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210467

风吹 2014-03-25 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《210467pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含State‐SocietyRelationsandtheDiscoursesandActivitiesoftheBejingStudentMovem符等。

State‐SocietyRelationsandtheDiscoursesandActivitiesoftheBejingStudentMovementAuthor(s):DingxinZhaoSource:AmericanJournalofSociology,Vol,No(May),ppPublishedby:TheUniversityofChicagoPressStableURL:http:wwwjstororgstableAccessed::YouruseoftheJSTORarchiveindicatesyouracceptanceoftheTermsConditionsofUse,availableathttp:wwwjstororgpageinfoaboutpoliciestermsjspJSTORisanotforprofitservicethathelpsscholars,researchers,andstudentsdiscover,use,andbuilduponawiderangeofcontentinatrusteddigitalarchiveWeuseinformationtechnologyandtoolstoincreaseproductivityandfacilitatenewformsofscholarshipFormoreinformationaboutJSTOR,pleasecontactsupportjstororgTheUniversityofChicagoPressiscollaboratingwithJSTORtodigitize,preserveandextendaccesstoAmericanJournalofSociologyhttp:wwwjstororgThiscontentdownloadedfromonThu,Mar::AMAllusesubjecttoJSTORTermsandConditionsStateSocietyRelationsandtheDiscoursesandActivitiesoftheBeijingStudentMovementDingxinZhaoUniversityofChicagoManywritingsemphasizetheimportanceofChineseculturetotheBeijingStudentMovementComparingthemovementtotheMaythmovementofandtotheDecemberthmovementof–,thisstudyfindstherhetoricandactivitypatternsofthemovementtobeactuallymoretraditionalthanthoseofitsforerunnersThisisquiteaparadox,consideringthescaleofsocialchangeinChinaduringthethcenturyThisarticlearguesthatthemovement’straditionalistoutlookcanbeexplainedbythreestructuralconditions,allinvolvingstatesocietyrelationsIncomparisonwiththestatesoftheearliermovements,thestateduringtheshadahighercapacityforrepressionToavoidimmediaterepression,studentstendedtohidetheirrealdemandsandgoalsbehindsaferandculturallycongenialformsofactionSecond,ChinaintheshadcomparativelyweakerindependentcivilorganizationsHence,themovementwaspoorlyorganized,andcompetingactivitiesfrequentlyoccurredinthesametimeandlocationWhatdeterminedtheefficacyoftheseactivitiesthenwerelesstheactors’intentionsthantheperceptionofthosewhowereobservingthemovementThisstudyarguesthatpeople’sacceptanceofparticularmovementactivitiesisshapedbytheirperceptionofstatelegitimationDuringthes,mostChinesesawthatthestate’slegitimacylayinitsmoralperformance,closetowhatwasintraditionalChinaTherefore,peopleweremorereceptivetoculturallyandmorallychargedmovementactivitiesThisfurtheredthedominationoftraditionalismduringthemovementBecauseofitsscale,duration,tragicending,andimpactoncurrentChinesepolitics,theBeijingStudentMovement(BSM)attractsagreatdealofscholarlyattentionTodate,scholarshavetriedtoexplaintheTheauthorwouldliketothankWilliamParish,RogerGould,MayerNZald,JohnAHall,QinChen,SamuelBaker,HarrisKim,andJenniferPashupfortheirhelpfulcommentsThisresearchwassupportedbytheJDavidGreenstoneMemorialFundDirectallcorrespondencetoDingxinZhao,DepartmentofSociology,UniversityofChicago,Chicago,IllinoisEmail:dzhaomailhubsrcuchicagoeduªbyTheUniversityofChicagoAllrightsreserved$AJSVolumeNumber(May):–ThiscontentdownloadedfromonThu,Mar::AMAllusesubjecttoJSTORTermsandConditionsBeijingStudentMovementcausesofthemovementanditsdevelopmentbytracingsuchfactorsastheriseofcivilsociety(BurnsHuanStrandSullivan),thelackofcivilsociety(Zhou),thepoliticalopportunitiesprovidedbyfactionalismamongtopleaders(ChengDittmerKristofNathanTsao),theinfluenceofinternationalmedia(HeandZhu),theimportanceofecologybasedmobilization(Zhao),andthedeclineofstudentcontrolsystemsinChineseuniversitiesduringthes(RosenZhao)Thepreponderanceofwritingsonthetopic,however,emphasizestheimportanceofChineseculture(andtheaccompanyingemotionalelements)tothemovement(WasserstromandPerry)Duringthemovement,studentsoftensetpicketlinestopreventotherelementsoftheBeijingpopulationfromjoiningtheirdemonstrationsThistypeofactivityisinterpretedasreflectingasenseofelitism,asentimentdeeplyrootedinChineseintellectualcultureItisalsoconsideredtobeanimportantfactorcontributingtothefailureofthemovement(ChanandUngerMaCartneyPerryandFuller)Studentstendedtomarchtogetherbyschool,class,andoftenmajorCalhoun()arguesthatthismanifestedChineseculturalvaluesofsolidarity,loyalty,andfriendshipItisafactthatconflictsbetweenstudentsandthegovernmenthadcontinuouslyescalateduntilthemilitarycrackdownAccordingtoPye(),thiswasbecauseChineseculturalsanctionsonselfinterestedbehaviorledstudents(andthegovernment)toattacktheotherpartywithlofty,symbolic,andmoralisticrhetoricandactivitiesSincebattlesofmoralityandshameoftenhaveapositivefeedbacknature,suchinteractionsportendedabloodyendingAllinall,formanyculturalscholars,themovementwasa“streettheatre”withChineseculturesupplyingthe“scripts”(EsherickandWasserstromWasserstrom)Obviously,thistypeofanalysishasweaknesses(Mann,chapMcAdam,Tarrow,TillyTarrow)Logically,toattributeculturalmanifestationstoculturecourtstautologyEmpirically,suchanalysistendstooveremphasizeculturalstabilityandtoassumethattherelationshipbetweencultureandbehaviorisdeterministicItusuallyfailstoexplainquestionssuchasWhydowavesofmovementsemergeinsomeperiodsandnotinothers,andwhyaresomemoreadeptatmanipulatingculturalsymbolsthanothersIndeed,mostoftheseworkstellstoriesinwhichcultureonlyfunctionsasa“metanarrative”(Tarrow,pp–)Thisresearchtraditionisinfluencedbydiscourseanalysis(JabriSteinbergTerdiman),thatofpoststructuralists(eg,Derrida,Foucault,)aswellasinterpretativeanthropologists(Geertz,)ManynewgenerationFrenchRevolutionscholarsalsofollowthistradition(BakerFuretHuntSewell)ThiscontentdownloadedfromonThu,Mar::AMAllusesubjecttoJSTORTermsandConditionsAmericanJournalofSociologyTheculturalperspectiveoftenfailstoexplainareasonableamountofvariationoftheBSMLetmeprovidetwoexamplesInthebeginningoftheBSM,moststudentsactedverycautiouslyHowever,byearlyJune,manywereriskingtheirlivestoresistthemilitaryrepressionCalhoun(,)arguesthatthestudentsbecamebraverbecausetheybecameincreasinglycommittedtoaculturallyembeddedidentityduringtheirmovementparticipationYet,asamatteroffact,bytheendofMay,mostBeijingstudentswereverytiredandwenthometheTiananmenSquareoccupationwassustainedbystudentswhowerecontinuouslyarrivinginBeijingfromotherprovincesaftermidMaySinceidentitycannotbeborrowedfromsomeoneelse,wecannotattributestudents’braveryduringthemilitaryrepressiontoaninternalidentitytransformationFollowingthelogicthatbattlesofmoralityandshamewouldonlyescalateconfrontations,Pye()predictedthat,aftertherepression,thegovernmentwouldtakesevererevengeonstudentsandreformersandthatChina’sreformwouldbestoppedYet,Chinesepoliticsintheswasnotgovernedbyadesireforrevenge,asPyepredicted,andChina’seconomicreformcontinuesAlthoughculturalanalysisismechanical,manyofitsobservationsarenotwithoutfoundationPeoplecanbemobilizedbyculturalsymbolsandnormsaswellasbymaterialinterestsSocialmovementsandrevolutionsallhaveimportantdiscursivedimensions(HuntJabriSewellSteinberg)Empirically,itisundeniablethatthelanguagesandactivitiesthatstudentsusedduringtheBSMweredeeplyrootedinChinesecultureandhadasignificantimpactonthemovementThechallengeishowtoanalyzethisimpactinacausalmannerSincecomparisonistheessentialmethodoffalsificationintheempiricalsciences,IcomparedthemovementrhetoricandactivitiesoftheBSMwiththoseoftheMaythmovementofandtheDecemberthmovementof–theothertwolargestudentmovementsinChinesehistoryMyinitialhypothesiswasthatifthepatternsofasocialmovementaredeterminedbyculture,theBSMshouldappearlesstraditionalthantheearliermovements,sinceChineseculturehasbecomesignificantlymoremodernduringthethcenturyTomysurprise,IfoundthattherhetoricandactivitypatternsoftheBSMwereactuallytruertotraditionalChineseculturethanthoseofthetwoearlierstudentmovementsForinstance,duringtheBSM,BeijingstudentstriedtoexcludeBeijingworkersfromparticipatinginthemovement,anactionthat,ashasbeensuggested(ChanandUngerMaCartneyPerryandFuller),wasmotivatedbyatraditionalsenseofelitestatusIncontrast,duringtheMaythmovement,studentspraisedworkersassacred(laogongshensheng),triedtoearntheirownlivingthroughlabor(bangongbandu),andmobilizedworkersandThiscontentdownloadedfromonThu,Mar::AMAllusesubjecttoJSTORTermsandConditionsBeijingStudentMovementmerchantstoformabroadcoalitionDuringtheDecemberthmovement,studentslaunchedaruralcrusadetothesouthtomobilizeChina’speasantryintoanantiJapanesecoalitionThesefindingsposedapuzzlethatpushedmetoconsiderotherdifferencesbehindthethreestudentmovementsIfoundthattheBSMwasdevelopedunderdifferent“statesocietyrelations”thanhadexistedduringthetwoearlierstudentmovementsUnliketheerasoftheearliermovements,thesfoundChinawithaunitarystate,weakindependentorganizations,andstatelegitimacybasedonmoralandeconomicperformanceMymajorargumentisthatbecausethisunitarystatehadallowedstateauthoritarianismtopenetratedeeplyintosociety,studentsintheshadastrongerfearofrepressionthanstudentsduringtheearliermovementsSomeculturallyinterpretablepatternsofmovementactivities,suchasthepicketlines,werestrategiesintendedtoavoidimmediaterepressionMoreover,becauseoftheweaknessofassociationallife,manyactivitiesduringtheBSMwereinitiatedbyindividualsorasmallgroupofstudentswithoutpreplanning,withmultipleactivitiesoftenoccurringsimultaneouslyinagiventimeandspaceTheseactivitiesmightberootedinChineseculture,inacommuniststyleofmobilization,orinWesterninfluencespeoplealsoactedfromanynumberofmotivesThesimultaneousoccurrenceofseveralactivitiesinthesamelocationmadethepsychologyofsympatheticbystandersanimportantfactorinshapingthepatternsofthemovementOneofthecentralargumentsofthisarticleisthatpeople’sviewsontheproperbehaviorofmovementactivistsandthegovernmentwereshapedbytheirunderstandingofstatelegitimationDuringthelates,thenotionsofmosturbanChineseofwhatlegitimatesastatehadchangedfromcommunistideologytomoralperformance,anotionmoreinaccordancewiththeideasfoundinanearlier,moretraditionalChinaThosewhowatchedthemovementwerethusmorereceptivetoculturallyandmorallychargedrhetoricandactivitiesandbecameveryemotionalwhenthestatereactedharshlytomorallychargedactsThisfurtherintensifiedthetraditionalismexpressedduringtheBSMTHESTATESOCIETYRELATIONANDITSESSENTIALDIMENSIONSThephrases“stateandsociety”and“statesocietyrelations”existedonlymarginallyinsociologybeforethes(eg,BendixBlellochMorley,chap)Backthen,thedominanttheoriesandresearchagendasinsociologywerelargelysocietycentered(Skocpol)“statesocietyrelations”wasmoreacasualphrasethanatheoreticalframeworkSeeIsrael(,pp–)formoredetailsabouttheeventThiscontentdownloadedfromonThu,Mar::AMAllusesubjecttoJSTORTermsandConditionsAmericanJournalofSociologyThesituationchangedbetweenthelatesandthesOneofthepioneeringworkswasSkocpol’s()classicstudyontheroleofthestateingreatsocialrevolutionsSkocpol(,p)treatsthestate“asanautonomousstructureastructurewithalogicandinterestsofitsownnotnecessarilyequivalentto,orfusedwith,theinterestsofthedominantclassinsocietyorthefullsetofmembergroupsinthepolity”Sincethen,statecenteredresearchhasblossomednotonlyinthestudyofsocialrevolutions(ForanGoodwinGoodwinandSkocpolMcDaniel,WickhamCrowley)butalsoinstudiesofothertypesofcontentiouspolitics,suchasworkingclassmovements(KatznelsonandZolbergLipsetMann,chaps–Marks)andcontemporarysocialmovements(JenkinsandKlandermansKitscheltKriesiKriesietal),andineconomicdevelopment(AmsdenEvansGoldHaggardWade)Asthisresearchhasdeveloped,moreandmoresocietalfactorshavebeenbroughtbackintothestatecenteredanalysisIntheareaofeconomicdevelopment,insteadofarguingfora“strongstate,”ZhaoandHall()andEvans()trytocapturetheimportanceofstatesocietylinkagesineconomicdevelopmentwithconceptssuchas“boundedautonomy”or“embeddedautonomy”Inthestudyofsocialrevolutions,scholarsincludingGoldstone()andMcDaniel()emphasizenotonlythestructureandnatureofthestate,butalsofactorssuchaspopulationdensity,economicstructure,andideationalfactorsByfarthelargestamountofrecentresearchfocusingonstatesocietyrelationsconcernsdemocratictransitionandconsolidation(CasperandTaylorChehabiandStepanDiamond,Linz,andLipsetLinzandStepanSchmitterStepan,Weil)Althoughtheirapproachesvary,moststudiesofthistypetreatdemocratizationasaninteractiveprocessbetweenthestateandsociety,examiningfactorssuchasthenatureofthestate,thenatureandstrengthofcivilsociety,andsocioeconomicstructureBythemids,scholarsgenerallyacceptedthatthestateandsocietytransformeachotherthroughaprocesswithoutcomesthatdonotalwaysreflecttheaimsorwillofeither(Migdal,p)Obviously,thestatesocietyrelationperspectiveisintendedtoachieveamorebalancedunderstandingofsomepoliticalprocessesbyapprehendingnotonlythestructureandnatureofthestate,butalsotheinteractionsbetweenthestateandsocietyChinahasthelongestuninterruptedstatetraditioninworldhistorySincethecommuniststookpower,Chinesegovernmenthasinitiatednumeroussocialprogramsaimedatchangingthestate,society,andtheirrelationsEachoftheseprogramshadaprofoundimpactonthepopulationTheGreatLeapForward,theCulturalRevolution,and,toagreatextent,thecurrentreformareonlythebestknownexamplesInfact,forthosewhoknowChina,itisveryhardnottothinkofChinesepoliticsinThiscontentdownloadedfromonThu,Mar::AMAllusesubjecttoJSTORTermsandConditionsBeijingStudentMovementtermsofthestateandofstatesocietyrelationsIimaginethatitisforthisreasonthatmanyChinascholarshaveadoptedapproachesthateitherdirectlyuseorimplytheideaofstatesocietyrelationsInanalyzingtheBSM,Tsou()usestheconceptofstatesocietyrelationsZhou’s()“largenumber”and“unorganizedinterests”conceptsalsocontaintheideaofstatesocietyrelationsInotherresearchareas,Shue()discussesthenatureandlimitsofthestatecapacityofthecommunistgovernment,andWong()theorizesonthegeneralpatternsofstatesocietyrelationsinbothhistoricalandcontemporaryChina,throughacomparisonwiththeEuropeanexperienceBeyondthese,TangandParish’s()recentstudyonsocialchangesduringDeng’sera,Shirk’s()interpretationofthedrivesofChina’seconomicreform,Liu’s()studyonChina’smasspolitics,Zhou’s()workontheroleofChinesefarmersduringtheearlyeconomicreform,andYang’s()researchontheimpactofthegreatfamineonthelaterstatepolicies,tomentionjustafewworkspublishedinthes,haveallconsciouslyorunconsciouslyadoptedastatesocietyrelationperspectiveHowever,ofthisplethoraofstudies,fewfocusontheimpactofstatesocietyrelationsonthediscursiveandsymbolicdimensionsofpoliticalprocessesMoreover,theconceptofstatesocietyrelationsiscapaciousMoststudies,withthenoticeableexceptionofLinzandhisassociates’workondemocratictransitionandconsolidation,haveuseditasageneralconceptunderwhichquiteafewmeaningsareattachedbutnotclearlyspecifiedAlthoughacompleteoperationalizationoftheconceptintoseveralvariablesisneitherpossiblenornecessary,weshouldatleastturnthisgeneralconceptintoapowerfulresearchperspectivebyspecifyingbasicdimensionsthatshouldbeattendedtoinmostresearchTothisend,Isuggestthreeimpurebutnonreducibledimensionsofstatesocietyrelations:thenatureofthestate,thenatureofsociety,andthelinksbetweenthestateandsocietyLateron,Iwilldefineanddiscussthebasicrangeofvariationofeachofthesethreedimensions,withregardtothethreestudentmovementsIamcomparingAfterashortmethodologicalnoteandasectionthatintroducesthethreestudentmovements,therestofthisarticleproceedsasfollowsFirst,IdelineatethepatternsofmovementrhetoricandactivitiesduringtheBSM(thevariationsofdependentfactors)Second,IdefinethethreedimensionsofstatesocietyrelationsthatIusetoexplaintheimportantvariationselaboratedintheprevioussection(theindependentfactors)Third,IdescribethedifferentstatesocietyrelationsbehindtheMayth,theDecemberth,andthemovementsalongthethreeidentifieddimensions(thevariationsofindependentfactors)Finally,IanalyzehowdifferentstatesocietyrelationsshapedmovementrhetoricandactivitiesduringtheBSM(thecausalrelationsbetweenthedependentandindependentThiscontentdownloadedfromonThu,Mar::AMAllusesubjecttoJSTORTermsandConditionsAmericanJournalofSociologyfactors)Forthosenotfamiliarwiththecomparativehistoricalapproach,IhaveindicatedthelogicofeachsectionparentheticallybyquantitativeanalogiesTheseremainjustanalogies,however,becausethestructuraldimensionsthatIhaveadoptedareimpureconstructionsratherthanfullyoperationalizedvariablesandt

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