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首页 2013年反恐形势国别报告-英文版

2013年反恐形势国别报告-英文版.pdf

2013年反恐形势国别报告-英文版

江湖百晓生
2014-05-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2013年反恐形势国别报告-英文版pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

CountryReportsonTerrorismAprilUnitedStatesDepartmentofStatePublicationBureauofCounterterrorismReleasedAprilCountryReportsonTerrorismissubmittedincompliancewithTitleoftheUnitedStatesCode,Sectionf(the“Act”),whichrequirestheDepartmentofStatetoprovidetoCongressafullandcompleteannualreportonterrorismforthosecountriesandgroupsmeetingthecriteriaoftheActCOUNTRYREPORTSONTERRORISMTableofContentsChapterStrategicAssessmentChapterCountryReportsAfricaOverviewTransSaharaCounterterrorismPartnershipThePartnershipforEastAfricanRegionalCounterterrorismBurkinaFasoBurundiCameroonChadDemocraticRepublicoftheCongoDjiboutiEritreaEthiopiaKenyaMaliMauritaniaNigerNigeriaRwandaSenegalSomaliaSouthAfricaSouthSudanTanzaniaUgandaEastAsiaandPacificOverviewChina,HongKong,andMacauIndonesiaDemocraticPeople’sRepublicofKoreaRepublicofKoreaMalaysiaPhilippinesSingaporeThailandEuropeOverviewAlbaniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelgiumBosniaandHerzegovinaBulgariaCyprusDenmarkFranceGeorgiaGermanyGreeceIrelandItalyKosovoTheNetherlandsNorwayRussiaSerbiaSpainSwedenTurkeyUnitedKingdomandNorthernIrelandMiddleEastandNorthAfricaOverviewAlgeriaBahrainEgyptIraqIsrael,theWestBankandGaza,andJerusalemJordanKuwaitLebanonLibyaMoroccoOmanQatarSaudiArabiaTunisiaUnitedArabEmiratesYemenSouthandCentralAsiaOverviewAfghanistanBangladeshIndiaKazakhstanKyrgyzstanMaldivesNepalPakistanSriLankaTajikistanTurkmenistanUzbekistanWesternHemisphereOverviewArgentinaBrazilCanadaColombiaMexicoPanamaParaguayPeruVenezuelaChapterStateSponsorsofTerrorismCubaIranSudanSyriaChapterTheGlobalChallengeofChemical,Biological,Radiological,orNuclear(CBRN)TerrorismChapterTerroristSafeHavens(UpdatetoReport)TerroristSafeHavensCounteringTerrorismontheEconomicFrontMultilateralEffortstoCounterTerrorismInternationalConventionsandProtocolsLongTermProgramsandInitiativesDesignedtoCounterTerroristSafeHavensCounteringViolentExtremismCapacityBuildingRegionalStrategicInitiativeSupportforPakistanCollaborationwithSaudiArabiaBroadcastingBoardofGovernorsInitiatives:OutreachthroughForeignBroadcastMediaChapterTerroristOrganizationsAbdallahAzzamBrigades(AAB)AbuNidalOrganization(ANO)AbuSayyafGroup(ASG)AlAqsaMartyrsBrigade(AAMB)AnsaralDine(AAD)AnsaralIslam(AAI)ArmyofIslam(AOI)AsbatalAnsar(AAA)AumShinrikyo(AUM)BasqueFatherlandandLiberty(ETA)BokoHaram(BH)CommunistPartyofPhilippinesNewPeople’sArmy(CPPNPA)ContinuityIrishRepublicanArmy(CIRA)Gama’aalIslamiyya(IG)HamasHaqqaniNetwork(HQN)HarakatulJihadiIslami(HUJI)HarakatulJihadiIslamiBangladesh(HUJIB)HarakatulMujahideen(HUM)HizballahIndianMujahedeen(IM)IslamicJihadUnion(IJU)IslamicMovementofUzbekistan(IMU)Jama’atuAnsarulMusliminaFiBiladisSudan(Ansaru)JaisheMohammed(JEM)JemaahAnsharutTauhid(JAT)JemaahIslamiya(JI)JundallahKahaneChaiKata’ibHizballah(KH)KurdistanWorkers’Party(PKK)LashkareTayyibaLashkariJhangvi(LJ)LiberationTigersofTamilEelam(LTTE)LibyanIslamicFightingGroup(LIFG)AlMulathamunBattalion(AMB)NationalLiberationArmy(ELN)PalestineIslamicJihad–ShaqaqiFaction(PIJ)PalestineLiberationFront–AbuAbbasFaction(PLF)PopularFrontfortheLiberationofPalestine(PFLP)PopularFrontfortheLiberationofPalestineGeneralCommand(PFLPGC)AlQa’ida(AQ)AlQa’idaintheArabianPeninsula(AQAP)AlQa’idainIraq(AQI)AlQa’idaintheIslamicMaghreb(AQIM)RealIRA(RIRA)RevolutionaryArmedForcesofColombia(FARC)RevolutionaryOrganizationNovember(N)RevolutionaryPeople’sLiberationPartyFront(DHKPC)RevolutionaryStruggle(RS)AlShabaab(AS)ShiningPath(SL)TehrikeTalibanPakistan(TTP)UnitedSelfDefenseForcesofColombia(AUC)ChapterLegislativeRequirementsandKeyTermsChapterStrategicAssessmentAlQa’ida(AQ)anditsaffiliatesandadherentsworldwidecontinuetopresentaseriousthreattotheUnitedStates,ourallies,andourinterestsWhiletheinternationalcommunityhasseverelydegradedAQ’scoreleadership,theterroristthreathasevolvedLeadershiplossesinPakistan,coupledwithweakgovernanceandinstabilityintheMiddleEastandNorthwestAfrica,haveacceleratedthedecentralizationofthemovementandledtotheaffiliatesintheAQnetworkbecomingmoreoperationallyautonomousfromcoreAQandincreasinglyfocusedonlocalandregionalobjectivesThepastseveralyearshaveseentheemergenceofamoreaggressivesetofAQaffiliatesandlikemindedgroups,mostnotablyinYemen,Syria,Iraq,NorthwestAfrica,andSomaliaAQleadershipexperienceddifficultyinmaintainingcohesionwithintheAQnetworkandincommunicatingguidancetoitsaffiliatedgroupsAQleaderAymanalZawahiriwasrebuffedinhisattemptstomediateadisputeamongAQaffiliatesoperatinginSyria–alNusrahFrontandalQa’idainIraq(AQI),nowcallingitselftheIslamicStateofIraqandtheLevant(ISIL)–whichresultedintheexpulsionofISILfromtheAQnetworkinFebruaryInaddition,guidanceissuedbyZawahiriinforAQaffiliatestoavoidcollateraldamagewasroutinelydisobeyed,notablyinattacksbyAQaffiliatesagainstcivilianreligiouspilgrimsinIraq,hospitalstaffandconvalescingpatientsinYemen,andfamiliesatashoppingmallinKenyaTerroristviolenceinwasfueledbysectarianmotivations,markingaworrisometrend,inparticularinSyria,Lebanon,andPakistan,wherevictimsofviolencewereprimarilyamongthecivilianpopulationsThousandsofextremistfightersenteredSyriaduringtheyear,amongthosealargepercentagereportedlymotivatedbyasectarianviewoftheconflictandadesiretoprotecttheSunniMuslimcommunityfromtheAlawitedominantAsadregimeOntheothersideoftheconflict,Iran,Hizballah,andotherShiamilitiacontinuedtoprovidecriticalsupporttotheAsadregime,dramaticallybolsteringitscapabilitiesandexacerbatingthesituationManyofthesefightersarealsomotivatedbyasectarianviewoftheconflictandadesiretoprotecttheShiaMuslimcommunityfromSunniextremistsTherelationshipbetweentheAQcoreanditsaffiliatesplaysoutinthefinancialarenaaswellAswasthecaseforthelastfewyears,theaffiliateshaveincreasedtheirfinancialindependencethroughkidnappingforransomoperationsandothercriminalactivitiessuchasextortionandcreditcardfraudAlQa’idaintheArabianPeninsula(AQAP)andalQa’idaintheIslamicMaghreb(AQIM)areparticularlyeffectivewithkidnappingforransomandareusingransommoneytofundtherangeoftheiractivitiesKidnappingtargetsareusuallyWesterncitizensfromgovernmentsorthirdpartiesthathaveestablishedapatternofpayingransomforthereleaseofindividualsincustodyPrivatedonationsfromtheGulfalsoremainedamajorsourceoffundingforSunniterroristgroups,particularlyforthoseoperatinginSyriaIn,violentextremistsincreasedtheiruseofnewmediaplatformsandsocialmedia,withmixedresultsSocialmediaplatformsallowedviolentextremistgroupstocirculatemessagesmorequickly,butconfusionandcontradictionsamongthevariousvoiceswithinthemovementaregrowingmorecommonIncreasingly,currentandformerviolentextremistsareengagingonlinewithavarietyofviewsontacticsandstrategy,includingadmittingwrongdoingorrecantingformerbeliefsandactionsKeyTerrorismTrendsinTheterroristthreatcontinuedtoevolverapidlyin,withanincreasingnumberofgroupsaroundtheworld–includingbothAQaffiliatesandotherterroristorganizations–posingathreattotheUnitedStates,ourallies,andourinterestsAsaresultofbothongoingworldwideeffortsagainsttheorganizationandseniorleadershiplosses,AQcore’sleadershiphasbeendegraded,limitingitsabilitytoconductattacksanddirectitsfollowersSubsequently,sawtheriseofincreasinglyaggressiveandautonomousAQaffiliatesandlikemindedgroupsintheMiddleEastandAfricawhotookadvantageoftheweakgovernanceandinstabilityintheregiontobroadenanddeepentheiroperationsAQleaderAymanalZawahiriexperienceddifficultyinmaintaininginfluencethroughouttheAQorganizationandwasrebuffedinhisattemptstomediateadisputeamongAQaffiliatesoperatinginSyria,withISILpubliclydissociatingitsgroupfromAQGuidanceissuedbyZawahiriinforAQaffiliatestoavoidcollateraldamagewasroutinelydisobeyed,notablyinincreasinglyviolentattacksbytheseaffiliatesagainstcivilianpopulationsSyriacontinuedtobeamajorbattlegroundforterrorismonbothsidesoftheconflictandremainsakeyareaoflongertermconcernThousandsofforeignfighterstraveledtoSyriatojointhefightagainsttheAsadregime–withsomejoiningviolentextremistgroups–whileIran,Hizballah,andotherShiamilitiasprovidedabroadrangeofcriticalsupporttotheregimeTheSyrianconflictalsoempoweredISILtoexpanditscrossborderoperationsinSyria,anddramaticallyincreaseattacksagainstIraqiciviliansandgovernmenttargetsinTerroristviolenceinwasincreasinglyfueledbysectarianmotives,markingaworrisometrend,particularlyinSyria,butalsoinLebanonandPakistanTerroristgroupsengagedinarangeofcriminalactivitytoraiseneededfunds,withkidnappingforransomremainingthemostfrequentandprofitablesourceofillicitfinancingPrivatedonationsfromtheGulfalsoremainedamajorsourceoffundingforSunniterroristgroups,particularlyforthoseoperatinginSyria“Loneoffender”violentextremistsalsocontinuedtoposeaseriousthreat,asillustratedbytheApril,,attacksneartheBostonMarathonfinishline,whichkilledthreeandinjuredapproximatelyothersManyotherterroristgroupsnottiedtoAQwereresponsibleforattacksin,includingthePeople’sLiberationPartyFront(DHKPC),whichcarriedoutanumberofhighprofileattackslastyear,includingaFebruarysuicideplottargetingtheUSEmbassyinAnkara,Turkey***WhileAQcoreleadershipinPakistanismuchdiminished,AymanalZawahiriremainstherecognizedideologicalleaderofajihadistmovementthatincludesAQaffiliatedandalliedgroupsworldwideAlongwithAQ,theAfghanTaliban,theHaqqaniNetwork,TehrikeTalibanPakistan(TTP),andotherlikemindedgroupscontinuetoconductoperationsagainstUS,Coalition,Afghan,andPakistaniinterestsfromsafehavensonbothsidesoftheAfghanistanPakistanborder,andinPakistan,terroristgroupsandAQallies,suchasTTP,haveexecutedarmedassaultsnotonlyonpolicestations,judicialcenters,borderposts,andmilitaryconvoys,butalsoonpoliovaccinationteamsandaidworkersOtherSouthAsianterroristorganizations,includingLashkareTayyiba(LeT),citeUSinterestsaslegitimatetargetsforattacksLeT,thegroupresponsiblefortheMumbaiattacks,continuestoposeathreattoregionalstabilityAQAPcarriedoutapproximatelyonehundredattacksthroughoutYemenin,includingsuicidebombings,carbombings,ambushes,kidnappings,andtargetedassassinations,regainingtheinitiativeithadlostthroughasaresultofsustainedYemenigovernmentcounterterrorismeffortsOftheAQaffiliates,AQAPcontinuestoposethemostsignificantthreattotheUnitedStatesandUScitizensandinterestsinYemenAQAPhasdemonstratedapersistentintenttostriketheUnitedStates,beginninginDecemberwhenitattemptedtodestroyanairlinerboundforDetroit,andagainthefollowingyearwithaplottodestroyseveralUSboundairplanesusingbombstimedtodetonateinthecargoholdsIn,AQAP’sleader,NasirWahishi,wasdesignatedbyAQleaderZawahiriashisdeputy,andthegroupcontinuedtomaintainafocusonWesterntargetsSomeofthethousandsoffightersfromaroundtheworldwhoaretravelingtoSyriatodobattleagainsttheAsadregime–particularlyfromtheMiddleEastandNorthAfrica,CentralAsia,andEasternandWesternEurope–arejoiningviolentextremistgroups,includingalNusrahFrontandISILAnumberofkeypartnergovernmentsarebecomingincreasinglyconcernedthatindividualswithviolentextremisttiesandbattlefieldexperiencewillreturntotheirhomecountriesorelsewheretocommitterroristactsThescaleofthisproblemhasraisedaconcernaboutthecreationofanewgenerationofgloballycommittedterrorists,similartowhatresultedfromtheinfluxofviolentextremiststoAfghanistaninthesTheviolenceanddisorderinSyriaextendedtothevariousviolentextremistgroupsoperatingamongsttheSyrianoppositionInlateandearly,violentinfightingoccurredbetweenalNusrahFrontandISIL,resultingintheFebruarydeathofAymanalZawahiri’senvoytoSyriaAbuKhalidalSoury,whowasamemberofAhraralShamDespitethisinfighting,ISIListhestrongestithasbeensinceitspeakinithasexploitedpoliticalgrievanceamongIraq’sSunnipopulation,aweaksecurityenvironmentinIraq,andtheconflictinSyriatosignificantlyincreasethepaceandcomplexityofitsattacksISILcontinuestoroutinelyandindiscriminatelytargetdefenselessinnocents,includingreligiouspilgrims,andengagesinviolentrepressionoflocalinhabitantsIn,AQIMremainedfocusedonlocalandregionalattackplanning,andconcentratesitseffortslargelyonkidnappingforransomoperationsWhileasuccessfulFrenchandAfricaninterventioncounteredeffortstooverrunnorthernMalibyAQIMandseveralassociategroups,thesefactionscontinuedtopursueattacksagainstregionalsecurityforces,localgovernmenttargets,andwesternersinnorthernMali,Niger,andthebroaderSahelregioninOriginallypartofAQIM,thealMulathamunBattalion(AMB),alsoknownasalMurabitoun,becameaseparateorganizationinlateafteritsleader,MokhtarBelmokhtar,announcedasplitfromAQIMAMBclaimedresponsibilityfortheJanuaryattackagainsttheTiguentourinegasfacilitynearInAmenas,insoutheasternAlgeriaOverpeopleweretakenhostageduringthefourdaysiege,whichledtothedeathsofcivilians,includingthreeUScitizensAMBwasalsoinvolvedinterroristattackscommittedinNigerinMay,targetingaNigerienmilitarybaseandaFrenchuraniummineGroupscallingthemselvesAnsaralShari’ainTunisiaandtheLibyancitiesofBenghaziandDarnahalsooperatedintheNorthAfricaspaceThethreesharesomeaspectsofAQideology,butarenotformalaffiliatesandgenerallymaintainalocalfocusInLibya,theterroristthreattoWesternandLibyangovernmentinterestsremainsstrong,especiallyintheeasternpartofthecountryLibya’sporousborders,theweaknessofLibya’snascentsecurityinstitutions,andlargeamountsofloosesmallarmscreateopportunitiesforviolentextremistsInTunisia,AnsaralShari’ainTunisiaattemptedsuicideattacksagainsttwotouristsitesinlateOctoberandkilledapoliticaloppositionistinJulythatsameyear,suggestingthegroupremainsintentonattackingWesternandTunisianinterestsInEastAfrica,alShabaabcontinuedtoposeasignificantregionalthreatdespitecomingundercontinuedpressurebyAfricanforcesoperatingundertheAfricanUnion’sAMISOMcommandandsteadyprogressintheestablishmentofSomaligovernmentcapabilityPerhapsbecauseofthesepositivesteps,alShabaabtargeteditsattacksonthoseparticipatingintheefforttobringstabilitytoSomaliaInSeptember,alShabaabstruckoutsideofSomalia(itsfirstexternalattackwasinJulyinKampala,Uganda),attackingtheWestgateMallinNairobi,KenyaTheassaultresultedinthedeathofatleastcivilians,includingforeignnationalsfromcountriesoutsideofKenyaandsixsoldiersandpoliceofficershundredsmorewereinjuredAlShabaab’sattackswithinSomaliacontinuedin,andresultedinthedeathsofhundredsofpeople,includinginnocentwomenandchildrenBokoHaram(BH)maintainedahighoperationaltempoinandcarriedoutkidnappings,killings,bombings,andattacksoncivilianandmilitarytargetsinnorthernNigeria,resultinginnumerousdeaths,injuries,anddestructionofpropertyinThenumberandsophisticationofBH’sattacksareconcerning,andwhilethegroupfocusesprincipallyonlocalNigerianissuesandactors,therecontinuetobereportsthatithasfinancialandtraininglinkswithotherviolentextremistsintheSahelregionBokoHaram,alongwithasplintergroupcommonlyknownasAnsaru,hasalsoincreasinglycrossedNigerianborderstoneighboringCameroon,Chad,andNigertoevadepressureandconductoperationsPalestinianterroristorganizationsintheHamascontrolledGazacontinuedrocketandmortarattacksintoIsraeliterritoryThenumberofrocketandmortarlaunchingsonIsraelfromGazaandtheSinaiwasthelowestininmorethanadecade,withlaunchingscomparedto,inAccordingtoIsraeliauthorities,rockethitswereidentifiedinIsraeliterritoryin,comparedto,inOfthelaunchingsonsouthernIsrael,werelaunchedfromtheGazaandfivefromtheSinaiPeninsulaSinaibasedgroups,suchasAnsarBeitalMaqdis,alsocontinuedtoposeaseriousthreat,conductingattacksagainstbothIsraeliandEgyptiantargetsinSince,theUnitedStateshasalsoseenaresurgenceofactivitybyIran’sIslamicRevolutionaryGuardCorps’QodsForce(IRGCQF),theIranianMinistryofIntelligenceandSecurity(MOIS),andTehran’sallyHizballahOnJanuary,,theYemeniCoastGuardinterdictedanIraniandhowcarryingweaponsandexplosiveslikelydestinedforHouthirebelsOnFebruary,,theBulgariangovernmentpubliclyimplicatedHizballahintheJulyBurgasbombingthatkilledfiveIsraelisandoneBulgariancitizen,andinjuredothersOnMarch,,aCypruscourtfoundaHizballahoperativeguiltyofchargesstemmingfromhissurveillanceactivitiesofIsraelitouristtargetsinOnSeptember,,ThailandconvictedAtrisHussein,aHizballahoperativedetainedbyThaiauthoritiesinJanuaryOnDe

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2013年反恐形势国别报告-英文版

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