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Fast Torque Control System of PMSM.pdf

Fast Torque Control System of P…

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简介:本文档为《Fast Torque Control System of PMSMpdf》,可适用于电子通讯领域,主题内容包含FastTorqueControlSystemofPMSMbasedonModelPredictiveControlYuyaHozumi,Shinj符等。

FastTorqueControlSystemofPMSMbasedonModelPredictiveControlYuyaHozumi,ShinjiDokiandShigeruOkumaDepartmentofElectricalEngineeringandComputerScienceNagoyaUniversity,Aichi,JapanTelephone:Fax:Email:hozuminagoyaujp,dokinagoyaujp,okumanagoyaujpAbstractThispaperdescribesafasttorquecontrolsystemofpermanentmagnetsynchronousmotor(PMSM)basedonmodelpredictivecontrol(MPC)ThistorquecontrollerselectsdirectlyoneofthevoltagevectorofvoltagesourcePWMinverterconsideringvoltagesaturationexplicitlyToobtainthefasttorqueresponseatthetransientstateandthestablecurrentresponseatthesteadystate,theproblemwithselectingthevoltagevectortooutputisformulatedbasedonMPCInthispaper,realtimeimplementationmethodusingalookuptable,whichisdesignedbeforehand,isdiscussedandtheexperimentalresultsareshownIINTRODUCTIONPermanentMagnetSynchronousMotor(PMSM)hasbeenusedinawidefieldbecauseofhighefficiencyandhighpowerpervolumeandweightRecently,PMSMisappliedtotractiondriveforelectricvehiclesandrailwayvehiclesIntheseapplications,afasttorqueresponseathighspeedregionisimportantHowever,largebackEMFisgeneratedbypermanentmagnetathighspeedregionAndalso,controllermakesmorehighervoltagereferencetoobtainafasttorqueresponseOntheotherhand,inverterhasavoltagelimiterdependingonaDClinkvoltageEvenifcontrollergeneratesalargevoltagereference,invertercan’toutputthesamevoltageasthereferenceInaword,voltagesaturationoccursAsaresult,currentandtorqueresponsegetsworseWhenthevoltagesaturationoccurs,voltagelimitermethodsdominateacurrentresponse,whichalsodoesatorqueresponseInthecaseofinteriorpermanentmagnetsynchronousmotor(IPMSM),however,improvementofcurrentresponsedoesnotguaranteeoneoftorqueresponseTherefore,proposedvoltagelimitershaverestrictiveperformance,orneedcontrollerswitchingforcompatibilityToovercometheseproblems,weproposeanewtorquecontrolsystembeingabletoobtainthefasttorqueresponseatthetransientstateandthestablecurrentresponseatthesteadystateconsideringthevariousconstraintontheinverterexplicitlyProposedcontrollerdirectlyselectsaswitchingmodeoftheinverterbyusingModelPredictiveControl(MPC)ItmaybesimilartoDirectTorqueControl(DTC)Tobeprecise,ourproposedmethodcanbeasupersetofDTC,whichmeansthatitisabletocontrolnotonlytorquebutalsocurrentsandswitchingfreqencyexplicitly,withpredictionoffuturecurrentandtorquebehaviorbyusingtheinverterswitchingmodeandmathematicalmodelofPMSMInthispaper,theproposedMPCtorquecontrolsystemanditsrealtimeimplementationmethodsusingalookuptable,whichdesignedbeforehand,arediscussedandtheexperimentalresultsareshownIITORQUECONTROLSYSTEMBASEDONMPCOurproposedtorquecontrolsystembasedonMPCisshowninFigCurrentreferencegeneratorconsistsofMaximumTorqueperAmpere(MTPA)Control,FluxWeakeningControl,andsoonInthisfollowingsection,theMPCcontrollerinFigisdescribedInputVoltageMPCControllerPMSMvVSwitchingModeMathematicalModelofPMSMCurrentInverterCurrentReferenceuvwdqRotorPositionθ,SpeedωPositionSensor*dqiDCVdqiDClinkVoltageuvwiCurrentReferenceGeneratorTorqueReference*TFigTorquecontorlsystembasedonMPCAVoltagelimitandMPCcontrollerInitially,voltagelimitshouldbediscussedVoltagereferencevectorforinvertergeneratedbytheuppercontroller(egPIcurrentcontroller)mustbelimitedinthevoltagethatinverterisabletooutputInthislimitationofthevoltagevector,thereisaredundancyofnotonlythelimitationofnormbutalsovoltagephasecontrolInageneralvectorcontrolsystem,somelimitationmethods,suchasfixedvoltagephasemethodandfixeddaxisvoltagemethod,areproposedHowever,itisdifficulttodesignavoltagelimiterasthelimiterinfluencescontrolperformancedesignedbytheuppercontrollerOntheotherhand,MPCcontrollerdirectlygeneratesoneofeightvoltagevectorsdecidebylimitedDClinkvoltageandcombinationsofswitchofeachphase(Fig,Fig)ThenMPCcontrollersearchsandselectsasuitablevoltagevectorfromamongeightvoltagevectorsbasedonareferenceofuppercontrollerorcontrolerrorAsaresult,thevoltagelimiterisnaturallyachievedIEEEPreprintofIECONProceedingsDCVDCVphasephasephaseuwuvvvwvvNeutralpoint+-FigVoltagesourcePWMinverterphaseuwvVVVV,VVVVphasephaseFigOutputvoltagevectoroftheinverterBSelectionofvoltagevectorbasedonMPCMPCcontrollerpredictscurrentbehaviorandtorquebehaviorbyusingamathematicalmodelofPMSMAndthen,itselectsavoltagevectorthattheinverteroutputsbasedonpredictionresultsThestateequationofPMSMisgivenasfollows:iAiBve()whereiandvaretheaxisvectorswhichdenotethestatorcurrentsandthestatorvoltagesistheelectricrotorspeedistheresistanceofastatorwinding,,aretheaxisandaxisinductancesofastatorwinding,andisthepermanentmagnetfluxThediscretetimestateequationof()(withsamplingtime)isgivenasfollows:iAAiABBvAee()ThevariableisthediscretetimeinstantandpointsthepresenttimeMPCcontrollerpredictsthecurrentresponseandthetorqueresponsebyusingtheequation()AconcreteprocessofselectionisshownasfollowsFirst,thefinitetimeperiodfromto(isfinitepositiveinteger)isdefinedasthepredictionperiodasshowninFigNext,thefinitesequenceoftheinvertervoltagevectorsVtoVinthepredictionperiodVisshownasfollows:VVVV()VVVCurrent(Torque)ReferenceVVVVVVVSelectedvoltagevectorsequenceVoltagevectorsequenceforpredictionPredictionperiodSamplingtimePredictedbehaviorTimePresenttime(n=)BehaviorofthepastFigPredictionofthecurrent(torque)behaviorThesuperscriptdenotesthatVisthsequenceofallpossiblesequencesThecoordinatetransformationusingtherotorpositioneventuallyyieldsthevoltagevectorsequenceinaxisvvvThen,assumingthattherotorspeedisconstantinthepredictionperiod,whichindicatesA,Bandein()areconstants,theequation()andthevoltagesequenceyieldthesequenceofthepredictedcurrentbehaviorinthepredictionperiodIasfollows:Iiii()Forthecurrentlimitercalculation,ifthecalculatediislargerthanthemaximumcurrent,thenvinthatcasewillberejectedIfthepredictedcurrentbehaviorcanbeobtainedlike(),thetorquebehaviorinthefuturecanbepredictedInthispaper,torqueequationisasfollows:()whereisnumberofpolepairsFinally,theevaluationfunction(forexample,theequation())iscalculatedfromthepredictedcurrentsequenceiandtorquesequenceandthecurrentreferenceiandtorquereferenceInaddition,,andindicatetheweightsofeachterm()IEEEPreprintofIECONProceedingsThepredictionandtheevaluationmentionedabovearedonetoallpossiblevoltagesequencesIfthsequences,VandI,minimizethevalueoftheobjectivefunction,MPCcontrollerselectstheswitchingmodecorrespondingtoV()(VtoV)asoptimaloutputThisprocessisrepeatedateverysamplingtimeCDesignofweightintheevaluationfunctionAnexampleofevaluationfunctionwhichwasproposedintheequation()includesthreedesignparameters(,,)ThesedesignparametersdecideacharacteristicsoftorqueandcurrentcontrolForinstance,settingweightfor,axiscurrenterror,tozerogivesprioritytotorquecontrolandabandonscurrentcontrolThereforefasttorqueresoponseatthetransientstateisachievedandsteadystateerrorsof,axiscurrentgetworsebecausetheyarenotcontrolledItmakescopperlossincreaseatthesteadystategreatlyOntheotherhand,settingweightfortorqueerrortozerogivespriorityto,axiscurrentcontrolAsaresult,torqueresponsedependson,axiscurrentreferenceItis,however,difficulttocalculatecurrentreferencetoattainafastesttorqueresponseanalytically,becauseitisnecessarytoconsidervariousnonlinearfactorscausedbycurrentsandvoltageslimitationandovermodulatedoperationofinverterInthispaper,toobtainafasttorqueresponseatthetransientstateandstablecurrentresponseatsteadystateforthesalientpolepermanentmagnetsynchronousmotor,theweightsareproposedasfollows:()First,theweightofaxiscurrentisdiscussedThereferenceliteraturedescribesthatthefasttorqueresponseisobtainedwhenanegativeaxiscurrentisappliedgreatlytousethereluctancetorqueeffectivelyInfact,atthetorquetransientstate,theaxiscurrentshouldbequitedifferentfromreferencecurrentinsteadystate,suchastheMTPAcondition,forfasttorqueresponseAnd,inthesteadystate,ifthetorqueandtheaxiscurrentfollowinthereference,thetorqueequation()makestheaxiscurrentfollowthereferenceautomaticallyAccordingtotheabovementionedtwofacts,itisnotnecessarytocontrolexplicitlyaxiscurrentwhetheratthetransientstateoratthesteadystateAsaresult,theweightofaxiscurrentissetaszeroNext,theweightoftorqueandtheweightsofaxiscurrentarediscussedWeightsshouldbesetasequation()byconsideringthesteadystatewhereisacoefficientthatconvertstheaxiscurrentintothetorqueAsaresult,thetorqueandaxiscurrentcanbeevenlycontrolledinthedimensionoftorqueInaddition,theweightofthetorqueismadetoincreasewhenthedifferencebetweenthepredictedtorqueandthetorquereferenceislarge,toobtainafasttorqueresponseFinally,theweightsareproposedasequation()()ThereferenceliteraturedealswithanotherapproachoftheMPCThismethodusestheapproximationandparametersobtainedempirically,therefore,itcan’tapplytootherPMSMsbecauseitisdesignedforaparticularPMSMOntheotherhand,ourproposedmethodcanapplytoallofsalientpolepermanentmagnetsynchronousmotorsIIIIMPLEMENTATIONOFMPCCONTROLLERMPCcontrollerselectsvoltagevectorastheresultofpredictingcurrentandtorquebehaviorandevaluatingbyevaluationfunctionateverysamplingtimeHowever,itishardtopredictcurrentandtorquebehaviorandcalculateevaluationfunctioninsuchashorttimewithacurrentembeddedprocessorperformanceInordertosolvetheproblem,thevoltagevectorsarestoredinthelookuptablebeforehand,andselectedbyreferringitineverycontrolperiodThelookuptableisdesignedbeforehandbyusingsimulationresultsatalltheassumedoperatingpointsThistableisconfiguredonthemultidimensionalstatespacethatconsistsofrotorspeed,rotorposition,axiscurrents,axiscurrentreferences,andsoonTheprocessofdesigningthistableisshownasfollowsFirst,operatingrangeofPMSMisdecidedfromthespecifications,forexamplemaximumrotorspeedandmaximumcurrentNext,rotorspeedandaxiscurrentofoperatingrangearequantizedfromcontinuousquantitiestodiscretequantitiesThedomainofdefinitionisgivenbythespecificationsmentionedabove,andthewidthofdivisionaredecidedbythepilotsimulationbeforehandFinally,bypredictingthestates(currentandtorque)andevaluatingthefunctionateachoperatingpoint,theinverteroutputvoltagevectorisselectedandstoredinthemultidimensionallookuptableForexample,twodemensionalsubspaceofthelookuptableisshowninFigWhereandareaxisandaxiscurrenterrorsThen,thevoltagevectorisselectedbyreferringtothetablewithsensedstatesineverycontrolperiodAsaresult,thecostofthecalculationcanbegreatlydecreased,andrealtimeimplementationofMPCcontrollerbecomespossibleIEEEPreprintofIECONProceedingsVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVΔiqΔidmax(Δiq)max(Δid)min(Δiq)min(Δid)FigTwodimensionalsubspaceofalookuptable(Oneexampleofalookuptable)IVEXPERIMENTALVERIFICATIONInthissection,weshowtheperformanceofproposedtorquecontrolsysteminexperimentExperimentsystemisshowninFigDSPisTMSCmadebytheTexasInstruments,IncAExperimentalconditionThisexperimentverifiestorqueresponseandaxiscurrentresponseundertheconditionthatademandedoperatingpointofPMSMtransfersfromNmtoNmRotorspeedissettoberpmconstant,becausewewanttocomparethetorqueresponseTheblockdiagramoftheexperimentisshowninFigTheMTPAcontrolisemployedinthecurrentreferencegeneratorTopreventthedegauss,theaxiscurrentlimiterissettoATheparametersofPMSMandtheinverterareshowninTABLEITheconfigurationparametersofproposedcontrollerareshowninTABLEIIAndparametersoflookuptablefortheMPCcontrollerareshowninTABLEIIIToevaluateourMPCcontroller,theperformanceiscomparedwithoneofconventionaltorquecontrolsystemwhichconsistsofMTPAandPIcurrentcontrollerwithfixedaxisvoltagemethodasvoltagelimiterandintegrationstopmethodasantiwindupTheconfigurationparametersofPIcurrentcontrollerareshowninTABLEIVLoadPositionSensorPMSMDSPInverterDCPowerSupplyRotorPosition,RotorSpeedGateSignalStatorCurrentFigBlockdiagramofexperimentalinstrumentTABLEIPARAMETERSOFPMSMANDINVERTERRatedpowerkWRatedcurrentARatedspeedrpmResistance(R)Inductance(axis)mHInductance(axis)mHEMFconstantV(rads)RotorinertiakgmNumberofpolepairs(p)DClinkvoltageVTABLEIIPARAMETERSOFPROPOSEDCONTROLLERControlperiodsPredictiontimesBExperimentalresultTheexperimentalresultsoftorqueresponseandaxiscurrentresponseinproposedtorquecontrolsystembasedonMPCareshowninFig,FigAndtheresultsintheconventionaltorquecontrolsystemwithPIcurrentcontrollerareshowninFig,FigFirst,comparisonofFigandFigshowsthatbothtransientresponseandsteadystateerroroftorqueareimprovedbyusingMPCcontrollerTT*TimemsTorqueNmFigExperimentalResult:TorqueresponsebyproposedMPCcontrolleridid*iqiq*Current(d)ACurrent(q)ATimemsTimemsFigExperimentalResult:axiscurrentresponsebyMPCcontrollerIEEEPreprintofIECONProceedingsTABLEIIIPARAMETERSOFLOOKUPTABLEstateminmaxnumberofdivisionsAAAAdegdegTABLEIVPARAMETERSOFPICURRENTCONTROLLERControlperiodsPIGainofcurrentcontrollerradsInvertercarrierfrequencykHzNext,FigandFigshowaxisandaxiscurrentresponseofeachcontrollerProposedMPCcontrollergeneratesnegativelargeaxiscurrentattransientoftorqueItmakesproposedMPCtorquecontrolsystempossibletoincreasereluctancetorquetogetfasttorqueresponseInaddition,itisunderstoodthatthecurrentlimiterfunctionsproperlyfromaxiscurrentresponseAndsteadystatecurrentshowninFigiskeptstable,thoughaxiscurrentisnotcontrolleddirectlyinourproposedsystemTheseresultsshowthatproposedMPCtorquecontrollerhasfastertorqueresponseandmorestablesteadycurrentresponsecompossiblewithoutanyswitchofcontrolstrategythanconventionaltorquecontrollerTT*TimemsTorqueNmFigExperimentalResult:TorqueresponsebyPIcurrentcontrolleridid*iqiq*Current(d)ACurrent(q)ATimemsTimemsFigExperimentalResult:axiscurrentresponsebyPIcurrentcontrollerVCONCLUSIONThispaperproposedthefasttorquecontrolsystembasedonModelPredictiveControlAndtheevaluationfunctionforMPCcontroller,whichcanrealizeafasttorqueresponseatthetransientstateandastablecurrentresponseatthesteadystatewithoutanyswitchofcontrolstrategywasdiscussedMoreover,itsrealtimeimplementationmethodsusingalookuptable,whichdesignedbeforehand,wasshownGoodperformanceofproposedMPCtorquecontrolsystemwasshownbyexperimentalresultscomparedwithconventionaltorquecontrolsystemREFERENCESHNakai,HOhtani,ESatoh,YInaguma,”DevelopmentandTestingoftheTorqueControlforthePermanentMagnetSynchronousMotor”,IEEETransIndustrialElectronics,Vol,No,June,,ppGPugsley,”ElectricMotorSpecificationsandSizingforHybridElectricVehicles”,AutomotivePowerElectronics,SMorimoto,MSanada,YTakeda,”WideSpeedOperationofInteriorPermanentMagnetSynchronousMotorswithHighPerformanceCurrentRegulator”,IEEETransIndustryApplications,Vol,No,ppSLerdudomsak,MKadota,SDoki,SOkuma,”NovelTechniquesforFastTorqueResponseofIPMSMBasedonSpac

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