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首页 描绘用户体验

描绘用户体验.pdf

描绘用户体验

1989yinxing
2014-03-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《描绘用户体验pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SketchingUserExperiencesThisPageIntentionallyLeftBlankBillBuxtonSketchingUserExperiencesgettingthedesignrightandtherightdesignAMSTERDAM•BOSTON•HEIDELBERG•LONDONNEWYORK•OXFORD•PARIS•SANDIEGOSANFRANCISCO•SINGAPORE•SYDNEY•TOKYOMorganKaufmannisanimprintofElsevierPublisher:DianeCerraPublishingServicesManager:GeorgeMorrisonSeniorProjectManager:BrandyLillyEditorialAssistant:AsmaPalmeiroCopyeditor:AdrienneRebello,QGHHU��'LVWULEXWHFK�FLHQWLÀF�,QGHLQJInteriorprinter:TranscontinentalInterglobeCoverprinter:TranscontinentalInterglobeBookDesign:HenryHongYiuCheungInformationGraphics:HenryHongYiuCheungTypographyConsultant:ArchetypeIllustrations:AdamWoodMorganKaufmannPublishersisanimprintofElsevierSansomeStreet,Suite,SanFrancisco,CAThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaper©byElsevierIncAllrightsreservedDesignationsusedbycompaniestodistinguishtheirproductsareoftenclaimedastrademarksorregisteredtrademarksInallinstancesinwhichMorganKaufmannPublishersisawareofaclaim,theproductnamesappearininitialcapitalorallcapitallettersReaders,however,shouldcontacttheappropriatecompaniesformorecompleteinformationregardingtrademarksandregistrationNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeanselectronic,mechanical,photocopying,scanning,orotherwisewithoutpriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherPermissionsmaybesoughtdirectlyfromElsevier’sScienceTechnologyRightsDepartmentinOxford,UK:phone:(),fax:(),Email:permissionselseviercomYoumayalsocompleteyourrequestonlineviatheElsevierhomepage(http:elseviercom),byselecting“SupportContact”then“CopyrightandPermission”andthen“ObtainingPermissions”LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBuxton,WilliamSketchinguserexperience:gettingthedesignrightandtherightdesignBillBuxtonpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(pbk:alkpaper)ISBN:(pbk:alkpaper)Design,IndustrialITitleTSB’dcISBN:ISBN:ForinformationonallMorganKaufmannpublications,visitourWebsiteatwwwmkpcomorwwwbookselseviercomPrintedinCanadaTotheloveofmylife,LizzieRussContentsPrefaceAcknowledgementsAuthor’sNotePARTI:DesignasDreamcatcherDesignfortheWildCaseStudy:Apple,Design,andBusinessTheBossyRuleASnapshotofTodayTheRoleofDesignASketchoftheProcessTheCycleofInnovationTheQuestionof“Design”TheAnatomyofSketchingClarityisNotAlwaysthePathtoEnlightenmentTheLargerFamilyofRenderingsExperienceDesignvsInterfaceDesignSketchingInteractionSketchesAreNotPrototypesWhereIstheUserinAllofThisYouMakeThatSoundLikeaNegativeThingIfSomeoneMadeaSketchintheForestandNobodySawit…TheObjectofSharingAnnotation:SketchingonSketchesDesignThinkingandEcologyTheSecondWorstThingThatCanHappenARiverRunsthroughItPARTII:StoriesofMethodsandMadnessFromThinkingontoActingOnTheWonderfulWizardofOzChameleon:FromWizardrytoSmokeandMirrorsLeBricolage:CobblingThingsTogetherItWasaDarkandStormyNight…VisualStoryTellingSimpleAnimationShoottheMimeSketchaMoveExtendingInteraction:RealandIllusionTheBifocalDisplayVideoEnvisionmentInteractingwithPaperAreYouTalkingtoMeRecapitulationandCodaSomeFinalThoughtsReferencesandBiblographyIndexThisPageIntentionallyLeftBlankThisisabookaboutdesignMainly,itisaboutthedesignofappliances,structures,buildings,signs,andyes,computers,thatexistinboththephysicalandbehavioralsenseThatis,theremaybesomethingconcretethatyoucantouch,see,andhearButthereisalsosomethingthatyoucanactivelyexperience:somethingthatinvolvesdynamicsortimesomethingwithbehaviorthatisusuallytheresultofsoftwarerunningonanembeddedmicroprocessorandsomethingwhosedesignneedstobegroundedinthenatureofthatexperienceTheunderlyingpremiseofthebookisthattherearetechniquesandprocesseswherebywecanputexperiencefrontandcentreindesignMybeliefisthatthebasisfordoingsoliesinextendingthetraditionalpracticeofsketchingSowhyshouldwecareaboutanyofthisHardlyadaygoesbythatwedon’tseeanannouncementforsomenewproductortechnologythatisgoingtomakeourliveseasier,solvesomeorallofourproblems,orsimplymaketheworldabetterplaceHowever,therealityisthatfewoftheseproductssurvive,muchlessdeliverontheirtypicallyoverhypedpromiseButarewelearningfromtheseexpensivemistakesVerylittle,inmyopinionRatherthanrethinktheunderlyingprocessthatbringstheseproductstomarket,themorecommonstrategyseemstobetheoldshotgunmethodthatis,keepblastingawayinthehopethatoneofthepelletswilleventuallyhitthebull’seyeNowifthisisaproblem,andIbelievethatitis,itshowseveryindicationofgettingworsebeforeitgetsbetterThepundits,suchasWeiser()andDourish(),aswellasthosecontributingtoDenningMetcalfe()andDenning(),tellusthatweareinthemidstofasignificanttransitionintheverynatureoftheproductsthataregoingtoemergeinthefutureOthers,suchasForty()andBorgmann()wouldsaythatthistransitionbeganalongtimeagoBothareaccurateTheimportantpointtorecognizeisthatwheneveritstarted,thechangehasreachedatippingpoint(Gladwell),whereweignoreitatourperilifweareinthebusinessofcreatingnewproductsByvirtueoftheirembeddedmicroprocessors,wirelesscapabilities,identitytagging,andnetworking,theseproductsaregoingtobeevenmoredifficulttogetrightPrefaceIfErnestHemingway,JamesMitchener,NeilSimon,FrankLloydWright,andPabloPicassocouldnotgetitrightthefirsttime,whatmakesyouthinkthatyouwillPaulHeckelthanthosethatwehaveproduced(toooftenunsuccessfully)inthepastForthoseofuscomingfromcomputerscience,thesenewproductsaregoingtobelessandlesslikearepackagingofthebasicPCgraphicaluserinterfaceForindustrialdesigners,theyarenolongergoingtobethemainlypassiveentitiesthatwehavedealtwithinthepast(Theoldchestnutproblemoftheflashing“:”ontheVCRisgoingtolooklikechild’splaycomparedtowhatiscoming)Forarchitects,buildingsaregoingtobecomeincreasinglyactive,andreactive,havingbehavioursthatcontributeasmuchtotheirpersonalitiesasdotheshapes,materials,andstructuresthathavedefinedtheiridentityinthepastAndthenthereisthebusinesssideThesenewproductsaregoingtopresentaraftofnewchallengestotheproductmanagerFinally,companyexecutivesaregoingtohavetoacquireabetterunderstandingofthepivotalroleofdesigninachievingtheirbusinessobjectives,aswellastheirownresponsibilitiesinprovidingtheappropriateleadershipandenvironmentwhereinnovationcanthrive,asopposedtojustsurviveOntheonehand,thechangethatconfrontsusisrootedintheincreasinglyrichrangeofbehavioursthatareassociatedwiththeproductswearebeingaskedtocreateTheseproductswillbeinteractivetoanunprecedenteddegreeFurthermore,thebreadthoftheirformandusagewillbeordersofmagnitudewiderthanwhatwehaveseenwithPCs,VCRs,andmicrowaveovensSomewillbewornorcarriedOtherswillbeembeddedinthebuildingsthatconstituteourhomes,schools,businesses,andcarsInwaysthatweareonlystartingtoevenimagine,muchlessunderstand,theywillreshapewhodoeswhat,where,when,why,how,withwhom,forhowmuch,andforhowlongOntheotherhand,assuggestedbythislastsentence,theextendedbehavioursoftheseproductswillbematched,andexceeded,bytheexpandedrangeofhumanbehaviourandexperiencethattheyenable,encourage,andprovokebothpositiveandnegativeSomeacademics,suchasHummels,Djajadiningrat,andOverbeeke(),gosofarastosaythatwhatwearecreatingislessaproductthana“contextforexperience”Anotherwayofsayingthisisthatitisnotthephysicalentityorwhatisinthebox(thematerialproduct)thatisthetrueoutcomeofthedesignRather,itisthebehavioural,experiential,andemotionalresponsesthatcomeaboutasaresultofitsexistenceanditsuseintherealworldThoughthismayalwayshavebeenthecase,thiswayofdescribingthingsreflectsatransitiontoadifferentwayofthinking,atransitionofviewpointthatIcharacterizeasashiftfromobjectcentredtoexperiencecentredAnditisnotjustacademicstoutingtheexperiencecentriclineforbothproductsandservicesItisalsoreflectedinthetitlesthatwefindinthebusinesssectionsofairportbookstores,suchasPriceless:TurningOrdinaryProductsintoExtraordinaryExperiences(LaSalleBritton),BuildingGreatCustomerExperiences(ShawIvens)andTheExperienceEconomy(PineGilmore)However,myfavoritewayofhittingthisparticularnailontheheadcomesfromadesignerfriend,MichaelKasprow,thecreativedirectorofTrapeze,adesignfirminToronto:SketchingUserExperiencesPrefaceContentiscontent…ContextisKINGNewlabelstendtocarrywiththemtheriskofbeingreducedtoatrendychangeinlanguage,ratherthananysignificantchangeinsubstanceItisonethingtotalkaboutexperiencedesignembracingitinone’spracticeisquiteanotherExpandingthesphereandresponsibilitiesofdesigntoincludesuchexperientialconcernscarrieswithitaveryrealburdenawholenewlevelofcomplexity,especiallyifwefactorinthebroadrangeofemergingtechnologiesthatareinvolvedItreallyrequiresaratherdifferentmindsetandrangeofconcernsthanthosethattraditionallyhavedriventhepracticeofdesignandengineeringForexample,thinkabouttheintroductionoftexting(moreproperlycalledShortMessagingService,orSMS)intomobilephonesThetraditionalobjectcentredapproachwouldviewSMSasthedesignofaprotocoltoenabletextmessagestobesentbetweenphones,andthenitsimplementationinhardwareandsoftware(alongwiththeassociatedmodelforbillingfortheservice)YetthatdescriptiondoesnotevenbegintoaccuratelycharacterizetherealnatureofSMSThisisfarmoreaccuratelyreflectedbyactivitiessuchasvotingforyourfavouriteperformerinAmericanIdol,orflirtingwithsomeoneacrossthefloorinadanceclubThatisSMS,andIdon’tbelievethatyouwillfindanyoneinvolvedinitsdesignwhowouldclaimthattheyanticipated,understood,muchlessconsideredanyofthatwhentheyweredesigningthefeatureThisSMSexampleleadsustoyetanotherdimensioninwhichtheseemergingproductsarebecomingmorecomplex:increasingly,thetechnologiesthatwedesignarenotislandsthatis,theyarenotfreestandingorcompleteintheirownright(totheextentthattheyeverwere,butmoreonthatlater)Rather,theyaresocialentitiesAswithpeople,theyhavedifferentpropertiesandcapacitieswhenviewedasacollective,withinasocial,andphysicalcontext,thantheyhavewhentheyareviewedinisolation,independentoflocationorcontextForexample,justasIbehavedifferentlywhenIamalonethanIdowhenwithothers(amongotherthings,Italkwiththem,buthopefullynottomyself),soitwillbewithourdevicesWhentheyapproachotherdevices,orpossiblypeople,theywillbecomesocialanimalsJustlikeyouandme,theirbehaviourwillvary,dependingonwhomtheyarewith,inthesamewayyouandIbehavedifferentlywithfamilythanwedowithstrangers,businesscolleagues,oraloneSuccessinthisemergingworldisgoingtodependonsignificantchangeinhowweworkNevertheless,Ibelievethatthischangecanrespectthebestofthetraditionsofthepastthatis,itinvolveschangethatbuildson,ratherthanreplaces,existingskillsandpracticeItischangethatmustrecognize,acknowledge,andrespecttheimportanceandinterdependenceofthedifferentdesign,engineering,management,andbusinessdisciplinesinvolvedEachisessential,butnosingleoneissufficientAsitiswithpeople,soitiswithtechnologyIndustryalsomustlearntoreconciletheseinterdependencieswiththeidiosyncraticpropertiesanddemandsofthenewtechnologiesandtypesofproductsthatitistryingtobringtomarketAndtoreallysucceed,theseproductsmustbereconciledtotheneedsandvaluesoftheindividuals,societies,andculturestowhichtheyarebeingtargetedHowever,today’srealityisthatinthisequation,thevalueofdesignistoooftenbeingquestioned,andthecontributionsofthedesignerarebeingseenasanexpensiveluxurySimilarly,insoftwareproducts,weareseeingthenotionofuserinterfacedesigndisappearingasaprofessionaldescription,toooftenbeingreplacedbyusabilityengineering,somethingthatisevermoreremotefromsomethinganindustrialdesigner,forexample,wouldrecognizeasdesignAgainstthisbackdropisthecompellingobservationthattheremayneverhavebeenatimewhendesignwasmoreimportant,andthespecificskillsofthedesignermoreessentialAndyet,withfartoofewexceptions(suchasSharp,RogersPreeceandMoggridge)designasitiscurrentlytaughtandpracticedisbettersuitedforhowthingshavebeeninthepast,ratherthanmeetingthedemandsforwhatiscominginthefutureThepsychologistJeanPiagethasdefinedintelligenceastheabilityofanorganismtoadapttoachangeThesubstantialandlargelytechnologyinducedchangesaffectingusnowareaclearchallengeforthedesignprofessionstoadapttheirskillstotheredesignoftheirownpracticeThisisnotonlytheintelligentresponse,itisessentialifdesignistofulfillitspotentialroleinshapingourcollectivefutureTechnologyisn’tdestiny,nomatterhowinexorableitsevolutionmayseemthewayitscapabilitiesareusedisasmuchamatterofculturalchoiceandhistoricalaccidentaspoliticsis,orfashion(Waldropp)ThisbookisbasedonthepremisethatdesignisadistinctdisciplineItinvolvesuniqueskillsthatarecriticaltothemoldingoftheseemergingtechnologiesintoaformthatservesoursociety,andreflectsitsvaluesFarfrombeingaluxury,informeddesignisessentialfromthetechnical,economic,andculturalperspectiveAsecondkeypremiseisthatalthoughdesignisessential,itisnotsufficientDesignisjustonealbeitanimportantoneofthecomponentsrequisitetothedevelopmentofsuccessful,appropriate,andresponsibleproductsButwhatistheroleofthedesignerHowdoesdesignfitinamongalltheothercomponentsoftheprocessForexample,howdoesdesignfitinwithengineering,marketing,orthecorporateplanandexecutiveobjectivesIfIamanarchitect,industrialdesigner,environmentalgraphicdesigner,orsoftwaredeveloper,whatismyroleWhatskillsdoIneedtocultivateHowcantheybestbedeployedIfIamaneducator,whatshouldIbeteachingsoastopreparemystudentsforwhatiscoming,ratherthanhowthingshavebeendoneinthepastIfIamaninvestor,businessperson,ormanagerwhoaspirestobringnewproductstomarket,howdoIstaffmyteamsWhatkindofprocessshouldIputinplaceThesearethetypesofquestionsthatmotivatedmetowritethisbookForoverthirteenyears,butespeciallyinthepastfourorfive,Ihavehadthepleasureandprivilegetoworkwithsomeoftheworld’smostoutstandingdesigners,fromalmostallSketchingUserExperiencesPrefacedisciplinesIwasawillingstudent,andtheyweregenerousteachersHavingcomefromabackgroundinthearts(music)andtechnology(computerscience),aswellassomeexperienceasanexecutiveofamidsizedcompany,IhavebeenluckyIwasinanunusualpositiontoseethingsfromauniqueandprivilegedperspectiveMyhopeisthatwhatIhavewrittenhereisrespectfulofthosewhoweremyteachers,andworthyoftheconfidencethattheyplacedinmeUltimately,thisbookisaboutproductdesign,withanemphasisonproductsthathavedynamicbehaviourduetotheincorporationofembeddeddigitaltechnologyIttriestoaddressthetopicwhilelookinginafewdifferentdirections:outward,tootherpartsoftheoverallorganizationthatistryingdeveloptheproductfurtherout,totheusersandevenculturewithinwhichtheproductisdestinedandinward,tothestaff,techniques,andmethodsofthedesignteamitselfMyapproachisbuiltlargelyaroundcasestudiesandexamples,supplementedbyadiscussionoftheunderlyingissuesHopefully,alongtheway,IwillshedlightonsomeofthekeyquestionsthatmighthelpusinnovateeffectivelyinthisevermoretechnologicallycomplexenvironmentWhataresomeofthecoreskillsthatoneshouldexpectinamoderndesignteamWhatshouldbetaughtindesignprograms,andhowWhataresomeoftheissuesofmanagingamoderndesignteamcomparedtoengineeringThisisastartItisaroughsketchThebestthatIcanhopeisthatitstimelinesswillinsomewaycompensateforitsbroadstrokesAfterall,isn’tthatwhatsketchingisallaboutAudienceTohavetheintendedimpact,thisbookmustaddressmultipleaudiencesNomatterhowwellonegroupperforms,itisunlikelythattheoveralljobwillbedonesuccessfullyunlesstherestoftheorganizationisworkinginconcertForthistohappen,everyonehastobesingingfromthesamesongsheetInordertohelpbringthisabout,Ihavetriedtospeaktothefollowingkeygroups:Userinterfacedesigners:peoplewhohaveprimarilyasoftwareandorpsychologybackground,andwhohavetraditionallydealtwiththingslikeicons,navigation,menus,search,etcIndustrialdesigners:peoplewholargelystudiedatadesignschool,andwhosespecialtyisproductdesignRelateddesignprofessionals:peoplewhohavestudiedarchitecture,environmentalgraphicdesign,illustration,filmmaking,etcthatis,thosewhomakeuppartoftheeverrichermosaicofthenewexperiencedesignteamSoftwareengineers:peoplewhoarehardcorecomputerscientists,whohavetheresponsibilitytobuildshippingcodethatisrobust,maintainableandmeetsspecificationUsabilityengineers:peoplewhotestandevaluateproductsduringtheirdevelopmentinordertoensurethattheyarefitforhumanconsumptionandthattherearenounexpectednegativesurprisesfortheuserProductmanagers:peoplewhotypicallycomefrommarketingoranMBAtypeofbackground,whohavetoperformliketheconductorofanor

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