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首页 经典心理学教材-认知心理学第三版英文

经典心理学教材-认知心理学第三版英文.pdf

经典心理学教材-认知心理学第三版英文

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2014-03-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《经典心理学教材-认知心理学第三版英文pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

CognitivePsychologyfrontmatterpixxxvinddifrontmatterpixxxvinddi:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartAustralia•Brazil•Japan•Korea•Mexico•Singapore•Spain•UnitedKingdom•UnitedStatesCognitivePsychologyCONNECTINGMIND,RESEARCH,ANDEVERYDAYEXPERIENCETHIRDEDITIONEBruceGoldsteinUniversityofPittsburghUniversityofArizonafrontmatterpixxxvinddiiifrontmatterpixxxvinddiii:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpart©,Wadsworth,CengageLearningALLRIGHTSRESERVEDNopartofthisworkcoveredbythecopyrighthereinmaybereproduced,transmitted,stored,orusedinanyformorbyanymeansgraphic,electronic,ormechanical,includingbutnotlimitedtophotocopying,recording,scanning,digitizing,taping,Webdistribution,informationnetworks,orinformationstorageandretrievalsystems,exceptaspermittedunderSectionoroftheUnitedStatesCopyrightAct,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherLibraryofCongressControlNumber:StudentEdition:ISBN:ISBN:LooseleafEdition:ISBN:ISBN:WadsworthDavisDriveBelmont,CAUSACengageLearningisaleadingproviderofcustomizedlearningsolutionswithofficelocationsaroundtheglobe,includingSingapore,theUnitedKingdom,Australia,Mexico,Brazil,andJapanLocateyourlocalofficeatwwwcengagecomglobalCengageLearningproductsarerepresentedinCanadabyNelsonEducation,LtdTolearnmoreaboutWadsworth,visitwwwcengagecomwadsworthPurchaseanyofourproductsatyourlocalcollegestoreoratourpreferredonlinestorewwwCengageBraincomCognitivePsychology:ConnectingMind,Research,andEverydayExperience,ThirdEditionEBruceGoldsteinPublisherExecutiveEditor:LindaSchreiberGansterAcquisitionsEditor:JaimePerkinsDevelopmentalEditor:KristinMakarewyczAssistantEditor:PaigeLeedsEditorialAssistant:PhilipHovanessianMediaEditor:LaurenKeyesMarketingManager:ElisabethRhodenMarketingAssistant:AnnaAndersenMarketingCommunicationsManager:TaliaWiseContentProjectManager:CharleneMCarpentierCreativeDirector:RobHugelArtDirector:VernonBoesPrintBuyer:BeckyCrossRightsAcquisitionsAccountManager,Text:RobertaBroyerRightsAcquisitionsAccountManager,Image:RobynYoungDeanDauphinaisProductionService:ScratchgravelPublishingServicesTextDesigner:LizHarasymczukPhotoResearcher:PrePressPMGCopyEditor:MargaretCTroppIllustrator:PrecisionGraphicsCoverDesigner:CherylCarringtonCoverImage:PhillipandKarenSmithGettyImagesCompositor:IntegraForproductinformationandtechnologyassistance,contactusatCengageLearningCustomerSalesSupport,Forpermissiontousematerialfromthistextorproduct,submitallrequestsonlineatwwwcengagecompermissionsFurtherpermissionsquestionscanbeemailedtopermissionrequestcengagecomPrintedinCanadafrontmatterpixxxvinddivfrontmatterpixxxvinddiv:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartToBarbarafrontmatterpixxxvinddvfrontmatterpixxxvinddv:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartAbouttheAuthorEBRUCEGOLDSTEINisProfessorEmeritusofPsychologyattheUniversityofPittsburghandAdjunctProfessorofPsychologyattheUniversityofArizonaHehasreceivedtheChancellor’sDistinguishedTeachingAwardfromtheUniversityofPittsburghforhisclassroomteachingandtextbookwritingHereceivedhisbachelor’sdegreeinchemicalengineeringfromTuftsUniversityandhisPhDinexperimentalpsychologyfromBrownUniversityHewasapostdoctoralfellowintheBiologyDepartmentatHarvardUniversitybeforejoiningthefacultyattheUniversityofPittsburghBrucehaspublishedpapersonawidevarietyoftopics,includingretinalandcorticalphysiology,visualattention,andtheperceptionofpicturesHeistheauthorofSensationandPerception,thedition(Wadsworth,)andistheeditoroftheBlackwellHandbookofPerception(Blackwell,)andthetwovolumeSageEncyclopediaofPerception(Sage,)frontmatterpixxxvinddvifrontmatterpixxxvinddvi:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartviiCHAPTERIntroductiontoCognitivePsychologyCHAPTERCognitiveNeuroscienceCHAPTERPerceptionCHAPTERAttentionCHAPTERShortTermandWorkingMemoryCHAPTERLongTermMemory:StructureCHAPTERLongTermMemory:EncodingandRetrievalCHAPTEREverydayMemoryandMemoryErrorsCHAPTERKnowledgeCHAPTERVisualImageryCHAPTERLanguageCHAPTERProblemSolvingCHAPTERReasoningandDecisionMakingGLOSSARYREFERENCESNAMEINDEXSUBJECTINDEXBriefContentsfrontmatterpixxxvinddviifrontmatterpixxxvinddvii:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartixCHAPTERIntroductiontoCognitivePsychologyCOGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGY:STUDYINGTHEMINDWhatIstheMindStudyingtheMind:EarlyWorkinCognitivePsychologyABANDONINGTHESTUDYOFTHEMINDWatsonFoundsBehaviorismSkinner’sOperantConditioningSettingtheStagefortheReemergenceoftheMindinPsychologyTHEREBIRTHOFTHESTUDYOFTHEMINDIntroductionoftheDigitalComputerConferencesonArtificialIntelligenceandInformationTheoryRESEARCHINGTHEMINDMemoryConsolidationFromaBehavioralPerspectiveMemoryConsolidationFromaPhysiologicalPerspectiveModelsoftheMindSOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:LEARNINGFROMTHISBOOKTESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESCHAPTERCognitiveNeuroscienceNEURONS:THEBUILDINGBLOCKSOFTHENERVOUSSYSTEMTheMicrostructureoftheBrain:NeuronsTheSignalsThatTravelinNeuronsMETHOD:RecordingFromaNeuronLOCALIZATIONOFFUNCTIONLocalizationforPerceptionMETHOD:BrainImagingLocalizationforLanguageMETHOD:EventRelatedPotentialContentsfrontmatterpixxxvinddixfrontmatterpixxxvinddix:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartx•ContentsTESTYOURSELFDISTRIBUTEDPROCESSINGINTHEBRAINREPRESENTATIONINTHEBRAINRepresentingaTree:FeatureDetectorsTheNeuralCodeforFacesTheNeuralCodeforMemorySOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:“MINDREADING”BYMEASURINGBRAINACTIVITYTESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESCHAPTERPerceptionTHENATUREOFPERCEPTIONPERCEPTIONSTARTSATTHERECEPTORS:BOTTOMUPPROCESSINGBottomUpProcessing:PhysiologicalBottomUpProcessing:BehavioralBEYONDBOTTOMUPPROCESSINGPerceptionDependsonAdditionalInformationPerceivingSize:TakingDistanceIntoAccountDEMONSTRATION:TwoQuartersPerceivingOdorIntensity:TakingSniffingIntoAccountTESTYOURSELFUSINGKNOWLEDGE:TOPDOWNPROCESSINGHelmholtz’sTheoryofUnconsciousInferenceTheGestaltLawsofOrganizationDEMONSTRATION:FindingFacesinaLandscapeTheGestalt“Laws”Are“Heuristics”TakingRegularitiesintheEnvironmentIntoAccountDEMONSTRATION:ShapeFromShadingDEMONSTRATION:VisualizingScenesandObjectsTESTYOURSELFNEURONSANDKNOWLEDGEABOUTTHEENVIRONMENTDesigningaPerceivingMachineTheHuman“PerceivingMachine”ExperienceDependentPlasticityREACHINGFORACUP:THEINTERACTIONBETWEENPERCEIVINGANDTAKINGACTIONMovementFacilitatesPerceptionTheInteractionofPerceptionandActionThePhysiologyofPerceptionandActionMETHOD:BrainAblationfrontmatterpixxxvinddxfrontmatterpixxxvinddx:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartContents•xiMETHOD:DissociationsinNeuropsychologyPickingUpaCoffeeCupandOtherBehaviorsSOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:MIRRORNEURONSTESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESCHAPTERAttentionSELECTIVEATTENTIONSelectiveAttentionasFilteringDEMONSTRATION:FocusingonOneMessageMETHOD:DichoticListeningCognitiveResources,CognitiveLoad,andTaskIrrelevantStimuliMETHOD:FlankerCompatibilityTaskDEMONSTRATION:TheStroopEffectTESTYOURSELFDIVIDEDATTENTIONDividedAttentionCanBeAchievedWithPractice:AutomaticProcessingDividedAttentionWhenTasksAreHarder:ControlledProcessingDEMONSTRATION:DetectingaTargetDistractionsWhileDrivingATTENTIONANDVISUALPERCEPTIONInattentionalBlindnessChangeDetectionDEMONSTRATION:ChangeDetectionTESTYOURSELFOVERTATTENTION:ATTENDINGBYMOVINGOUREYESEyeMovements,Attention,andPerceptionDEMONSTRATION:LookingforaFaceintheCrowdBottomUpDeterminantsofEyeMovementsTopDownDeterminantsofEyeMovementsCOVERTATTENTION:DIRECTINGATTENTIONWITHOUTEYEMOVEMENTSLocationBasedAttentionMETHOD:PrecueingObjectBasedAttentionFEATUREINTEGRATIONTHEORYTHEPHYSIOLOGYOFATTENTIONCovertAttentionEnhancesNeuralRespondingAttentionalProcessingIsDistributedAcrosstheCortexfrontmatterpixxxvinddxifrontmatterpixxxvinddxi:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartxii•ContentsSOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:ATTENTIONINSOCIALSITUATIONSTHECASEOFAUTISMTESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESCHAPTERShortTermandWorkingMemoryTHEIMPORTANCEOFMEMORYINOURLIVESSTUDYINGMEMORYSENSORYMEMORYTheSparkler’sTrailandtheProjector’sShutterSperling’sExperiment:MeasuringtheCapacityandDurationoftheSensoryStoreSHORTTERMMEMORYMETHOD:RecallWhatIstheDurationofShortTermMemoryDEMONSTRATION:RememberingThreeLettersWhatIstheCapacityofShortTermMemoryDEMONSTRATION:DigitSpanDEMONSTRATION:RememberingLettersHowIsInformationCodedinShortTermMemoryDEMONSTRATION:RecallingVisualPatternsTESTYOURSELFWORKINGMEMORYDEMONSTRATION:ReadingTextandRememberingNumbersThePhonologicalLoopDEMONSTRATION:WordLengthEffectDEMONSTRATION:ArticulatorySuppressionTheVisuospatialSketchPadDEMONSTRATION:ComparingObjectsDEMONSTRATION:HoldingaSpatialStimulusintheMindTheCentralExecutiveTheEpisodicBufferTESTYOURSELFWORKINGMEMORYANDTHEBRAINTheEffectofDamagetothePrefrontalCortexPrefrontalNeuronsThatHoldInformationBrainActivationinHumansSOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:THEADVANTAGESOFHAVINGAMOREEFFICIENTWORKINGMEMORYMETHOD:ReadingSpanfrontmatterpixxxvinddxiifrontmatterpixxxvinddxii:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartContents•xiiiTESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESCHAPTERLongTermMemory:StructureDISTINGUISHINGBETWEENLONGTERMMEMORYANDSHORTTERMMEMORYLongTermandShortTermProcessesDEMONSTRATION:SerialPositionSerialPositionCurveCodinginLongTermMemoryMETHOD:RecognitionMemoryDEMONSTRATION:ReadingaPassageLocatingShortandLongTermMemoryintheBrainTypesofLongTermMemoryTESTYOURSELFEPISODICANDSEMANTICMEMORY(EXPLICIT)DistinguishingBetweenEpisodicandSemanticMemoryTheSeparationofEpisodicandSemanticMemoriesConnectionsBetweenEpisodicandSemanticMemoriesPRIMING,PROCEDURALMEMORY,ANDCONDITIONING(IMPLICIT)PrimingMETHOD:AvoidingExplicitRememberinginaPrimingExperimentProceduralMemoryDEMONSTRATION:MirrorDrawingClassicalConditioningSOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:MEMORYLOSSINTHEMOVIESTESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESCHAPTERLongTermMemory:EncodingandRetrievalENCODING:GETTINGINFORMATIONINTOLONGTERMMEMORYMaintenanceRehearsalandElaborativeRehearsalfrontmatterpixxxvinddxiiifrontmatterpixxxvinddxiii:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartxiv•ContentsLevelsofProcessingTheoryDEMONSTRATION:RememberingListsMETHOD:VaryingDepthofProcessingResearchShowingThatEncodingInfluencesRetrievalDEMONSTRATION:ReadingaListTESTYOURSELFRETRIEVAL:GETTINGINFORMATIONOUTOFMEMORYRetrievalCuesMETHOD:CuedRecallMatchingConditionsofEncodingandRetrievalTESTYOURSELFHOWTOSTUDYMOREEFFECTIVELYElaborateGenerateandTestOrganizeTakeBreaksMatchLearningandTestingConditionsAvoid“IllusionsofLearning”MEMORYANDTHEBRAINExperiencesCauseChangesattheSynapseWhereDoesMemoryOccurintheBrainFormingMemoriesintheBrain:TheProcessofConsolidationSOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:AREMEMORIESEVER“PERMANENT”TESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESCHAPTEREverydayMemoryandMemoryErrorsAUTOBIOGRAPHICALMEMORY:WHATHASHAPPENEDINMYLIFETheMultidimensionalNatureofAMMemoryOvertheLifeSpanMEMORYFOR“EXCEPTIONAL”EVENTSMemoryandEmotionFlashbulbMemoriesMETHOD:RepeatedRecallTESTYOURSELFTHECONSTRUCTIVENATUREOFMEMORYBartlett’s“WaroftheGhosts”ExperimentSourceMonitoringandSourceMonitoringErrorsMETHOD:TestingforSourceMonitoringfrontmatterpixxxvinddxivfrontmatterpixxxvinddxiv:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartContents•xvHowRealWorldKnowledgeAffectsMemoryDEMONSTRATION:ReadingSentencesDEMONSTRATION:MemoryforaListTakingStock:ThePlusesandMinusesofConstructionTESTYOURSELFMEMORYCANBEMODIFIEDORCREATEDBYSUGGESTIONTheMisinformationEffectMETHOD:PresentingMisleadingPosteventInformationCreatingFalseMemoriesforEarlyEventsinPeople’sLivesWHYDOPEOPLEMAKEERRORSINEYEWITNESSTESTIMONYErrorsofEyewitnessIdentificationTheCrimeSceneandAfterwardWhatIsBeingDoneSOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:MEMORIESOFCHILDHOODABUSETESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESDEMONSTRATION:ReadingSentences(continued)CHAPTERKnowledgeHOWAREOBJECTSPLACEDINTOCATEGORIESWhyDefinitionsDon’tWorkforCategoriesThePrototypeApproach:FindingtheAverageCaseDEMONSTRATION:FamilyResemblanceMETHOD:SentenceVerificationTechniqueTheExemplarApproach:ThinkingAboutExamplesWhichApproachWorksBetter:PrototypesorExemplarsISTHEREAPSYCHOLOGICALLY“PRIVILEGED”LEVELOFCATEGORIESRosch’sApproach:What’sSpecialAboutBasicLevelCategoriesDEMONSTRATION:ListingCommonFeaturesDEMONSTRATION:NamingThingsHowKnowledgeCanAffectCategorizationTESTYOURSELFREPRESENTINGRELATIONSHIPSBETWEENCATEGORIES:SEMANTICNETWORKSIntroductiontoSemanticNetworks:CollinsandQuillian’sHierarchicalModelMETHOD:LexicalDecisionTaskCriticismoftheCollinsandQuillianModelTheCollinsandLoftusModel:PersonalExperienceAffectsNetworksAssessmentofSemanticNetworkTheoriesfrontmatterpixxxvinddxvfrontmatterpixxxvinddxv:PM:PMCopyrightCengageLearningAllRightsReservedMaynotbecopied,scanned,orduplicated,inwholeorinpartxvi•ContentsREPRESENTINGCONCEPTSINNETWORKS:THECONNECTIONISTAPPROACHWhatIsaConnectionistModelHowAreConceptsRepresentedinaConnectionistNetworkDEMONSTRATION:ActivationofPropertyUnitsinaConnectionistNetworkCATEGORIESANDTHEBRAINSpecificorDistributedActivityCategoryInformationinSingleNeuronsNeuropsychologyofCategoriesBrainScanningandCategoriesSOMETHINGTOCONSIDER:CATEGORIZATIONININFANTSMETHOD:FamiliarizationNoveltyPreferenceProcedureTESTYOURSELFCHAPTERSUMMARYTHINKABOUTITIFYOUWANTTOKNOWMOREKEYTERMSMEDIARESOURCESCHAPTERVisualImageryDEMONSTRATION:ExperiencingImageryIMAGERYINTHEHISTORYOFPSYCHOLOGYEarlyIdeasAboutImageryImageryandtheCognitiveRevolutionMETHOD:PairedAssociateLearningIMAGERYANDPERCEPTION:DOTHEYSHARETHESAMEMECHANISMSKosslyn’sMentalScanningExperimentsDEMONSTRATION:MentalScanningTheImageryDebate:IsImagerySpatialorPropositionalComparingImageryandPerceptionIsThereaWaytoResolvetheImageryDebateTESTYOURSELFIMAGERYANDTHEBRAINImageryNeuronsintheBrainBrainImagingTranscranialMagneticStimulationMETHOD:TranscranialMagneticStimulation(TMS)NeuropsychologicalCaseStudiesConclusionsFromtheImageryDebateUSINGIMAGERYTOIMPROVEMEMORYPlacingImagesatLocationsDEMONSTRATION:MethodofLociAssociatingImagesWith

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经典心理学教材-认知心理学第三版英文

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