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首页 *新书上架*感觉、认知和语言

*新书上架*感觉、认知和语言.pdf

*新书上架*感觉、认知和语言

九月虺
2010-02-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*感觉、认知和语言pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PrefaceInspringof,HenryGleitmantaughthisthintroductorypsychologylecturecourseThishappyeventprovidedtheopportunityforHenryandLilaGleitman’sstudentsandcolleaguestoreflectonthecontributionsthetwoofthemhavemadeovertheirdistinguishedcareersSuchreflectionledtoaconvocationinthespringinPhiladelphiatheconvocationledtothewritingoftheseessaysinhonorofHenryandLilaGleitmanTheessayscontainedinthisvolumeareorganizedintothreepartsPartIcontainsanessaybytheeditors,outliningthehistoryofHenryandLila’scareers,bothsinglyandcollaboratively,andtheimpacttheyhavehadonthefieldsofperception,language,andcognitionReaderswhohavenothadthepleasureofknowingHenryandLilamightwanttoknowabitaboutthem,andknowingabitaboutthemwill,perhaps,helpreaderstoappreciatetheessaysthatfollowPartIIcontainsessaysprincipallyaddressingHenry’scontributionsasateacherandscholarTheseessaysareonlyslightlymodifiedversionsoftheaddressespresentedbyHenry’scolleaguesduringthecelebrationofhisthpsychologycourse,andwiththeexceptionofthelastchapterbyLamm,areorganizedchronologicallybythedatesduringwhichthecontributorswerechairsofpsychologyatPennTheyincludeanearlyhistoryofHenry’steachingatSwarthmore,hisinfluenceonthedevelopmentofpsychologyatPenn,andthetrialsandtribulationsaccompanyingthelengthygestationofhisbook,PsychologyPartIIIprincipallycontainsessaysfromformerstudentsofHenryandLila’s,describingtheircurrentresearchanditsoriginsintheGleitman“seminar”(describedinmoredetailintheintroduction)Attestingtothecontinuingimpactoftheseminar,thelasttwoessaysarewrittenbycurrentfacultymembersatPenn,whohavebenefitedfromtheseminarmuchaspastgraduatestudentshaveTheessaysinPartIII,likethoseinPartII,areorganizedchronologically,fromtheearlieststudentstothelatestThislastpartisthelengthiest,butstillreflectsonlysome(bynomeansall)oftheimpactthatHenryandLilahavehadonthefield,throughtheirstudentsWehopethatreadersofthisvolumewilltakeasmuchpleasureinreadingtheseessaysaswe,theircolleagues,havehadinputtingtogetherthiscelebrationxPrefacePartIIntroductionWithinthefieldsofpsychology,linguistics,andcognitivescience,thenamesofHenryandLilaGleitmanarewellknownHowever,astheGleitmanshaveoftensaid,onecantrulyunderstandaparticularcontributiononlywithinitshistoricalcontextWethereforepresentabriefhistoryoftheGleitmans,bothsinglyandcollaboratively,withthehopethatunderstandingthishistorywillenhancethereader’senjoymentoftheremainingcontributionsTheEarlyYearsHenrywasborninLeipzig,Germany,onJanuary,HeandhisfamilycametotheUnitedStatesinAugustof,amongtheverylastJewstoleaveGermanyHenryattendedCityCollegeofNewYorkfromtoThiswastheCityCollegeofnotuitionandveryhighstandards,theCityCollegethatproducedmoreNobelLaureatesthananyotherundergraduateinstitutionintheworldItwastheCityCollegewhereeverythingwashotlydebated,everythingfromworldpoliticstotheadequacyofbehaviorismItwas,inshort,oneofAmerica’sforemosthomesforthedevelopmentofintellectualsHenrytookaBSinpsychologythereHenry’sintroductorypsychologyinstructorwasKennethClarkButthelecturerswhoHenrysaysinfluencedhimmostwereGardnerMurphyinpersonalityandhistoryandsystemsandtheGestaltistMartinSchererinphysiologicalandexperimentalMurphy,accordingtoHenry,wasanelegantmanwithaverybroadviewofpsychology,andSchererwasamanwithenormouscharismaandenergyasalecturerHenrysethimselfthetaskofcombiningthosequalitiesHenry’scareeratCCNYwasabitcheckeredItistruethatasajuniorHenrywonthemedalforthebestseniorpsychologistatCCNY,bestingJulieHochberg,fellowonetimephysicsmajor,nowpsychologymajorButitisalsotruethatHenryranintotroublewithbotanyandmilitaryscienceHenryreportsthatasanactofdefianceheonceatetheapplehewassupposedtodissect,anactthat,oneimagines,contributedtohispoorgradeforthecourseHenry’sbotanyhasimprovedconsiderablyovertheyearsundertheinfluenceofhis(andLila’s)passionforgardeningAnd,Henryreports,hismilitarysciencetoohasimprovedapassionforchesshashelpedthatalongInanyeventHenrydidgetaBSandhetookittoBerkeleyAtBerkeley,HenryworkedwithEdwardChaceTolmanTolmanwas,ofcourse,thecognitivebehavioristwillingtodobattlewithClarkHullonhisownturf,intheanimallaboratoryThereHenry,characteristically,ignoredthefluffandrhetoricthatoftensurroundeddebatesaboutbehaviorismtoproduceresearchaskingaseriousquestion:Exactlywhatdoesananimallearnwhensomebehaviorisreinforced(SeeRescorla’schapter,inwhichhedescribesthisexperiment,andhisownrefinementofit,indetail)Inanyevent,Henry’sstayatBerkeleywasbrief,amerethreeyearstohisPhDDuringthatthreeyearperiod,inthesummerof,HenryreturnedtoNewYorktovisithisfamily,andtherehetaughtintroductorypsychologyforthefirsttimeinthesummersessionsofCCNYandBrooklynCollegeMeanwhile,LilaLichtenbergwasbornontheUpperWestSideofManhattanonDecember,,lessthantwomonthsafterthemarketcrashedAsaconsequenceofthecrash,thefamilymovedtomoremodestsurroundingsinBrooklyn,whereLilaattendedPSLila’sfatherwasaselfemployedstructuralsteeldetailer,andastimesbecamebetter,theLichtenbergsmovedtothe“CasadelRitz,”whichLilaproudlyincludedasthereturnaddressonallofhercorrespondenceAsanotherconsequenceoffinancialsolidityinthehousehold,LilaattendedsummercampinVermontCampKeeWaKeewasthesiteofLila’sfirsthonor:ShebecameamemberoftheBlueDragonsin,anhonorthatstillholdsprideofplaceonhervitaeLiladidnotplantoattendcollege,andstubbornlyrefusedtoapplytoanyDespiteherprofoundeffortsinthisdirection,shewasacceptedatbothBrooklynCollege(throughnofaultofherown,herscoresonamandatoryexamhadbeensentinbyherhighschool)andAntiochCollege(whichwasthecompromiseasitwasworkstudy)SheenteredAntiochinHermotherwasdelightedbecause,asshetoldLila,“Peoplewhogotocollegecantalktoanyoneaboutanysubject”(Eventscertainlyprovedhermotherright)TheprogramatAntiochrequiredthatstudentsdevotehalftimetooutside(nonacademic)workAlthoughLiladidattendclasses,themorememorablepartsofhercollegecareerwereherworkSheheldjobsasanoccupationaltherapistattheDelawareStateHospitalfortheInsane(wheresheattemptedtoteachamnesicpatientstoperformplayswithmarionettes),asareporter(doingpressreleasesfortheEuropeanReconstructionAgency,underIntroductiontheMarshallPlan,inWashington,DC),andastheeditorofAntioch’scollegemagazine,TheIdiom(whereshepennedsomeofthemoreleftwingeditorials)Aftergraduating,LilaandanotherwriterforTheIdiom(nicknamed“Hyphen”forhiscompoundname)wenttoNewYorkCityasliterarylightsHyphengotajobasanassistanteditoratDoubledayAsHyphen’sfemaleequivalentatAntioch,Lilagotthefemaleequivalentofhisjob:ShebecameadictaphoneoperatorLilareportsthatsheonlynoticedthediscrepancyinjobassignmentssomeyearslaterandatthetime,theywerebothveryhappywiththeir“jobsinpublishing”Fromthere,Lilamovedupto“GalFriday”attheJournaloftheAmericanWaterworksAssociation,wheresheranthejournalOneweekend,LilajoinedsomefriendsatDartmouth,whereshemetEugeneGalanter,anassistantprofessorofpsychologyattheUniversityofPennsylvaniaThatweekend,theydecidedtogetmarried,anddidsothefollowingSaturdayTheymovedintoanapartmentatthandSpruce,andLilaasafacultywifebegantotakecoursesinGreekaspartofaprograminclassicsAtthetime,thegreatIndoEuropeanscholarHenryHoenigswaldtaughtcoursesinbothlinguisticsandclassicsLilatookGreekfromhim,andspenthourstranslatingtextHoenigswaldrecognizedthatLilalovedtheparsingofGreeksentencesmostofall,andencouragedhertoworkwithZelligHarrisinthelinguisticsdepartmentFollowinghisadvice,shebecameagraduatestudentinlinguistics,workingonHarris’sgrant,“TranformationandDiscourseAnalysisProject”(TDAP)Thecentralproblemherewastounderstandtherelationshipbetweensentencesinadiscourse,andinparticular,howanygivenitemmovesthroughthediscourse,forexample,changingfrom“new”informationto“given”ThefactthatasingleitemcouldchangeitsfunctionoversentencesledtotheproblemofhowonecouldinprinciplerelatethedifferentoccurrencesoftheitemtoeachotheroversentencesIf“Bill”occursinonesentenceassubjectandthenshowsupasobjectinanother,howcouldtheselinksbedescribedHarris’sideawasthateachoftherelevantsentencescouldsomehowberelatedtoacentral,or“kernel”sentencewith“transformations”relatingthekerneltoeachofitsrealizationsThustheTDAProjectsoughttorelatesentencestoeachotherusingamechanismthatwouldinsomeformcometoplayakeyroleinfutureadvancesinlinguisticsandpsycholinguisticsAspartofhergraduatetraining,HarrisadvisedLilatolearnhowtoworktheUNIVACcomputer,whichhadbeendonatedtotheuniversitybyUnivacinrecognitionofthecontributionsofEckertandMauchlytothedevelopmentofageneralpurposedigitalcomputerTheUNIVACoccupiedtheentirefirstflooroftheDavidRittenhouseLaboratoryItIntroductionalsohadastonishingcomputingpowerforthetime,thoughconsiderablylessthanourcurrenthandheldcalculatorsWorkingonHarris’sprojectwasagroupofbrilliantgraduatestudents(LilaGleitman,BruriaKauffman,CarolChomsky,andNaomiSagar)aswellasanengineerenlistedbyHarrisAssistantProfessorAravindJoshiJoshiwasfascinatedwiththeproblemofhowtouseacomputer(designed,afterall,fornumbercrunching)tounderstandlanguageHarrisenlistedJoshitodevelopaparseranautomatonthatwouldbeable,toalimiteddegree,tocomprehendtherunningtextofanaturallanguageusingHarris’sanalyticmethodsofdistributionalanalysisIndoingso,JoshibecamethefirstcomputationallinguistTheparserthatemergedfromthisproject,Joshirecentlyremindedus,stillrivals(oroutperforms)thebestcurrentparserinthefieldButindependently,LilawasbeginningtowonderwhetherdistributionalanalysiscouldreallyproperlycapturetheorganizationoflanguageorlanguagelearningNoamChomsky,arecentgraduateofPennwhohadalsostudiedunderHarris,suggestedthattheentireenterprisewasdoomedtofailure,andheprovidedLilawithacopyofhisrecentbooktoreadShereadSyntacticStructuressecretly,andclearlyrecognizedhowChomsky’sapproachreformulatedproblemsintheorganizationoflanguageandlanguagelearningTheMiddleYearsOntakinghisPhD,HenrymovedbacktotheEastCoasttotakeupapositionasanassistantprofessoratwhatwasthentheMeccainexileofGestaltpsychology,SwarthmoreCollegeThere,Henryjoinedafacultywith,interalia,SolomonAsch,WolfgangKohler,andHansWallach(perhapsthepersonHenryadmiresmostasanexperimentalist)HenrystayedatSwarthmoreforfifteenyearsWhilethere,heundertookmanyprojectsForone,heworkedwithSolomonAschonhisfamousstudiesofconformityandindependenceForanother,hebeganworkwithtwograduatestudents(UlrichNeisserandJacobNachmias)onwhattheysawasathreepartseries,aseriesthattheyenvisionedasthedefinitivedeconstructionofHullianlearningtheory(seeNachmias’schapter,thisvolume,formoreonthistopic)AndHenrybegantogrowfamousforhislearningtheoryseminarseveningseminars,ofcourse(AlthoughHenry,likehismentor,believesinthepossibilityofseriouscognitiveactivityinthemindsofrats,hecertainlydoesnotbelieveinthepossibilityofseriousmentalactivitybeforenoon)Theseseminarsbeganintheeveningbuttheyendedwheneverthetopicwasexhausted,bethatthree,four,orfivehoursaftertheystartedTheycertainlydidnotendwhenHenrywasexhaustedHenrydoesnotbecomeexhaustedwhileIntroductionengagedbypsychology,poker,orGodknows,thetheater(seeNachmiasandRescorlaontheseSwarthmorelearningseminars)HenrybegansomethingelsewhileatSwarthmorePsychology,thebookAtSwarthmore,HenrymadecontactwithDonLammDonwasHenry’sfirsteditorButbeforeHenrycouldfinishthebooksomeeighteenyearslaterDonbecamePresidentofWWNortonStill,Lammremainedanübereditorforthebook,alwaysavailableforgoodcounsel(SeetheLammchapterforhowthisrelationshipwasestablishedandhowthebookcametobe)AlsoatSwarthmore,HenrymetLila(And,forthosewhohavereadrecentworkbytheGleitmans,LilametHenryTheymeteachother)ThroughGeneGalanter(whomLilahaddivorcedafteroneyear),LilahadbecomeacquaintedwithanumberoffacultyinpsychologyatPenn,andtherewasacloseconnectionbetweenthePennandSwarthmorepsychologyfacultiesHenryimmediatelyfellinlovewiththeelegantandbrilliantLila,andtheyweremarriedIn,HenryandLilaleftSwarthmorenotforPenn,butforCornellAlthoughthismighthavebeendisruptivetoLila’sgraduatetraining,thetimingwasnotallbad,forLilahadbeguntoleavetheHarrisfoldandhadjustwrittenherintendedthesisatransformationalanalysisofconjunctionentitled“CoordinatingConjunctionsinEnglish”(publishedtwoyearslater,in)AlreadyadistinguishedlinguistbutnotyetaPhD,sheaccompaniedHenrytoupstateNewYorkAtCornell,HenrycontinuedhisinvestigationsofmemoryAsHenrytellsit,hemainlyinvestigatedwhetherapersoncouldrememberwhatthesunlookedlikewithoutseeingitforanentireacademicyearIthaca,asitturnedout,wasnotHenryandLila’scupoftea:ThefinalmomentinvolvedahorseandtheirbedroomwindowHenrywaswilling,therefore,toreturntoPhiladelphiatobecomeprofessorofpsychologyatPenn,aswellasthechairmanofthedepartmentofpsychologyHewouldalso,ofcourse,continuewritingTheBookTheGleitmansreturnedtoPenninThesewereexcitingtimes,generallyandspecifically,atPennpsychologyInthelates,thetrusteesandprovosthaddecidedtorevamptheSchoolofArtsandSciencesInpartbecauseoftheinfluenceofProvostDavidGoddard,thefirstdepartmenttoberevampedwaspsychologyAphysicist,RobertBush,wasbroughtinaschairtodotherevampingUnderhisleadership,arevolution,abloodyonefromsomereports,waswroughtatPennintheearlysBushhiredmanyluminariesDottieJamesonandLeoHurvich,DuncanLuce,JackNachmias,DickSolomon,andPhilipTeitelbaum,amongothersButashecametotheendofhistermaschairtherewasaneedforanappointmentthatwouldcombineresearchexcellence,administrativeacumen,andIntroductionbrilliantteachingofundergraduatesThuswasHenrycalledfromIthacatobecomethechairmanwhosetaskitwastosolidifytherevolutionItwasHenry,then,whostabilizedthedepartment,whogaveititstraditions,andwhomadeitintotheplacethatHenryandLila’sgraduatestudents(whohavewrittenmostoftheessaysinthisvolume)wouldlaterfindDuringthistime,LilaandHenryhadtwodaughters,EllenandClaireAscholaroflearning,Henrywasquitesurethatbabieshadnocapacitiesotherthaneating,sleeping,andcryingButLila,ascholaroflanguage,recognizedinheryoungchildrensomethingquiteremarkableTheylearnedlanguagerapidly,withnoobviouseffort,andinthefrankabsenceofanyexplicittutoringHerclosefriend,ElizabethShipley,wasalsoayoungmother,aswellasapsychologisttrainedunderDuncanLuceAndsheagreedwithLila:TherewassomethingquiteremarkableaboutlanguagelearningininfantsLilaandLizbegantosystematicallystudytheirchildren’slanguagelearning(seechapterbyShipley,thisvolume),andwithCarlottaSmith,wontheirfirstgranttosupporttheworkTheirfirstpublicationonthetopicwas“Astudyintheacquisitionoflanguage:Freeresponsestocommands”(Shipley,Smith,andGleitman)Thepaper,seminalinitstheoreticalandexperimentalsophistication,laidoutmanyofthekeyissuesthatframeresearchinlanguagelearningtodayTheexperimentitselfwasamongthefirsttosetupconditionsfortappingintochildren’sknowledgeoflanguagewithoutrelyingonspontaneousspeechtodosoThemethodandfindingswhichrevealedgreatercompetencethanwasevidentfromchildren’sspontaneousproductionwerearguedtoprovideabasisforunderstandingtheorganizationoflanguageinyoungchildrenThetheoreticalcontextcontrastedstrongnativistpositionsofthattimesuchasChomsky’swithstrongempiricistpositionsthenheldbyBloomfieldianlinguistsandpsychologists(seeNewport’schapter,thisvolume,formoreonthiscontrast)Althoughtheauthorsleanedtowardanativiststance,theyfirmlyarguedthatconsiderablymoreempiricalevidencewasneededbeforeunderstandingthepreciseinteractionsbetweenthechild’sinnateendowmentwhetherspecificknowledgeordatamanipulatingtendenciesorbothandthelearningenvironmentthatwasavailabletothechildAtaroundthesametime,LiladecidedtofinishherPhDHerfriendandmentor,HenryHoenigswald,convincedhertodoherdissertationunderHenryHizinthelinguisticsdepartmentShehadalreadypublishedtheconjunctionpaper(herintendedthesis),butwassummarilytoldthatthiswouldnot“count”forathesisbecauseithadalreadybeenpublishedSheturnedtostudythestructureofcompoundnouns,whichsheinvestigatedfromatheoreticalperspective(doingformallinIntroductionguisticanalysestocharacterizethenatureofthesecompounds)andfromapsychologicalperspective(elicitingpeople’sintuitionsaboutthedifferencesinmeaningbetweenpairssuchas“blackbirdhouse”and“blackbirdhouse”inordertodiscoverthelinguisticstructure)(AsLilahastaughtherstudents,thesetwoapproachesaretwosidesofthesamecoin)Whenshepresentedtheseideastohercommitteeinlinguistics,shewastoldthattheformallinguisticanalyseswouldmakeafinedissertationbutthatshewouldnotbeabletopresenttheresultsofherexperimentsonintuitions,becausethatwaspsychologySoLilapresentedtheintuitionsinaformatmorecongenialtothelinguist’searandeye:sprinkledthroughoutthetextandlabeledsequentiallywithnumbersThusshereceivedherPhDinlinguisticsfromPenninLilatookapositionasanassociateprofessoroflinguisticsatSwarthmoreCollegein,andstayedthereforfouryears,servingasSwarthmore’slinguisticsdepartmentandteachinganentiregenerationofbuddinglinguistsandpsycholinguists,includingLanceRips,GaryDell,JohnGoldsmith,MuffySiegal,EmilyBushnell,RobertMay,andElissaNewport(who,thoughagradu

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