinformationgettingsomeonetodosomethingexpressingfeelingattitudeExerciseisbasedonthefactthatthesamedeclarativepatterncanhavedi¬erentcommunicativefunctionsInthisbookwewilltakethestandthatwewillanalyzetheformsofthesentencesastheyarepresentedtoussoeventhough“Johnisleaving”hasthefunctionofaquestion,itsformstillhasthedeclarativepatternInthiscourse,wewillnamesuchasentencebyitsgrammaticalform,notitscommunicativefunctionParticipants,process,attributes,andsettingInadeclarativesentence,aspeakerorwritergivesinformationaboutsituationsoreventsWhendi¬erentpeopledescribethesameeventorsituation,itislikelythattheyusedi¬erentwordstodescribeitbecausetheymay¼nddi¬erentaspectsofthesceneimportantorinterestingThewordsthespeakerusesshowswhichoftheaspectsofthesceneheorshe¼ndsmostappropriate,relevantore¬ectiveatthemomentofspeakingConsiderthecartoonbelowandquicklyjotdownaboutthreesimplesentencesyoumightusetodescribewhatishappening(Wewillgetbacktotheselater)Sentences:CommunicativefunctionsandtypicalpatternsFromGotoyourroom!byBillKeane,()NewYork:BallantineBooksOutofallthedetailsinaneventorsituation,aspeakercannamethefollowingaspects:oneormoreparticipants,attributesoftheseparticipants,andinformationaboutthesettingoftheeventorsituationFirstofall,thespeakernamesatleastonepersonorthingandsayssomethingabouthim,heroritInthesecartoons,thereareafewthingsthatstandoutmost:thelittleboy,theballoon,andthecactusInatypicalsentence,thepersonorthingthatstandsoutthemost(forushumansthatisusuallyapersondoingsomething)isnamed¼rstWewillcallthispersonorthingtheýrstparticipantThenthespeakernamestheprocess,suchasis,isholding,iswalking,whichdescribestheact,deed,stateofbeingorbecomingthatthe¼rstparticipantisinvolvedinThespeakermaythensaysomethingaboutthe¼rstparticipantornameoneortwomoreparticipantsAsyoucanseeinthefollowingexamples,ifthespeakersayssomethingaboutthe¼rstparticipant,itwillbeanattributedescribingaqualityorcharacteristic,oroneormorewordsidentifyingtheparticipantorgivingtheclasstheparticipantisamemberofParticipants,process,attributes,andsettingThelittleboyishappyaqualityHeturnedthreeyearsoldacharacteristicHemustbeAnnie’slittlebrotheridenti¼cationHewasatoddlerclassmembershipButthespeakermayalsochoosetomentionasecondparticipant,whichisanotherthing,person,event,orsituationthatstandsoutinthesceneThelittleboyisholdingaballoonAnd,insomecasesitispossibletonameanattributeofthesecondparticipantInthefollowingsentences,unpoppableandhistreasuredescribethesecondparticipantThelittleboyconsideredtheballoonunpoppableThelittleboymadetheballoonhistreasureItisalsopossibleforthespeakertonamethreeparticipantsInsuchcases,somethingistransferredfromoneparticipanttoanotherInthefollowingsentences,themotheristhe¼rstparticipant,aballoon,thesecondone,andtheboy,thethirdoneThemotherhadgiventheboyaballoonThemotherhadboughttheboyaballoonBesidesnamingparticipantsandattributesoftheseparticipants,thespeakermaychoosetogiveinformationaboutthesetting,whichtellshow,where,when,why,underwhatcondition,inspiteofwhichconditiontheprocessortheeventorsituationtakesplaceTheterm‘setting’istobetakenverybroadlyItmayrefertotime,reason,condition,causeandsoonBasicallyitreferstoanythingthatisnotaparticipant,anattributeoraprocessInthefollowingexamples,yesterdaytellswhentheeven

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