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首页 *新书上架*哲学视角中的语言

*新书上架*哲学视角中的语言.pdf

*新书上架*哲学视角中的语言

九月虺
2010-02-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*哲学视角中的语言pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PageiiiPhilosophicalPerspectivesonLanguageRobertJStaintonbroadviewpressPageiv©RobertJStaintonAllrightsreservedTheuseofanypartofthispublicationreproduced,transmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,orstoredinaretrievalsystem,withoutpriorwrittenconsentofthepublisherorinthecaseofphotocopying,alicencefromCANCOPY(CanadianCopyrightLicensingAgency)AdelaideStE,Suite,Toronto,OntarioMCHisaninfringementofthecopyrightlawCataloguinginPublicationDataStainton,RobertJ,PhilosophicalperspectivesonlanguageIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNILanguageandlanguagesPhilosophyITitlePSCBroadviewPressgratefullyacknowledgesthesupportoftheCanadaCouncil,theOntarioArtsCouncil,andtheMinistryofCanadianHeritageBroadviewPressLtdisanindependent,internationalpublishinghouse,incorporatedinNorthAmerica:POBox,PeterboroughOntario,CanadaKJHCaliforniaRoad,OrchardParkNYUSAphone,faxandemailaddressesforNorthAmerica:()(phone)()(fax)COMPUSERVECOMUKandEurope:BRAD(BookRepresentationandDistributionLtd)aLondonRd,Hadleigh,EssexENGLANDSSDE()Australia:StClairPress,POBox,RozelleNSW()elsewhere:PleaseorderthroughlocalwholesalersordirectfromNorthAmericaPRINTEDINCANADAPagevCONTENTSAcknowledgementsPrefaceChapterOne:IntroductionThreePerspectivesonLanguageWhoCaresSomeTerminologySuggestedReadingsPartOne:TheSystemPerspectiveChapterTwo:SyntaxIntroductionOptionOneRuleSystemsOptionTwoPrinciplesandParametersEpilogue:PrescriptiveandDescriptiveSyntaxSuggestedReadingsChapterThree:DirectReferenceThreeApproachestoMeaningDirectReferenceTheoriesBertrandRussellonDescriptionsSuggestedReadingsChapterFour:MediatedReferenceIntroductionFregePossibleWorldsSuggestedReadingsChapterFive:TruthTheoreticSemanticsTruthandMeaningNonDeclarativesandTruthSuggestedReadingsPartTwo:TheKnowledgePerspectiveChapterSix:TheIdeaTheoryofMeaningIntroductionMentalImagesPageviHPaulGriceSuggestedReadingsChapterSeven:TheLanguageofThoughtMentaleseandtheIdeaTheoryofMeaningAnAlternativetoLOT:ConnectionismAnotherAlternativetoLOT:Dennett'sIntentionalStanceSuggestedReadingsChapterEight:KnowledgeIssuesInnatenessRulesandRegularitiesRadicalTranslationSuggestedReadingsPartThree:TheUsePerspectiveChapterNine:TheUseTheoryofMeaningMeaningandUseIndexicalsStrawsononReferringSpeechActTheoryQuineandMeaningNihilismSuggestedReadingsChapterTen:NonLiteralUsesConversationalImplicatureMetaphorReferentialAttributiveSuggestedReadingsChapterEleven:LanguageandCommunityNonLiteralUseandtheNeedforConventionsThePrivateLanguageArgumentDavidsonontheLimitsofConventionSuggestedReadingsChapterTwelve:ConclusionNotesReferencesIndexPageviiACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTobeginwith,I'mgratefultothefollowingforcommentsonearlierdrafts:ArshiaAsudeh,AndrewBotterell,AndyBrook,TimKenyon,RobertMartin,KateTalmage,StephenTalmage,DanielStoljarandToddVergeThanksalsototwoanonymousreviewersI'dalsoliketothankmyvariousinstructorsforfeedingmyfascinationwithmindandlanguageInparticular,I'mindebtedtoRichardCartwright,NoamChomsky,LennyClapp,ChrisCollins,LyndForguson,MichaelGregory,KenHale,IreneHeim,JamesHigginbotham,AnnandNollaigMacKenzie,RobertStalnakerandDanielStoljar(again)Mostofall,IwouldlikeonceagaintoexpressmyenormousintellectualdebttoSylvainBromberger,teacherandfriendFinally,I'dliketorecognizeNadaKhirdaji,forherenormoushelpintypingthefirstdraftMostofall,thankstoAnitaKothari,forunfailingsupport,andforkeepingmehumanThewritingofthisbookwassupportedbytheSocialScienceandHumanitiesResearchCouncilofCanada,andbyanawardfromCarletonUniversity'sResearchandPublicationFundPageixPREFACEPhilosophicaltheorizingaboutlanguagehasevolvedconsiderablyinthelasttwodecadesTherehasbeenanincreasingemphasisonempiricalwork,multipleshiftsinfocus,andarenewedconvergencewithphilosophyofmind,formalsemanticsandlogicThisbookreflectsthesechangesFirst,itcontainsareasonableamountoflinguisticsproper,sinceitismyviewthatanadequatephilosophicalunderstandingoflanguagerequiressomebasicfamiliaritywiththerelevantempiricalworkInparticular,thebookpresentsatanintroductorylevelbackgroundmaterialinsyntaxandformalsemanticsSecond,thebookdrawsoutconnectionsbetweenlanguageandmind:languagelearning,thelanguageofthoughthypothesis,thepsychologicalrealityofgrammars,andsoonItsattentiontowhat'scurrentisonedistinctivefeatureofthisbookAnotheristhatitisorganizedaroundonegeneraltheme:languageasasystemofsymbolswhichisknownandusedIhavefeltdissatisfiedwithsomecurrentlyavailabletextspreciselybecausetheypresentphilosophyoflanguageasacollectionof(atbest)looselyrelatedtopics:speechacts,demonstratives,senseandreference,truthandmeaning,etcPedagogically,thiscanbedisastrousStudentsbecomequicklymiredinthedetailsandsoonlosePagextheirfootingandtheirinterestAtthesametime,Ihavetriedtoavoidtheequallyunhappyalternativeofofferingacoherenttreatment,butonewhichisoverlynarroworonesidedAthirddistinguishingmark:thebooktargetsupperlevelundergraduateswhohavesomebackgroundinphilosophy,butnotanextensivetrainingOthertextsthatIamfamiliarwithareeithertoointroductoryforthislevel,orarebettersuitedtoadvancedstudentsThoseare,Ithink,allpositivesNowforthenegatives:intryingtosticktomytheme,I'vefounditimpossibletoofferacomprehensivetreatmentofthetopicsinthisareaDespitetheirimportance,manyissues(egpropernamesandrigiddesignation,externalism,analyticity,naturalkindterms,situationsemantics,presupposition)arediscussedonlybrieflyornotatallAlso,wherenecessarytomakethingsclearerandmoreconcise,Ihavesometimeschosentoshapeandmouldviewstakenfromagivenauthor(SomemaysayI'vebentandbrokenthemIhopenot)Furthermore,inattemptingtoprovideanoverviewofwhatiscurrentinphilosophyoflanguage,Ihaveregularlyomittedissueswhicharenow,forbetterorworse,principallyofhistoricalinterestForthesereasons,thebookshouldundernocircumstancesbereadasintellectualhistory,letaloneasstrictphilosophicalexegesisPagexiTomyteachers,friendsandfamilyPageChapterOne:IntroductionThreePerspectivesonLanguageRepeatafterme:languageisasystemofsymbolswhichweknowanduseThisisthethemeofthebookOnlyelevenwordslong:youcan'tcomplainaboutthatSpinningoutthistheme,however,requiresquiteabitmoretimeIndeed,itrequiresthewholebookButallowmetosayabitmoreaboutitnowThethemehasthreeparts:thatlanguageisasystem,thatit'sknown,andthatit'susedTheseare,ifyouwill,threedifferentperspectivesonlanguagePerspectiveOne:LanguageasasystemofsymbolsPerspectiveTwo:LanguageassomethingweknowPerspectiveThree:LanguageassomethingweuseThebookisorganizedaroundthesethreeperspectives:onepartforeachFollowingtheIntroduction,Iturnimmediatelytothesystemperspective,thenit'stheknowledgeperspective,beginningatChapterSixIendwiththeuseperspectiveMyoverallaimistofleshouteachperspective(fillinthedetails,considerproblemsandobjections,etc)andthentrytoindicate,attheend,howthesevariousapproachescanbecombinedintoacomprehensivepicturePageAlongwiththethreeperspectivesonlanguage,therearethreecorrespondingtheoriesofmeaningFormanyphilosophers,meaningderivesfromarelationshipbetweensounds(andpunctuationmarksandsoon)andthingsintheworld'Cat'meanswhatitdoesbecauseitpicksoutaparticularkindofobjectNamely,catsOthersthinkofmeaningasderivingfromarelationshipbetweensoundsandthingsinthemind'Cat'getsitsmeaningfromcattythoughtsorcattyimagesBoththeseviewshavebeenaroundforalongtimeAmorerecentsuggestionisthatasound'smeaningcomesfromitsuse,notfromitsrelationshiptoobjectsintheworld,ortoideasinthemindAlotofthisbookwillbededicatedtospellingoutthesecompetingtheoriesofmeaning,andseeingwhethertheycanbecombinedintoasinglecoherentpictureWhoCaresSomehavecalledphilosophyoflanguagedryIdisagreeIthinkit'sdeeplyfascinatingInpartbecausethematerialitselfisrichandintellectuallychallenging,butalsobecauseanadequateviewoflanguageissoimportantStill,argumentsinphilosophyoflanguagecanbedifficultandtechnicalSo,bywayofmotivatingyou,letmesayalittleaboutthecentralityoflanguageWhatI'mgoingtosuggestisthatlanguageisrelatedtohumanaction,thought,andcultureAndithasanimportantroletoplayinphilosophizingThisdiscussionreallydeservesabooktoitself,somytreatmentwillbeprettysketchyFirstreasonwhylanguageisimportant:itliesattheheartofhumanactivityJustlookatallthethingspeopledowithlanguageHere'sthemostobviouslanguagebasedendeavour:peoplecommunicateinlanguageThisincludesidlechattellingstories,jokes,commentingondailyhappeningsaswellasexchangingvitalinformation,evenacrossgenerationsButcommunicatinginformationisjustoneofthethingsdonewithlanguageTherearemanyothersPeoplegetmarriedinlanguage(Isay'Iwill'intherightcircumstances,andtherebymakemyselfwed),peopleorganizethemselvesinlanguage,buyandsellinlanguage(Fransays'Twobucks',Akirasays'Done'),andworkinlanguageTheyinsult,complain,threatenandpromiseinlanguageIndeed,it'shardtothinkofactivitieswhichdon'tinvolvelanguageinsomewaySecondreasonwhylanguageisimportant:there'ssomekindofconnectionbetweenlanguageandthoughtTheexactnatureoftheconnectionisexceedinglycontroversialButeventhosewhoPagedenythattheconnectionsaresubstantialorimportantneedtoexplorethenatureoflanguageifonlytorebuttheviewsoftheothersideAndtheothersidemakessomestartlingclaims:itissometimessaid,forexample,thatlanguageisthe''vehicleofthought":thatallthoughtoccursinlanguageThisseemstoostrong,atleastatfirstglanceForonething,itseemsthatanimalsandprelinguisticinfantsexhibitsomekindofthought,eventhoughtheylacklanguageForanotherthing,therearethoughtprocessesthatjustdon'tseemlinguistic:peopleapparentlythinkaboutstuffforwhichtheyhavenowords,manypeopleclaimto"thinkinpictures",andsoonNevertheless,theideathatthere'snoconnectionbetweenthoughtandlanguageseemsequallyimplausibleFirst,there'splentyofintrospectiveevidenceofaconnectionIfyouknowatleasttwolanguages,youwillbefamiliarwiththephenomenonof"switching"thelanguageinwhichyou'rethinkingButevenunilingualscanbeawareof"talkingtothemselves"silentlythinkingthingsthroughintheirnativetongueSecond,thatlanguageatleastfacilitatesthoughtseemsobviousConsider,forexample,thethoughtsthat:()(a)IfparticleacceleratorscostseveralmillionUSdollars,andUruguaydoesn'thavethatkindofmoneytospend,thenUruguaywillnotbuyanyparticleaccelerators(b)GrungewasreallyhipuntilKurtCobaindiedApersonwithoutlanguageorapersonwhoselanguagelackedthephrase'particleaccelerator',theword'million'andtheword'dollar'simplycouldnothavethefirstthoughtIt'sjusttoocomplicated(Imaginetryingtoexplainthisclaimtosomeonewhodidn'tknowanytermsdealingwithphysicsortheUSmonetarysystemImaginedoingitwithoutintroducingsuchterms!)ThesecondthoughtisatleastascomplexButitalsoillustratesanotherproblemItisathoughtaboutKurtCobain,notabout(say)JimMorrisonAndit'saboutgrunge,notabouthiphopAndtoo:athinkerwhohasnodirectlinktoKurtCobaincanneverthelesshavethisthoughtpresumablybecauseshehasawordwhichreferstoKurtCobainPutroughly,thoughtsareaboutthings,andyoucan'thaveathoughtaboutathingunlessyouhavetherightkindof"connection"withitLanguagesometimesprovidesthatconnectionThisisallprettyvagueButitillustratesalineofargumentthatlinksthoughttolanguageAndsomelinguistsandphilosophershavebeenenormouslyimpressedbytheselinksHere'swhy:ithasPagejustbeenclaimed,ineffect,thatthelanguageapersonthinksinshapesthethoughtsshedoeshaveandcanhaveIfthisisright,whatpeoplethinkabouttheworldaroundthemwilldependuponwhatlanguagetheyspeak!Here'safamousexampleIt'softenallegedthattheInuithavelotsofdifferentwordsforsnowAsthestorygoes,they'vegotawordwhichmeanswetsnow,andawordwhichmeanshardsnow,andsoonSo,theclaimruns,whenanInuitseeswhatEnglishspeakerscall'snow',theyseesomethingdifferentthanEnglishspeakersdoThelatterjustseesnowButanInuitseeseitherwetsnow,orhardsnow,orwhateverIfthisisright,thebondsbetweenlanguageandthoughtareveryintimateindeedInfact,itturnsoutthatInuitlanguageshaveaboutasmanywordsforsnowasEnglishdoesMoreover,it'samatterofconsiderabledebatewhatwouldfollowifalanguagedidhavemanywordsforsnowIntheend,I'mpersonallyscepticalaboutthesekindsofargumentsBut,whetherornotthey'resound,they'recertainlyinterestingAttheveryleasttheydeservearebuttalHence,theymakethestudyoflanguageofgreatinterestI'vesaid:languageisimportantbecauseitisrelatedtothoughtandactionButit'snotjustindividuals,it'salsocommunitieswhichspeaklanguagesAndthisprovidesthethirdconnection,betweenlanguageandcultureIt'stemptingtosupposethatagroup'slanguagereflectsitscollectivehistoryandlearningLookingagainatthesnowexample,ananthropologistmightconcludethatalanguagewhichcontainsmanywordsforsnowdoessoforgoodreason:becausesnowplaysanimportantpartinthedailylifeofthelanguageusersIngeneral,onemightthink,thewayapeoplelives(andhaslived)indeliblyshapestheirlanguagejustas,it'ssometimessupposed,theirlanguageshapesthewaytheyliveInwhichcase,languageandculturearecloselyconnected(Whetherlanguageandculturereallyarecloselyrelated,there'snoquestionthatpeoplebelievetheyareIt'sbecauseofthisbeliefthatnationalistpoliticianswritelanguagepreservationlaws,forinstance)Thesearesomeofthereasonssomegood,someratherdubiouswhylanguagehasbecomecentralinthehumanities,thesocialsciences,andelsewhereButwhyshouldphilosopherscareaboutitWell,ontheonehand,theycareaboutthought,action,andcultureHencetheymaybeconcernedtoexploreordenythevariousconnectionshintedataboveButthereisanotherreasonwhyphilosophersinparticularareinterestedinlanguage:someofthemthinkoflanguageasproviding,ifnotsolutions,atleastPageinsightsintotraditionalphilosophicalproblemsSomeMichaelDummett(,)forexampleevensupposephilosophyoflanguagetobefirstphilosophy:thegroundonwhicheverythingelseisbuiltLetmebrieflyexplainSomephilosophersclaimthatinsteadofaskingaboutgoodness,justice,thewill,truth,orknowledgealltraditionalphilosophicalissuesoneshouldinsteadaskaboutthemeaningoftheword'goodness',orthemeaningoftheword'justice',orthemeaningoftheverb'toknow'Thesequestionsareeasier,itmightbethoughtHence,pursuingthemoffersgreaterpromiseofnewinsightintohithertoresistantphilosophicalproblemsAnotherleadingideaisthatstudyinglanguagewillallowphilosopherstodissolve,ratherthansolve,philosophicalproblemsFor,whenyoulookathowwordsareactuallyused,itturnsoutthatphilosophicallyloadedwordsareseldomemployedinthecommontongueinthewaytraditionalphilosophyhasusedthemInwhichcase,youmightconclude,traditionalphilosophershavebeenmisusinglanguage(Anexample:it'sbeensuggestedthattoevenask'HowdoIknowthatIexist'istomisusetheverb'know'Thequestion,therefore,isliterallymeaninglessandneedsnoreply)Here'sadifferentsortofexampleofdissolvingproblemsSupposeItellyouthatSantaClausdoesn'texistFairenough,rightOkay,butwhoisitthatdoesn'texistWhoisbeingtalkedabouthereWell,SantaClausYoumeanthatguyTheguythatsupposedlydoesn'texistMaybeyouseetheproblemItlookslikeoneistalkingaboutanobject,andattributingapropertynamely,notexistingtothatobjectButifit'sanobject,anobjectwhichhasproperties,thenitmustexist!So,tosaythatSantaClausdoesn'texistiscontradictorynonsenseAphilosophicalpuzzleButonethatit'sbeenclaimedcanbedissolvedbylinguisticanalysisTheproblemarises,it'sbeensuggested,fromtaking()tobeasentenceofsubjectpredicateform,onaparwith():()SantaClausdoesnotexist()JohnistallThatis,it'ssupposedthatsentence()hasasitssubjecttheword'SantaClaus'(whichpresumablydenotessomeindividual)andhasasitspredicate'doesnotexist'(which,youmightthink,picksoutthatpropertyhadbyallthethingswhichdon'texist)Consequently,it'sreasoned,thesentenceasawholesaysthatthisobjectSantaClaushasthisspecialpropertyInwhichcase,thisPageobjectmustexistelseitcouldhavenopropertiesInwhichcase,()cannotbetrueAsteptowardsasolutionistorecognizethatsentence()isnotofsubjectpredicateformThatis,thesentence'SantaClausdoesnotexistdoesn'tcorrespondtotheattributionofsomepropertytosomeobject(Idon'tmeantosuggestthatthisisasatisfactorysolutiontotheproblemHereagain,Iwantsimplytoillustratehowworkonlanguagecanimpingeuponphilosophicaldebates)Tosumup,then:languageisimportantforavarietyofreasonsItisrelatedsomehowtoaction,thoughtandcultureandit'sasourceofinsightsaboutphilosophicalpuzzlesNorarethesetheonlysourcesoflanguage'sintellectualinterestIt'smyhope,however,thatthisbrieflistwillwhetyourappetitesforwhatistocome,andwillfurnishacontextforsomeofthemoretechnicalissuesthatfollowSpeakingofwhich,it

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