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首页 剑桥商务英语写作完全攻略(纽约出版社)

剑桥商务英语写作完全攻略(纽约出版社).pdf

剑桥商务英语写作完全攻略(纽约出版社)

mingbuliu
2010-03-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《剑桥商务英语写作完全攻略(纽约出版社)pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

READINGCOMPREHENSIONSUCCESSINMINUTESADAYNEWYORKREADINGCOMPREHENSIONSUCCESSINMINUTESADAYrdEdition®Copyright©LearningExpress,LLCAllrightsreservedunderInternationalandPanAmericanCopyrightConventionsPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyLearningExpress,LLC,NewYorkLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData:ReadingcomprehensionsuccessinminutesadayrdedpcmISBN(paper)ReadingcomprehensionProblems,exercises,etcITitleIITitle:ReadingcomprehensionsuccessintwentyminutesadayLBCdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThirdEditionForinformationonLearningExpress,otherLearningExpressproducts,orbulksales,pleasewritetousat:LearningExpressBroadwaythFloorNewYork,NYOrvisitusat:wwwlearnatestcomINTRODUCTIONHowtoUseThisBookixPRETESTBUILDINGASTRONGFOUNDATIONLESSONGettingtheEssentialInformationHowtobeanactivereader,pickingupcluesinwhatyoureadLESSONFindingtheMainIdeaLookingbeyondthefacts,consideringtheauthor’smotiveLESSONDefiningVocabularyinContextDealingwithunfamiliarwordswithoutadictionaryLESSONTheDifferencebetweenFactandOpinionDistinguishingbetweenwhatanauthorknowsandwhatanauthorbelievestobetrueLESSONPuttingItAllTogetherPracticeincombiningtheskillsyou’velearnedinLessons–ContentsvSTRUCTURELESSONStartfromtheBeginning:ChronologicalOrderWorkingthroughpassagesthatstartatthebeginningandfinishattheendofasequenceofeventsLESSONOrderofImportanceUsingtheorderinthewritingtodeterminewhatismostimportanttotheauthorLESSONSimilaritiesandDifferences:CompareandContrastUsingcomparisonstodeterminetheauthor’sattitudeLESSONWhyDoThingsHappenALookatCauseandEffectTherelationshipbetweenactionandreactionLESSONBeingStructurallySound:PuttingItAllTogetherReviewsLessons–,includingidentifyingthestructureusedpracticewithcombinedstructuresLANGUAGEANDSTYLELESSONAMatterofPerspective:PointofViewPurposesoffirst,second,andthirdpersonwritingLESSONDiction:What’sinaWordDefiningtonefromthechoiceofwordsLESSONStyle:It’sNotWhatTheySaybutHowTheySayItSentencestructuredegreeofdetail,description,andformalityLESSONHowTheySayIt,PartTwo:ToneHowtoneinfluencesmeaningLESSONWordPower:PuttingItAllTogetherReviewsLessons–READINGBETWEENTHELINESLESSONFindingtheImpliedMainIdeaMakinginferences,determininganunstatedpurposeLESSONAssumingCausesandPredictingEffectsReadingbetweenthelines,impliedactionandreactionLESSONEmotionalVersusLogicalAppealsBeingawareofstrongandweakarguments–CONTENTS–vi大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtmlLESSONFindingMeaninginLiteratureIdentifyingthemes,workingwithpoetryLESSONDrawingConclusions:PuttingItAllTogetherReviewsLessons–POSTTESTAPPENDIXAPreparingforaStandardizedTestAPPENDIXBAdditionalResources–CONTENTS–vii大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtml大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtmlThisbookisdesignedtohelpyouimproveyourreadingcomprehensionskillsbystudyingminutesadayfordaysYou’llstartwiththebasicsandmoveontomorecomplexreadingcomprehensionandcriticalthinkingstrategiesPleasenotethatalthougheachchaptercanbeaneffectiveskillbuilderonitsown,itisimportantthatyouproceedthroughthisbookinorder,fromLessonthroughLessonEachlessonbuildsonskillsandideasdiscussedinthepreviouschaptersAsyoumovethroughthisbookandyourreadingskillsdevelop,thepassagesyoureadwillincreasebothinlengthandincomplexityThebookbeginswithapretest,whichwillallowyoutoseehowwellyoucananswervariouskindsofreadingcomprehensionquestionsnow,asyoubeginWhenyoufinishthebook,taketheposttesttoseehowmuchyou’veimprovedThetextisdividedintofoursections,eachfocusingonadifferentgroupofrelatedreadingandthinkingstrategiesThesestrategieswillbeoutlinedatthebeginningofeachsectionandthenreviewedinaspecial“puttingitalltogether”finallessonEachlessonprovidesseveralexercisesthatallowyoutopracticetheskillsyoulearnToensureyou’reontherighttrack,eachlessonalsoprovidesanswersandexplanationsforallofthepracticequestionsAdditionally,youwillfindpracticalsuggestionsineachchapterforhowtocontinuepracticingtheseskillsinyourdailylifeThemostimportantthingyoucandotoimproveyourreadingskillsistobecomeanactivereaderThefollowingguidelinesandsuggestionsoutlinedwillfamiliarizeyouwithactivereadingtechniquesUsethesetechniquesasmuchaspossibleasyouworkyourwaythroughthelessonsinthisbookHowtoUseThisBookix大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtml�BecominganActiveReaderCriticalreadingandthinkingskillsrequireactivereadingBeinganactivereadermeansyouhavetoengagewiththetext,bothmentallyandphysically■Skimaheadandjumpback■Markupthetext■MakespecificobservationsaboutthetextSkimmingAheadandJumpingBackSkimmingaheadenablesyoutoseewhat’scomingupinyourreadingPagethroughthetextyou’reabouttoreadNoticehowthetextisbrokendown,whatthemaintopicsare,andtheorderinwhichtheyarecoveredNoticekeywordsandideasthatareboldfaced,bulleted,boxed,orotherwisehighlightedSkimmingthroughthetextbeforehandwillprepareyouforwhatyouareabouttoreadIt’salotlikecheckingoutthehillsandcurvesinthecoursebeforeacrosscountryraceIfyouknowwhat’sahead,youknowhowtopaceyourself,soyou’repreparedtohandlewhat’stocomeWhenyoufinishyourreading,jumpbackReviewthesummaries,headings,andhighlightedinformationinthetextNoticebothwhattheauthorhighlightedandwhatyouhighlightedByjumpingback,youhelpsolidifyinyourmindtheideasandinformationyoujustreadYou’reremindedofhoweachideafitsintothewhole,howideasandinformationareconnectedWhenyoumakeconnectionsbetweenideas,you’remuchmorelikelytorememberthemMarkingUptheTextMarkingupthetextcreatesadirectphysicallinkbetweenyouandthewordsyou’rereadingItforcesyoutopaycloserattentiontothewordsyoureadandtakesyoutoahigherlevelofcomprehensionUsethesethreestrategiestomarkuptext:HighlightorunderlinekeywordsandideasCircleanddefineanyunfamiliarwordsorphrasesRecordyourreactionsandquestionsinthemarginsHighlightingorUnderliningKeyIdeasWhenyouhighlightorunderlinekeywordsandideas,youareidentifyingthemostimportantpartsofthetextThere’sanimportantskillatworkhere:Youcan’thighlightorunderlineeverything,soyouhavetodistinguishbetweenthefactsandideasthataremostimportant(majorideas)andthosefactsandideasthatarehelpfulbutnotsoimportant(minororsupportingideas)Highlightonlythemajorideas,soyoudon’tendupwithatextthat’scompletelyhighlightedAneffectivelyhighlightedtextwillmakeforaneasyandfruitfulreviewWhenyoujumpback,you’llbequicklyremindedoftheideasthataremostimportanttorememberHighlightingorunderliningmajorpointsasyoureadalsoallowsyoutoretainmoreinformationfromthetextCirclingUnfamiliarWordsOneofthemostimportanthabitstodevelopisthatofcirclingandlookingupunfamiliarwordsandphrasesIfpossible,don’tsitdowntoreadwithoutadictionarybyyoursideItisnotuncommonforthemeaningofanentiresentencetohingeonthemeaningofasinglewordorphrase,andifyoudon’tknowwhatthatwordorphrasemeans,youwon’tunderstandthesentenceBesides,thishabitenablesyoutoquicklyandsteadilyexpandyourvocabulary,soyou’llbeamoreconfidentreaderandspeakerIfyoudon’thaveadictionaryreadilyavailable,trytodeterminethemeaningofthewordasbestyoucanfromitscontextthatis,thewordsandideasaroundit(There’smoreonthistopicinLesson)Then,makesureyoulookupthewordassoonaspossiblesoyou’resureofitsmeaning–HOWTOUSETHISBOOK–x大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtmlMakingMarginalNotesRecordingyourquestionsandreactionsinthemarginsturnsyoufromapassivereceiverofinformationintoanactiveparticipantinadialogue(Ifyou’rereadingalibrarybook,writeyourreactionsinanotebook)Youwillgetmuchmoreoutoftheideasandinformationyoureadaboutifyoucreatea“conversation”withthewriterHerearesomeexamplesofthekindsofreactionsyoumightwritedowninthemarginorinyournotebook:■QuestionsoftencomeupwhenyoureadTheymaybeansweredlaterinthetext,butbythattime,youmayhaveforgottenthequestion!Andifyourquestionisn’tanswered,youmaywanttodiscussitwithsomeone:“Whydoesthewriterdescribethenewwelfarepolicyas‘unfair’”or“Whydoesthecharacterreactinthisway”■Agreementsanddisagreementswiththeauthorareboundtoariseifyou’reactivelyreadingWritethemdown:“That’snotnecessarilytrue!”or“Thispolicymakesalotofsensetome”■ConnectionsyounotecanbeeitherbetweenthetextandsomethingthatyoureadearlierorbetweenthetextandyourownexperienceForexample,“IrememberfeelingthesamewaywhenI”or“ThisissimilartowhathappenedinChina”■EvaluationsareyourwayofkeepingtheauthorhonestIfyouthinktheauthorisn’tprovidingsufficientsupportforwhatheorsheissayingorthatthere’ssomethingwrongwiththatsupport,sayso:“Hesaysthedroppingofthebombwasinevitable,buthedoesn’texplainwhy”or“Thisisaveryselfishreason”MakingObservationsGoodreadersknowthatwritersusemanydifferentstrategiestoexpresstheirideasEvenifyouknowverylittleaboutthosestrategies,youcanmakeusefulobservationsaboutwhatyoureadtobetterunderstandandremembertheauthor’sideasYoucannotice,forexample,theauthor’schoiceofwordsthestructureofthesentencesandparagraphsanyrepetitionofwordsorideasimportantdetailsaboutpeople,places,andthingsandsoonThisstepmakingobservationsisessentialbecauseyourobservations(whatyounotice)leadyoutologicalinferencesaboutwhatyoureadInferencesareconclusionsbasedonreason,fact,orevidenceYouareconstantlymakinginferencesbasedonyourobservations,evenwhenyou’renotreadingForexample,ifyounoticethattheskyisfullofdark,heavyclouds,youmightinferthatitisgoingtorainifyounoticethatyourcoworkerhasastackofgardeningbooksonherdesk,youmightinferthatshelikesgardeningIfyoumisunderstandwhatyouread,itisoftenbecauseyouhaven’tlookedcloselyenoughatthetextAsaresult,youbaseyourinferencesonyourownideasandexperiences,notonwhat’sactuallywritteninthetextYouendupforcingyourownideasontheauthor(ratherthanlisteningtowhattheauthorhastosay)andthenformingyourownideasaboutitIt’scritical,then,thatyoubegintoreallypayattentiontowhatwriterssayandhowtheysayitIfanyofthissoundsconfusingnow,don’tworryEachoftheseideaswillbethoroughlyexplainedinthelessonsthatfollowInthemeantime,startpracticingactivereadingasbestyoucanBeginbytakingthepretest–HOWTOUSETHISBOOK–xi大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtml大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtmlREADINGCOMPREHENSIONSUCCESSINMINUTESADAY大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtml大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtmlBeforeyoustartyourstudyofreadingskills,youmaywanttogetanideaofhowmuchyoualreadyknowandhowmuchyouneedtolearnIfthat’sthecase,takethepretestthatfollowsThepretestconsistsofmultiplechoicequestionscoveringallthelessonsinthisbookNaturally,questionscan’tcovereverysingleconceptorstrategyyouwilllearnbyworkingthroughthisbookSoevenifyougetallthequestionsonthepretestright,it’salmostguaranteedthatyouwillfindafewideasorreadingtacticsinthisbookthatyoudidn’talreadyknowOntheotherhand,ifyougetmanyquestionswrongonthispretest,don’tdespairThisbookwillshowyouhowtoreadmoreeffectively,stepbystepYoushouldusethispretesttogetageneralideaofhowmuchyoualreadyknowIfyougetahighscore,youmaybeabletospendlesstimewiththisbookthanyouoriginallyplannedIfyougetalowscore,youmayfindthatyouwillneedmorethanminutesadaytogetthrougheachchapterandimproveyourreadingskillsThere’sananswersheetyoucanuseforfillinginthecorrectanswersonpageOr,ifyouprefer,simplycircletheanswernumbersinthisbookIfthebookdoesn’tbelongtoyou,writethenumbers–onapieceofpaperandrecordyouranswersthereTakeasmuchtimeasyouneedtodothisshorttestWhenyoufinish,checkyouranswersagainsttheanswerkeyattheendofthislessonEachansweroffersthelesson(s)inthisbookthatteachesyouaboutthereadingstrategyinthatquestionPretest大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtml大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtmlabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcdabcd–LEARNINGEXPRESSANSWERSHEET–大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtml大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtml�PretestThepretestconsistsofaseriesofreadingpassageswithquestionsthatfollowtotestyourcomprehensionCulturalCenterAddsClassesforYoungAdultsTheAllendaleCulturalCenterhasexpandeditsartsprogramtoincludeclassesforyoungadultsDirectorLeahMartinannouncedMondaythatbeginninginSeptember,threenewclasseswillbeofferedtotheAllendalecommunityThecoursetitleswillbeYogaforTeenagersHipHopDance:LearningtheLatestMovesandCreativeJournalingforTeens:DiscoveringtheWriterWithinThelattercoursewillnotbeheldattheAllendaleCulturalCenterbutinsteadwillmeetattheAllendalePublicLibraryStaffmemberTriciaCousinswillteachtheyogaandhiphopclassesMsCousinsisanaccomplishedchoreographeraswellasanexperienceddanceeducatorShehasanMAindanceeducationfromTeachersCollege,ColumbiaUniversity,whereshewroteathesisonthepedagogicaleffectivenessofdanceeducationThejournalingclasswillbetaughtbyBetsyMilfordMsMilfordistheheadlibrarianattheAllendalePublicLibraryaswellasacolumnistfortheprofessionaljournalLibraryFocusThecoursesarepartoftheAllendaleCulturalCenter’sProjectTeen,whichwasinitiatedbyLeahMartin,DirectoroftheCulturalCenterAccordingtoMartin,thisprojectisadirectresultofhereffortstomakethecenteramoreintegralpartoftheAllendalecommunityOverthelastseveralyears,thenumberofpeoplewhohavevisitedtheculturalcenterforclassesoreventshassteadilydeclinedProjectTeenisprimarilyfundedbyamunificentgrantfromTheMcGeeArtsFoundation,anorganizationdevotedtobringingartsprogramstoyoungadultsMartinoverseestheProjectTeenboard,whichconsistsoffiveboardmembersTwoboardmembersarestudentsatAllendale’sBrookdaleHighSchooltheotherthreeareadultswithbackgroundsineducationandtheartsThecreativejournalingclasswillbecosponsoredbyBrookdaleHighSchool,andstudentswhocompletetheclasswillbegiventheopportunitytopublishoneoftheirjournalentriesinPulse,Brookdale’sstudentliterarymagazineStudentswhocompletethehiphopclasswillbeeligibletoparticipateintheAllendaleReview,anannualconcertsponsoredbytheculturalcenterthatfeatureslocalactors,musicians,anddancersAllclassesarescheduledtobeginimmediatelyfollowingschooldismissal,andtransportationwillbeavailablefromBrookdaleHighSchooltotheAllendaleCulturalCenterandtheAllendalePublicLibraryFormoreinformationaboutProjectTeen,contacttheculturalcenter’sprogrammingofficeatordropbytheofficeafterJunetopickupafallcoursecatalogTheofficeislocatedonthethirdflooroftheAllendaleTownHall–PRETEST–TheCreativeJournalingforTeensclasswillbecosponsoredbyaTheAllendalePublicLibrarybTheMcGeeArtsFoundationcBrookdaleHighSchooldBetsyMilfordWhichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrectaTriciaCousinswillteachtwoofthenewclassesbThenewclasseswillbeginonJunecPeoplewhowantacompletefallcatalogueshouldstopbytheAllendalePublicLibrarydTheculturalcenter’sannualconcertiscalledPulse大家网BEC专区资料下载http:clubtopsagecomforumhtmlAccordingtoLeahMartin,whatwasthedirectcauseofProjectTeenaTriciaCousins,thetalentedchoreographeranddanceeducator,wasavailabletoteachcoursesinthefallbCommunityorganizationswereignoringlocalteenagerscTheMcGeeArtsFoundationwantedtobemoreinvolvedinAllendale’sartsprogrammingdShewantedtomaketheculturalcenteramoreimportantpartoftheAllendalecommunityWhichofthefollowingfactorsisimpliedasanotherreasonforProjectTeenaThenumberofpeoplewhohavevisitedtheculturalcenterhasdeclinedoverthelastseveralyearsbTheculturalcenterwantedagrantfromTheMcGeeArtsFoundationcTheyoungpeopleofAllendalehavecomplainedabouttheculturalcenter’sofferingsdLeahMartinthinksclassesforteenagersaremoreimportantthanclassesforadultsFromthecontextofthepassage,itcanbedeterminedthattheword“munificent”mostnearlymeansacomplicatedbgenerousccuriousdunusualThetitleofthecourse“CreativeJournalingforTeens:DiscoveringtheWriterWithin”impliesthataallyoungpeopleshouldwriteinajournaldailybteenagersdonothaveenoughhobbiescwritinginajournalcanhelpteenagersbecomebetterandmorecreativewritersdteenagersareinneedofguidanceanddirectionWhichofthefollowingcorrectlystatestheprimarysubjectofthisarticleaLeahMartin’spersonalideasaboutyoungadultsbTheMcGeeFoundation’sgranttotheAllendaleCulturalCenterc

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  • 122.225.61.179 这个是关于阅读的书,不是写作……书看起来还可以……

    2010-03-23 05:19:39

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剑桥商务英语写作完全攻略(纽约出版社)

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