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首页 综述:人参皂苷最新研究进展

综述:人参皂苷最新研究进展.pdf

综述:人参皂苷最新研究进展

tianxangrong
2014-04-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《综述:人参皂苷最新研究进展pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

CHAPTERDHighperformanceliquidchromatographyEAntistressactivitiesAdvancesinFoodandNutritionResearch,Volume#ElsevierIncISSN,DOI:S()Allrightsreserved*ResearchCenterAarslev,DepartmentofFoodScience,FacultyofAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofAarhus,Kirstinebjergvej,DKAarslev,DenmarkENuclearmagneticresonancespectroscopyFCapillaryelectrophoresisGEnzymeimmunoassayHNearinfraredspectroscopyVPotentialHealthEffectsofGinsenosidesAAnticarcinogeniceffectsBImmunomodulatoryeffectsCAntiinflammatoryandantiallergiceffectsDAntiatheroscleroticandantihypertensiveeffectGinsenosides:Chemistry,Biosynthesis,Analysis,andPotentialHealthEffectsLarsPChristensen*ContentsIIntroductionIIChemistryAChemicalstructureofginsenosidesanddistributioninplantsBGinsenosidesproducedduringsteaminganddryingofginsengCPharmacokineticsandmetabolismofginsenosidesIIIBiosynthesisIVAnalysisASampleextractionBThinlayerchromatographyCGaschromatographyAbstractGinsenosidesareaspecialgroupoftriterpenoidsaponinsthatcanbeclassifiedintotwogroupsbytheskeletonoftheiraglycones,namelydammaraneandoleananetypeGinsenosidesarefoundGinsenosidesaresengandtheyhabelievedtobetheefficacyGinsengLarsPChristensentriterpenoidsaponinsfoundnearlyexclusivelyinginvebeenthetargetofalotofresearchastheyaremainactiveprinciplesbehindtheclaimsofginsengsreferstospecieswithinthegenusPanax(AraliaceaenearlyexclusivelyinPanaxspecies(ginseng)anduptonowmorethannaturallyoccurringginsenosideshavebeenisolatedfromroots,leavesstems,fruits,andorflowerheadsofginsengGinsenosideshavebeenthetargetofalotofresearchastheyarebelievedtobethemainactiveprinciplesbehindtheclaimsofginsengsefficacyThepotentialhealtheffectsofginsenosidesthatarediscussedinthischapterincludeanticarcinogenic,immunomodulatory,antiinflammatory,antiallergic,antiatherosclerotic,antihypertensive,andantidiabeticeffectsaswellasantistressactivityandeffectsonthecentralnervoussystemGinsensoidescanbemetabolizedinthestomach(acidhydrolysis)andinthegastrointestinaltract(bacterialhydrolysis)ortransformedtootherginsenosidesbydryingandsteamingofginsengtomorebioavailableandbioactiveginsenosidesThemetabolizationandtransformationofintactginsenosides,whichseemstoplayanimportantrolefortheirpotentialhealtheffects,arediscussedQualitativeandquantitativeanalyticaltechniquesfortheanalysisofginsenosidesareimportantinrelationtoqualitycontrolofginsengproductsandplantmaterialandforthedeterminationoftheeffectsofprocessingofplantmaterialaswellasforthedeterminationofthemetabolismandbioavailabilityofginsenosidesAnalyticaltechniquesfortheanalysisofginsenosidesthataredescribedinthischapterarethinlayerchromatography(TLC),highperformanceliquidchromatography(HPLC)combinedwithvariousdetectors,gaschromatography(GC),colorimetry,enzymeimmunoassays(EIA),capillaryelectrophoresis(CE),nuclearmagneticresonance(NMR)spectroscopy,andspectrophotometricmethodsIINTRODUCTIONFEffectsontheCNSGEffectonmetabolicprocessesHAntidiabeticeffectsVIConclusionReferencesfamily)thatcompriseapproximatelyspeciesofslowgrowingperenGinsenosidesnialplantswithfleshyroots(ChoiandWen,)TheygrownaturallyintheNorthernHemisphereineasternAsiaandNorthAmericaandarecultivatedinminorscaleintheNorthernpartofEuropeThemostwidelyusedPanaxspeciesisPginseng(KoreanorAsianginseng)ItwasfirstcultivatedaroundBCandhasamedicalhistory(aswildherb)stretchingbackmorethanyears(Yun,a,b),andisconsideredasoneofthemostvaluablemedicinalherbsintraditionalAsianmedicineAnothermemberofthegenusisPquinquefolium(Americanginseng),whichwasvaluedbytheAmericanIndianslongbeforethearrivalofEuropeansintheNewWorldandsincetheeighteenthcenturyAmericanginsenghasbeencultivatedinNorthAmericaformedicinalpurposesOthercommonlyusedPanaxspeciesinherbalmedicinearePjaponicus(Japaneseginseng),Pnotoginseng(Sanchiginseng),andPvietnamensis(Vietnameseginseng)GinsengisalsooneofthemostcommonlyusedherbalmedicinalremediesbyAmericanconsumersInEurope,ginsengisalsocountedamongthetopretailproducts,butunliketheUnitedStates,whereginsengpreparationsareclassifiedasdietarysupplements,ginsengproductsinEuropeandparticularlyinGermanyaretreatedasdrugsToday,mostoftheresearchhasbeenfocusedonPginsengthathasbeenusedintraditionalAsianmedicineasatonicandapanaceathatcanpromotelongevityNowadays,ginsengisusedmainlytoincreaseresistancetophysical,chemical,andbiologicalstressandboostgeneralvitalityThisactivityofginsenghasbeendescribedas‘‘adaptogenic’’inmostofthealternativemedicineliteratureHowever,immunesystemmodulation,antistressactivities,andantihyperglycemicactivitiesareamongthemostnotablefeaturesofginsengininvitrostudiesandinclinicaltrialsExtensiverecentinvitro,invivo,andepidemiologicalresearchalsosuggeststhatginsengmayhaveacancerpreventiveeffectTherootsofginsengistheplantpartofginsengthathasmainlybeenusedformedicinalpurposesandconsequentlymostinvestigationshavebeenperformedonginsengroots,althoughmedicinaleffectsofotherplantpartsofginsenghasbeendemonstratedUptonowmorethannaturallyoccurringginsenosideshavebeenisolatedfromroots,leavesstems,fruits,andorflowerheadsofPanaxspecies,ofwhichmostofthemcanbeclassifiedintotwogroupsbytheskeletonoftheiraglycones,namelydammaranetypeandoleananetype(FigTable)Furthermore,studiesofchangesinginsenosidecompositionduetodifferenttraditionalprocessingofginsengrootssuchaswhiteandredginsenghavebeenundertaken,andthishasledtotheidentificationofaseriesofginsenosidesinprocessedginsengproductswithinterestingbioactivitiesofwhichmanyareconsideredasbeingdegradationproductsofnaturallyoccurringginsenosidesFIGUREProtopanaxadioltypeginsenosides(S)protopanaxadiol((S)PPD,R=R=H)ROHOROSNoGinsenosidesRRGinsenosideF–Glc–GlcGinsenosideRa–Glc–Glc–Glc–Ara(p)–XylGinsenosideRa–Glc–Glc–Glc–Ara(f)–XylGinsenosideRa–Glc–Glc–Glc–Glc–XylGinsenosideRb–Glc–Glc–Glc–GlcGinsenosidemalonylRb–Glc–Glc–Malonoyl–Glc–GlcGinsenosideRb–Glc–Glc–Glc–Ara(p)GinsenosidemalonylRb–Glc–Glc–Malonoyl–Glc–Ara(p)GinsenosideRb–Glc–Glc–Glc–XylGinsenosideRc–Glc–Glc–Glc–Ara(f)GinsenosidemalonylRc–Glc–Glc–Malonoyl–Glc–Ara(f)GinsenosideRd–Glc–Glc–GlcGinsenosidemalonylRd–Glc–Glc–Malonoyl–GlcGinsenoside(S)–Rg–Glc–Glc–HGinsenosideRh–Glc–HGinsenosideRs–Glc–Glc–Ac–Glc–Ara(p)GinsenosideRs–Glc–Glc–Ac–Glc–Ara(f)GinsenosideRs–Glc–Glc–Ac–HChikusetsusaponinla–Glc–Xyl–H(continued)LarsPChristensenFIGUREProtopanaxadioltypeginsenosides(Continued)(S)protopanaxadiol((S)PPD,R=R=H)ROHOROSNoGinsenosidesRRChikusetsusaponinIII–Glc–Glc|Xyl–HChikusesusaponinVI–Glc–Glc|Xyl–Glc–GlcGypenosideIX(¼notoginsenosideFd)–Glc–Glc–XylGypenosideXV–Xyl–Glc–Glc–XylGypenosideXVII–Glc–Glc–GlcNotoginsenosideD–Glc–Glc–Xyl–Glc–Glc–XylNotoginsenosideFa–Glc–Glc–Xyl–Glc–GlcNotoginsenosideFc–Glc–Glc–Xyl–Glc–XylNotoginsenosideFe–Glc–Glc–Ara(f)NotoginsenosideK–Glc–Glc–GlcNotoginsenosideL*–Glc–Glc–Ara(p)NotoginsenosideL*–Glc–Glc–Glc–GlcNotoninsenosideR–Glc–Glc–Glc–Glc–XylPseudodinsenosideF–Glc–Glc|Ac–Glc–Ara(p)PseudoginsenosideRC–Glc–Glc–Ac–GlcQuinquenosideR–Glc–Glc–Acor–Glc–Glc–Glc–Glc–Acor–Glc–GlcGinsenosidesFIGUREProtopanaxadioltypeginsenosides(Continued)ROHOROS(S)protopanaxadiol((S)PPD,R=R=H)NoGinsenosidesRRQuinquenosideI–Glc–Glc–(E)Butenoyl–GlcQuinquenosideII–Glc–Glc–(E)Octenoyl–Glc–GlcQuinquenosideIII–Glc–Glc|Ac–GlcQuinquenosideV–Glc–Glc–Glc–Glc–aGlcYesanchinosideJ–Glc–Glc|Ac–Glc–Glc–Xyl*GinsenosideandhasbeengiventhenamenotoginsenosideLbydifferentauthors(Yoshikawaetal,Maetal,)ROHOORRNoGinsenosidesRRGinsenoside(R)–Rd–Glc–Glc–GlcGinsenoside(R)–Rg–Glc–Glc–HGinsenoside(R)–Rs–Glc–Glc–Ac–HLarsPChristensenFIGUREProtopanaxadioltypeginsenosides(Continued)QuinquenosideL()HOHOOHOHRHOCHOHGlcOS(R)dammaraneβ,β,,tetrol(OHPPD,)Glc–GlcOHOOHROSRONoGinsenosidesRRMajorosideF–Glc–GlcNotoginsenosideA–Glc–Glc–Glc–GlcQuinquenosideL–Glc–Glc–GlcVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Glc–GlcYesanchinosideH–Glc–Glc–Glc–XylGinsenosidesFIGUREProtopanaxadioltypeginsenosides(Continued)HOOOHROSRONoGinsenosidesRRFloralginsenosideE–Glc–Glc–HFloralginsenosideF–Glc–GlcFloralginsenosideG–Glc–Glc–Ac–GlcFloralginsenosideO–Glc–Glc–Glc–Ara(f)NotoginsenosideE–Glc–Glc–GlcNotoginsenosideK*–Glc–Glc–Glc–Glc*ThenamenotoginsenosideKhasbeenusedforginsenoside(Yoshikawaetal,a,,)andforginsenoside(Maetal,Sunetal,b)OHHOGlcOSRONoGinsenosidesRGinsenoside(R)–Rg–GlcGinsenoside(S)–Rg(¼MajorosideF)–Glc(S)–VinaginsenosideR–Glc–Glc(R)VinaginsenosideR(¼MajorosideF)–Glc–GlcLarsPChristensenFIGUREProtopanaxadioltypeginsenosides(Continued)OOHHOROROSNoGinsenosidesRRGinsenosideI(epimerof)–Glc–Glc–GlcGinsenosideII(epimerof)–Glc–Glc–GlcFloralginsenosideH–Glc–Glc–Ac–GlcFloralquinquenosideD–Glc–GlcNotoginsenosideC–Glc–Glc–Glc–GlcOHOROSRONoGinsenosidesRRGinsenosideIII–Glc–Glc–GlcNotoginsenosideB–Glc–Glc–Glc–GlcHOGlcOQuinquenosideL()SGlc–GlcOGinsenosidesFIGUREProtopanaxadioltypeginsenosides(Continued)OHRONoGinsenosidesRGinsenosideRk–Glc–GlcGinsenosideRk–GlcGinsenosideRs–Glc–Glc–AcOHRONoGinsenosidesRGinsenosideRg–Glc–GlcGinsenosideRh–GlcGinsenosideRs–Glc–Glc–AcLarsPChristensenFIGUREProtopanaxadioltypeginsenosides(Continued)OHVinaginsenosideR()HOOHGlcOSGlc–GlcOKoryoginsenosideR()HOOHOSGlc–GlcOGlc–GlcOROSRONoGinsenosidesRRChikusetsusaponinLN–Glc–Xyl–Glc–Ara(p)ChikusetsusaponinLT–Glc–Glc–GlcChikusetsusaponinLT–Glc–GlcGinsenosidesFIGUREProtopanaxatrioltypeginsenosides(Continued)(S)protopanaxatriol((S)PPT,R=R=R=R=H)ROROORROSNoGinsenosidesRRRRGinsenosideF–H–H–H–GlcGinsenosideF–H–H–H–Glc–Ara(p)GinsenosideF–H–H–H–Glc–Ara(f)Ginsenosidela–Glc–H–H–GlcGinsenosideRe–H–Glc–Rha–H–GlcGinsenosidemalonylRe–H–Glc–RhaMalonoyl–H–GlcGinsenosideRf–H–Glc–Glc–H–HGinsenosideglucoRf–H–Glc–Glc–H–GlcGinsenosideRg–H–Glc–H–GlcGinsenosideacetylRg–H–Glc–Ac–H–GlcGinsenosidemalonylRg–H–Glc–Malonoyl–H–GlcGinsenoside(S)–Rg(¼ChikusetsusaponinI)–H–Glc–Rha–H–HGinsenoside(S)–Rh–H–Glc–H–HGinsenosideRh*–H–Glc–H–CHChikusetsusaponinL–H–H–H–Glc–Ara(p)–XylChikusetsusaponinL–H–H–Glc–HFloralginsenosideM–H–Glc–Rha–H–Glc–Ara(f)(continued)LarsPChristensenFIGUREProtopanaxatrioltypeginsenosides(Continued)NoGinsenosidesRRRRFloralginsenosideN–H–Glc–Rha–H–Glc–Ara(p)FloralginsenosideP–Glc–Glc–H–H–Glc–Ara(p)(S)protopanaxatriol((S)PPT,R=R=R=R=H)ROROORROSNoGinsenosidesRRRRFloralquinquenosideE–H–Glc–Rha–H–Glc–XylNotoginsenosideM**–H–Glc–Glc–H–GlcNotoginsenosideN–H–Glc–Glc–H–GlcNotoginsenosideR–H–Glc–Xyl–H–GlcNotoginsenosideR–H–Glc–Xyl–H–HNotoginsenosideR–H–Glc–H–Glc–GlcNotoginsenosideR–H–Glc–H–Glc–aGlcNotoginsenosideU–H–H–H–Glc–GlcKoryoginsenosideR–H–Glc–(E)Butenoyl–H–GlcPseudoginsenosideRS–H–Glc–Rha|Ac–H–GlcPseudoginsenosideRT–H–Xyl–H–HVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Glc–H–H–Glc*GinsenosideisolatedfromtherootsofPanaxvietnamensisandnamedginsenosideRhbyTranetal()shouldnotbeconfusedwithginsenosideRh()isolatedfromtheleavesofPginseng(DeQuiangetal,)**ThenamenotoginsenosideMhasbeenusedforbothginsenoside(Yoshikawaetal,)andforginsenoside(Maetal,)GinsenosidesFIGUREProtopanaxatrioltypeginsenosides(Continued)HOHOOHORRNoGinsenosidesRGinsenoside(R)–Rg–Glc–RhaGinsenoside(R)–Rh–GlcROROROOHORSNoGinsenosidesRRRRChikusetsusaponinLa–H–H–Glc–HMajorosideF–Glc–Glc–Rha–H–GlcNotoginsenosideH–H–Glc–Xyl–H–GlcNotoginsenosideM–H–Glc–H–GlcLarsPChristensenFIGUREProtopanaxatrioltypeginsenosides(Continued)ROROHOOOHORSNoGinsenosidesRRRGinsenosideRh–H–H–GlcFloralginsenosideB–H–Glc–GlcFloralginsenosideD–Glc–H–Glc–Ara(f)FloralginsenosideI–H–Glc–Rha–GlcFloralginsenosideK–Glc–Glc–H–GlcFloralquinquenosideA–H–Glc–HFloralquinquenosideC–H–Glc–Rha–H(R)dammaraneb,a,b,,pentol(OHPPT,)HOHOOHOHOHRGinsenosidesFIGUREProtopanaxatrioltypeginsenosides(Continued)RROROSHOORNoGinsenosidesRRRRChikusetsusaponinLbc–H–Glc–H–OHFloralginsenosideA–Glc–H–Glc–OOHFloralginsenosideC–H–H–Glc–Ara(p)–OOHFloralginsenosideJ–Glc–Rha–H–Glc–OOHFloralginsenosideLa–Glc–Rha–H–Glc–aOHor–bOHFloralginsenosideLb–Glc–Rha–H–Glc–aOHor–bOHFloralquinquenosideB–Glc–Rha–H–H–OOHGinsenosideMcd–H–H–Glc–OHNotopanaxosideA–Glc–H–H–OHVinaginsenosideR()OHOGlcOSHOOGlcLarsPChristensenFIGUREProtopanaxatrioltypeginsenosides(Continued)HOROOHOHHOORSNoGinsenosidesRGinsenosideRg–Glc–RhaGinsenosideRk–GlcGinsenosideRs–Glc–AcOROHHONoGinsenosidesRGinsenosideRh–GlcGinsenosideRs–Glc–AcGinsenosideF–Glc–RhaHOOHOGlcOHGinsenosideRh()FIGUREProtopanaxatrioltypeginsenosides(Continued)HOROOHOHHOORSNoGinsenosidesRRNotoginsenosideJ–Glc–GlcQuinquenosideL–Glc–Rha–HVinaginsenosideR–Glc–HHOOOHOGlcHGinsenosideRh()OGlcOHOOHGinsenosideRh()FIGUREOcotilloltypeginsenosidesHOOHOROCH−RHOSS(S)Ocotillol(R=R=H)NoGinsenosidesRR(S)–MajonosideR–Glc–Glc–H(S)–MajonosideR–Glc–Xyl–HProtopanaxatrioloxideII–H–H(S)–PseudoginsenosideF–Glc–Rha–H(S)–PseudoginsenosideRT–Glc–HVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Rha|Ac–HVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Xyl|Ac–HVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Xyl–aGlc–HVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Xyl|aGlc–HVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Xyl–OHGinsenosidesFIGUREOcotilloltypeginsenosides(Continued)(R)Ocotillol(R=H)HOOROHHOOSRNoGinsenosidesR(R)–MajonosideR–Glc–Glc(R)–MajonosideR(¼(R)–PseudoginsenosideRT)–Glc–Xyl(R)–PseudoginsenosideF–Glc–Rha(R)–PseudoginsenosideRT–Glc(R)–VinaginsenosideR–Glc–Rha|AcOOROORROOOROOROleanolicacidOβglucuronide(R=R=R=R=R=H)OleanolicacidtypeginsenosidesLarsPChristensenNoGinsenosidesRRRRRGinsenosideRo(¼ChikusetsusaponinV)–Glc–H–H–H–GlcGinsenosideRomethylester–Glc–H–H–CH–GlcGinsenosideROA–Glc–H–H–H–Glc–GlcChikusetsusaponinlb–H–H–Ara(f)–Glc–HChikusetsusaponinIV–H–H–Ara(f)–H–GlcChikusetsusaponinIVa–H–H–H–H–GlcHemslosideMa–Glc–Ara(p)–H–H–GlcPseudoginsenosideRP–Xyl–H–H–H–HPseudoginsenosideRT–Xyl–H–H–H–GlcZingibrosideR–Glc–H–H–H–HOOHOOOHOHCOHOHHOOHPolyacetyleneginsenosideRo()OOOHOHOGlcOGinsenosidesHOHOORORS(S)panaxatriol((S)PT,R=R=H)PanaxatrioltypeginsenosidesNoGinsenosidesRRVinaginsenosideR–Glc–OHVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Xyl–OHROROS(S)dammarenediol(R=R=H)DammarenedioltypeginsenosidesNoGinsenosidesRRNotoginsenosideI–Glc–Glc–Glc–GlcVinaginsenosideR–Glc–Glc–GlcYesanchinosideI–Glc–Glc–Glc–Glc–XylHOOHHO−Glc−RhaHOOGinsenosideRg()MiscellaneoustypeginsenosidesHROOHGinsenosidesThefactthatginsengisaverypopularphytomedicineusedallaroundtheworld,ahugequantityofworkhasbeencarriedoutduringthelast–yearsinordertodevelopanalyticalmethodsfortheidentification,NoGinsenosidesRRGinsenosideRh–H–GlcNotoginsenosideG–Glc–Glc–GlcQuinquenosideIV–Glc–Glc–Glc–GlcYesanchinosideG–Glc–Glc–Glc–XylFIGUREGinsenosidesisolatedfromfreshandorprocessedginsengmaterial(roots,leaves,fruits,flowerbuds),includingmedicinalpreparationsbasedonplantmaterialfromginsengspeciesAra(p)¼aLarabinopyranosylAra(f)¼aLarabinofuranosylGlc¼bDglucopyranosylRha¼aLrhamnopyranosylXyl¼bDxylopyranos

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综述:人参皂苷最新研究进展

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