加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 *新书上架*精神冲突

*新书上架*精神冲突.pdf

*新书上架*精神冲突

九月虺
2010-02-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*精神冲突pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MENTALCONFLICTMentalconflictistheconditionofadividedmindconsciouslytornbetweencontrarydesiresorbeliefsForGreekphilosophersitisapuzzleprovocativeoftheorytheyaccommodateitdifferentlywithindifferentstructuringsofthemind’soperationsSocratesfocusesallaman’sdesiresuponasinglegoaltakentoconstitutethehumangoodThispermitsvacillationbetweenvaryingconceptionsoftheendordevisingsofthemeans,andconsequentregretbutjudgement,ormisjudgement,isalwaysincontrolPlatocomesinsteadtofindadisunityindesire,whichmeansthatreasonmayfailtobemasterwithinitsownhouseUnityistobeworkedforintheconvergenceofalldesiresthroughthepersuasionsofreasonAristotleassentstoratherthesameviewbutsupposesthat,whenreasonfailstowinoutinaction,italsolosesoutinjudgement,ceasingtoperceivethedemandsofthesituationPlato’spracticalreasonisachildofheaven,whosevoiceisnotstilledbybeingunheeded,whileAristotle’sisacreatureofearth,emergentoutofdesireandeclipsedbydesiresineffectiverevoltTheStoicsreturntoaSocraticinsistencethatmydecisionisthedecisionofmyreasonEmotionmaystillintrude,butasaperversionofreasonThustheycanmaintainthatthepersonremainssingleasthesubjectofdecision,theagentofaction,andthebearerofresponsibilityThisbookisthefirstdetailedanalysisofthetreatmentofmentalconflictwithinGreekphilosophyItwillbeimportantreadingforallstudentsandteachersofancientandmoralphilosophyAWPriceisReaderinPhilosophyattheUniversityofYorkInhewasaJuniorFellowattheCenterforHellenicStudies,WashingtonDCHehastaughtatWadhamCollegeOxford,theUniversityofHongKong,BrownUniversityandtheGraduateSchooloftheChineseAcademyofSocialSciencesHeistheauthorofLoveandFriendshipinPlatoandAristotle()ISSUESINANCIENTPHILOSOPHYGeneraleditor:MalcolmSchofieldGODANDGREEKPHILOSOPHYLPGersonANCIENTCONCEPTSOFPHILOSOPHYWilliamJordanLANGUAGE,THOUGHTANDFALSEHOODNicholasDenyerMENTALCONFLICTAWPriceLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEEThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”SimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NY©AWPriceAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMentalconflictAWPricepcm(Issuesinancientphilosophy)Includesbibliographicalreferences(p)andindexesPhilosophyofmindPhilosophy,AncientITitleIISeriesBMP’’dc–ISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)FORDOLORESButonceinawhiletheoddthinghappens,OnceinawhilethemoonturnsblueWHAuden,PaulBunyanCONTENTSPrefaceviiHorsd’œuvrexINTRODUCTIONSOCRATESSocratesandDiotima:anappendixPLATOARISTOTLETHESTOICSBetweenPlatoandtheStoa:appendixonPosidoniusNotesPrimarysourcesNoteontranslationsSecondarycitationsIndexPREFACEThisvolumeowesitsexistencetotwopiecesofgoodfortune,aninvitationfromMalcolmSchofieldonbehalfofRoutledge,andanappointmenttotheCenterforHellenicStudiesinWashington,DCfor–Together,theyprovidedmewiththestimulusandopportunitytoexploreaperennialtopicaboutwhichweshouldstillbeabletolearnmuchfromareflectivestudyofGreekphilosophyIknownoscholarforwhomayearattheCenterwasnotaperiodinparadiseIwasfurtherluckythatmytimetherefellwithintheideallybeneficentandsagaciousreignofZephandDianaStewart,whosekindnessandconversationwererelishedbyeveryoneOtherwisemyhappinessowedmosttotwofriends:AndreiLebedev,whosespontaneity,warmth,andintensityintroducedmetoanewandunEnglishstyleoffriendship,andPeterCockhill,whomadeavirtueofabsencebyaconstantandstylishcorrespondenceinwhichauniquepersonalitywasalwayspresentOfcourseAmericaisalandofcompanionship:oldandnewfriendswhomImadeormetthereincludedHenryandHazelDicum,JohnandKateFerrari,DickandCatherineHare,IanKer,TonyLong,DavidMabberley,PaigeNewmark,MarthaNussbaum,TomandPegOlshewsky,MichaelPakalukandhisfamily,AndreiRossius,ChrisShields,TatyanaTolstaya,andStephenWhiteAsformydedication,‘WhatwouldbechanceatLyonnesseWhileIshouldsojournthereNoprophetdurstdeclare’IamindebtedtoMalcolmSchofieldnotonlyforinvitingthisbook,andthenawaitingitpatiently,butforimprovingitallmateriallyIamalsogratefulforwrittencommentsonpartsofitfromJohnFerrari,ChrisShields,andChristopherTaylorSomelaterevisionswerepromptedbythekindloanoftwopapersbyJohnCooperasummaryofhisreconstrualofPosidoniusinAnnas()hadalreadyawakenedmefromdogmaticslumberTheunnecessarydeficienciesthatremain,anddonotderivefromsheeroversight,maybeblamedonlackofstamina:asEMCioranhaswritten,Aworkisfinishedwhenwecannolongerimproveit,thoughweknowittobeinadequateandincompleteWearesoovertaxedbyitthatwenolongerhavethepowertoaddasinglecomma,howeverindispensableIfearthatImaybefoundungeneroustotheliving,ifnotoverscrupuloustowardsthedead,inmakingsomuchreferencetoprimarytexts,butoftenratherlittletosecondaryliteratureInfact,IhavebeencontinuallyeducatedbycontributorstothepresentrenaissanceinthephilosophicalstudyoftheGreeksIgainedfrommyoldtutorAnthonyKennyafirstrealizationthatreadingtextscanbe,likedeath,well,abiggishadventureThatlessonhasbeenrefreshedbytheexampleofMarthaNussbaum,whoinimitablydisplayshowtolivedangerouslyanyonewhoinfersfromourlivelierdifferencesofopinionthatIamungratefulfortheenliveningisignorantoftherulesofthegameMyunderstandingofAristotle’smoralpsychologyowesmosttoLoening(),alucidandselfeffacingworkthatistransparenttoacornucopiaofcitations(whichiswhyIshallnotrefertoitagain)ItwillbemoreevidenthowmuchIhavelearntabouttheStoicsfromInwood()WereIintendingtomakeadirectcontributiontomodernphilosophy,IwouldbehardputtoittomatchthevirtuesofPears()andGardner()Asitis,itisworkenoughtoaspiretowardsthehighstandardsofGregoryVlastos,agreatscholarandgoodmanwhomweallmiss‘NomatterFurtherandfurtherstillThroughtheworld’svaporousvitiateairHiswordswingonaslivewordswill’IamawarethatreadersandreviewersinahurrywouldpreferabooklessdenselywrittenthanthisoneAsChabrierremarkedofhisoperaGwendoline,itneedstobetakenindilutionIhopethatthepatientstudent,usingwhatIwriteasacommentaryuponthetextsandnotasasubstituteforthem,willcometoattendtothemmorekeenly,whetherintheGreekorintranslationPhilosophicalexegesisisadialecticofattendingtotextsandhavingideas,butinterpreters’ideasthatarenotwaysofreadingorexplainingorassessingparticularpointsinatextinhabitalimbobetweeninterpretationandfreeinventionwhichisusually(thoughnotalways)ahabitatofsecondratephilosophizingIhavelesshope,ordesire,thatmyconclusionsshouldbegenerallyacceptedforIhavetoconfessthat,despitethegoodfortuneoftheviiiinvitationandtheappointment,IwouldhavehesitatedtoembarkuponthistopicifIhadbeenabletopredicthowdifficultitwouldturnouttobeixHORSD’ŒUVREAllthatyouhavesaidseemsspokenaftermyownmind,YetstilltheheartinmeswellsupinangerHomer,IliadIamawareofthesethingsyouwarnmeof,But,thoughIhaveunderstanding,mynaturecompelsmeEuripides,ChrysippusIbegintospeak,butmylipsdenypassagetomywordsAgreatforcesendsoutmyvoice,andagreaterholdsitbackHeavenlygods,youcanallwitnessthatthisthingthatIdesire,IdonotdesireSeneca,PhaedraThoughwiththeirhighwrongsIamstrucktoth’quick,Yetwithmynoblerreason’gainstmyfuryDoItakepartShakespeare,TheTempestSincethyoriginallapse,trueLibertyIslost,whichalwayeswithrightReasondwellsTwinn’d,andfromherhathnodividualbeing:Reasoninmanobscur’d,ornotobeyd,ImmediatelyinordinatedesiresAndupstartPassionscatchtheGovernmentFromReason,andtoservitudereduceMantillthenfreeMilton,ParadiseLostWhenthecourtofthemindisruledbyReason,IknowitiswiserforustopartButLoveisaspywhoisplottingtreason,Inleaguewiththatwarm,redrebel,theHeartEllaWheelerWilcox,‘Communism’WhatarewebutseditionlikethispoorFrance,factionagainstfaction,withinourselves,everypieceplayingeverymomentitsowngame,withasmuchdifferencebetweenusandourselvesasbetweenourselvesandothersWhoeverwilllooknarrowlyintohisownbosomwillhardlyfindhimselftwiceinthesameconditionIgivetomyselfsometimesonefaceandsometimesanother,accordingtothesideIturntoIhavenothingtosayofmyself,entirelyandwithoutqualification(Montaigne,inWalterPater,GastondeLatour)‘DoesmyvainspiritevertellmeIamwrong’‘Notyourvainspirit,butyourseriousspiritIfoneleadsyouwrong,Iamsuretheothertellsyouofit’(JaneAusten,Emma)‘Yousee,’saidBillySmallbury,‘theman’swillwastodoright,sureenough,buthisheartdidn’tchimein’(ThomasHardy,FarfromtheMaddingCrowd)Hisreasonandhispropensitieshadseldomanyreciprocatinginfluence,havingseparatedbymutualconsentlongago:thenceitsometimeshappenedthat,whilehisintentionswereashonourableascouldbewished,anyparticulardeedformedadarkbackgroundwhichthrewthemintofinereliefThesergeant’sviciousphasesbeingtheoffspringofimpulse,andhisvirtuousphasesofcoolmeditation,thelatterhadamodesttendencytobeoftenerheardofthanseen(ibid)Forhergoodintentionsandherfirmwilltodecencyweresomethingthatshedidnotforaninstantloseevenduringsuchstatesonly,thentheystoodoutside,waiting,andsimplyhadnosayinthisworldsochangedbydesires(RobertMusil,TheManwithoutQualities)Andevennow,thoughhisintellecttoldhimthatthemessageprobablymeantdeathstill,thatwasnotwhathebelieved,andtheunreasonablehopepersisted,andhisheartbanged(GeorgeOrwell,)xilotsofthem,allbeaveringawayontheirownIknowperfectlywellthatmagpiesarepowerlesstoinfluenceourfateorforeshadowmisfortuneandIalsoknowwithcertaintythattheyjollywellcan(AliceThomasEllis,HomeLifeThree)xiiIhaveneverhadmuchtroublesimultaneouslyentertainingdiametricallyopposedpropositions,andwelcomethepossibilitythatthisisnotbecauseIhaveonemindandamoutofit,butbecauseIhaveINTRODUCTIONInsocialconflictonepersonopposesanotherTheymaydifferinbelief(sayaboutthevariousconsequencesofdifferenteconomicpolicies),orinpreference(sayaboutwhethertogotowar,orwheretobuildanewroad),or,mostoften,inbothFrequentlytheywilldifferintheirevaluations,thatis,intheirviewsofwhatisgoodorbest,ofwhatmattersormattersmostandhowitmattersHeretheirdivergenceisindissolublybothinbelief,sincetheydisagreeaboutwhatistrueandfalse,andindesireifnotinpreference,sincethepresenceofappropriatedesireisamarkofsincerityinanevaluation(Icanfindaproposalingeniouswithoutfavouringit,butnotwithoutbeingattractedinawaybythethoughtofitsadoptionorimplementation)Itisfurthernecessary,ifthedifferenceistoamounttoaconflict,thatthepartiesshouldnotmerelycontradicteachother,butconfrontoneanotherasadversariesWhenChairmanMaoproclaimed‘Letahundredflowersbloom,andahundredschoolsofthoughtcontend’,hewas(ostensibly)welcomingavarietyofopinionsandpredilectionsthatmightcoexistandcompeteinafreemarketofideaswithinasocietyofcomradesInsituationsofconflict,viewsthatarenotone’sownappearthreateningordamaging:theypresentthemselvesnotassourcesofrefreshingvarietyorofhealthycompetition,butasobjectsofhostilityOnecanenjoycontradiction,andbenefitfromcompetition,butthepartiestoaconflictarenotjustrivalsbutantagonistsConflictisalwaysuncomfortableInmentalconflictamindisdividedagainstitself,andbecomesabattlegroundofopposingbeliefsordesiresTheconflictedmindischaracterizedbyrelationsnotjustofdifferenceanddivergence,butofcontentionandconfrontationItfeelsitselfnotsomuchattractedfromoutsidebyincompatiblealternativesbetweenwhichithastomakeachoice,astornwithinitselfbyhostileforcesbetweenwhichitcannotmakepeaceItisawarenotjustofcontrastingconsiderationsthatneedtobebroughttogetherinanexerciseofjudgement,butofcollidingtendenciesthatrefusetocoexistwithinasingleperspectiveOnemayperceiveanexternalfigureambivalentlyasafriendandasanenemy,withsomethinglikeagestaltswitchbetweenthetwoaspectsasone’sattitudealternatesbetweenloveandhateEvenifbothresponsesareperceptiveandnotsimplyprojective,onemayfailtoformormaintainaunifiedgraspofacomplexreality,vacillatinginsteadbetweensimpleviewsthatresistreconciliationwithinaconspectusWhathinderstheachievementofasingleviewpointisnotthecomplexityoftheobjectbuttheambivalenceofthesubject:hisattitudesaremutuallyantithetical,andholdoutagainstoneanotherinsteadofcooperatinginadurablesynthesisAthearthisenmityisselfdirected,sothathefeelspartlyalientohimselfTheexternalobjectmaybecometheoccasionofhisinternalconflict,butheishimselfitscauseMosthatredcontainsanelementofselfhatredasEMCioranhasputit,‘Twoenemiesthesamemandivided’ItisinevitablethatweshouldspeakofmentalconflictinsociallanguageThereisnoeasydemarcationherebetweenmetaphorandreality:themindconstitutesitselfaccordingtoamodelinourlanguagethatisalsoitsown,sothatourwaysofspeakingareitswaysofbeingItsmodesofdifferentiatingitselffromtheworldbecomemodesofdifferentiationwithinitselfInterpersonalrelationsarereflectedinternallybyintrapersonalones,sothatthemindbecomesthesceneofaquasisocialdramaItisnoaccidentthatalreadyinantiquitytheclassicsourceforwhatIhavebeendescribingshouldhavebeenadramaticmonologueinwhichasinglecharacterengagesinanargumentwithherselfasstrenuousasanythatsheconductswithothersMedeaisbeingbetrayedbyherhusbandJasonwhoproposestodiscardherinpursuitofamarriageofsocialadvancementSheoncekilledabrothertosavehim,andhasalreadysetintrainthedeathofhiswifetobesoherstandardsofdecisiveactionarehighShenowfeelsthatfullrevengedemandsthelivesoftheirtwochildrenbutisshecapableofthatsacrificeEuripidesrepresentshermentalconflictinalongspeech(Medea,–)markedbyabrupttransitionsPreservingandsignallingthese,onemayreducehertrainofthoughttothefollowingsparesummary:AMychildren,youhaveahometoinhabitforeverthatis,Hades,whileIshalldepartinexileforaforeignland,losingyouforeverHowunhappyIaminmywilfulness!(–)MENTALCONFLICTBAlas,whydoyoulookandsmileatmeMyheartfailsmeFarewellmypreviousplansIshalltakemychildrenaway(–)CYetdoIwanttobecomeridiculousbyleavingmyenemiesunpunishedWhatacowardIamtoopenmymindtofeeblewords!Enterthehouse,children(–)DNo,myheart,donotactsoSparemychildrenLivingwithustheretheywillgladdenyou(–)EButIshallneverhandovermychildrentobeabusedbymyenemiesIamtakingthemostwretchedpath,andsendingtheseonamorewretchedstillIwishtoaddressmychildrenHowIlovethem!Icannolongerlookatthem,butamdefeatedbymyillsIunderstandwhatillsIamabouttodare,butmyheartismasterofmydeliberations(–)Thepassagebecamefamous,andfuelledmanytheoriesIntegraltotheconflictfromwhichMedeasuffersisthatheremotionspullnotonlyindifferentdirectionsbutagainstoneanother:shefeelsdividednotonlywithinbutagainstherselfHerfeelingsasamothershowupthe‘wilfulness’ofherdesireforrevenge(),whileherdesireforrevengeshowsupherfeelingsasamotheras‘feeble’()Somuchisclear,butmuchelseisopen:therewouldseemtobethreebroadlinesofinterpretation,whichIshalllabelconcisely,ifnotquiteappositely,‘oscillation’,‘vacillation’,and‘lackofselfcontrol’(Itisnotmytasktoarbitratebetweenthemthepassagesuitsmypurposesbecauseitcanbereadvariously)(i)Oscillationinvolvesaclearpurposethatiscertaintoprevail,butshiftingthoughtsMedeahaslongmadeherdecision(atleastby–),fromwhichthechoruscouldnotshakeher(–)inthewordsofMrsThatcher,Thelady’snotforturning’(Thiscouldexplainhermosttroublingillogicality,thatwithinafewlines,–,shetakesthealternativetokillingherchildrentobetakingthemwithher,andleavingthembehind:ifsheisalreadycommittedtokillingthem,sheneednotdecidewhatshewoulddootherwise)HughLloydJonesputsitwell:ThefateateofthechildrenhaslongsincebeendecidedMedeahasneverseriouslycontemplatedrenouncingherrevenge,forifshedidso,shewouldnotbeMedeaThepoetisnotshowingushowMedeamakesherdecisionthatINTRODUCTIONdecisionhasbeentaken,swiftlyandsilently,longbeforerather,heisshowingusthefullextentoftheagonywhichtheprospectofthedecision’sexecutioncauses(:)Medeaoscillatesbetweenrestatingherirrevocabledecision,anddwellinguponitscosttoherself(Egocentricityisafeatureofherreflectionsevenattheirmostmotherly)Asthemomentofexecutionapproaches,shetakesrefugeinexpressionsofaffectionthatshecanallowherselfjustbecausetheyarefutileHermindisdeterminedbutconflicted:theimminenceofactionintensifiescompunctionthatdecisioncouldnotsilenceSherealizesthatwhatsheisplanningis‘ill’inthesensenotthatitiswrong,butthatitscostsarehighWhenshesays‘Myheartismasterofmydeliberations’,shemayintendeitherandEuripidesmayintendbothoftwoconstructions:shemaymeanthathertenderreflectionsarepowerlessagainstherpassionatepurpose(‘ismasterof’meaningdefeats)orthatherpassiondictatesher

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/45

*新书上架*精神冲突

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利