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首页 系统功能语法简介 韩礼德等著 Into systemic functional grammar

系统功能语法简介 韩礼德等著 Into systemic functional grammar

系统功能语法简介 韩礼德等著 Into systemic fu…

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2010-02-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《系统功能语法简介 韩礼德等著 Into systemic functional grammarpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SYSTEMICFUNCTIONALGRAMMAR:AFIRSTSTEPINTOTHETHEORYChristianMatthiessenMAKHallidayiii©MatthiessenHallidayPleasedonotcopyorquotewithoutauthors'permissionIntosystemicfunctionaltheoryofgrammarGeneral:lexicogrammarthestudyofgrammar('grammatics')Thisisanintroductoryaccountofaparticulartheoryofgrammar,namelysystemicfunctionaltheoryGrammarisoneofthesubsystemsofalanguagemorespecifically,itisthesystemofwordingsofalanguageItisaphenomenonthatcanbestudied,justlikelight,physicalmotion,thehumanbody,anddecisionmakingprocessesinbureaucraciesandjustasinthecaseoftheseandotherphenomenaunderstudy,weneedtheoryinordertointerpretitSoforinstance,thephysicalphenomenonoftheatomhasbeeninterpretedtheoreticallyintermsofDemocritus'theory,Rutherford'stheory,Bohr'stheory,andsoonWedistinguishbetweenthephenomenonitself(theatom)andvarioustheoreticalmodelsofitWhatkindofthingtheatomisthoughttobewillofcoursevaryconsiderablyaswemovefromonetheorytoanotherDemocritus'atomwasverydifferentfromBohr'satom,inthatitwasindivisible,notaconfigurationofsubatomicparticlesthatis,Democritus'theoryallowedustoseemuchlessoftheatomthanBohr'stheorydoesAwellknownexampleofthewaytheorydetermineshowweinterpretphenomenaislightLightcanbeinterpretedeitherasparticleoraswavetherearetwoalternativetheoriesInthiscase,thealternativesturnouttobecomplementary,inthesensethateachrevealssomethingaboutlightthatweneedtoaccountforThissituationisquitetypicalinscience:weneedcomplementarytheoreticalperspectivestoaccountfortherichdiversityofpropertiesweuncoverinthephenomenabeingstudiedGrammarasaphenomenonofstudyisthusinterpretedaccordingtodifferenttheoriesSoastomaintainthedistinctionbetweengrammarandtheoriesofgrammar,weshallcalltheoryofgrammargrammaticsThedistinctionisanalogoustothatbetweenlanguageandlinguistics,orbetweensocietyandsociologyThedifficultyisthatpeopleoftenusethesametermforboththephenomenonanditsstudy:egwespeakofthe"grammarofEnglish"(thephenomenon)butalsoof"traditionalgrammar"(onetheoryofthephenomenon)Wecouldclarifythissituationifwecalledthesecond"traditionalgrammatics"OurconcernhereisthuswithsystemicfunctionalgrammaticsandweshallillustratehowitcanbeusedinthestudyofgrammarwithexamplesfromthegrammarsofChinese,English,andJapaneseGrammar(asaphenomenon)ispartoflanguageitisthe"systemofwordings",asweputitaboveButhowitisconceptualizedwilldependonourgrammaticsInthehistoryofthinkingaboutlanguageintheWest,therehavebeentwosomewhatdifferenttheoreticalperspectivesBothhavetheiroriginsinAncientGreecetherehavebeenmanyvariations,butwecanstilltracethesetwostrandsofthinkingtodayInone,languageisasetofrulesrulesforspecifyingstructuressogrammarisasetofrulesforspecifyinggrammaticalstructures,suchastheconstructionofatransitivesentencewith'verbobject'Thisperspectiveisthatoflogicandphilosophy,egintheforegroundingofthesentenceasthebasicunitoflanguage,organizedonalogicalmodelintoSubjectPredicateSincethesentenceisthebasicunit,itisstudiedinisolationIntheotherview,languageisaresourcearesourceformakingmeaningssogrammarisaresourceforcreatingmeaningbymeansofwordingThisperspectiveisthatofrhetoricandethnography,egintheforegroundingoftext(discourse)asthebasicunitoflanguage,organizedaccordingtotherhetoricalcontextSincetextisthebasicunit,thesentenceisstudiedinitsdiscourseenvironmentThekindofgrammaticsthatisusuallypresentedinschoolisadilutedversionofthe'grammarasrule'typeoftheoryItpresentsrulesofgrammarintermsofwordsinsentences,withwordsservingfunctionssuchasSubject,Predicate,Object,andAdverbialAsatheory,itfallsfarshortofthedemandsthatarenowbeingmadeongrammaticaltheoriesOntheonehand,ittakesovertoomuchfromtheEuropeanlanguagesitwasfirstappliedto,startingwithGreekandLatinhenceitisoflimitedvalueininterpretingthegrammarsofnonEuropeanlanguagessuchasChinese,Japanese,Indonesian,Tagalog,Thai,VietnameseorthelanguagesofotherregionsandcontinentsOntheotherhand,itbuildsintoolittleoftheoverallgrammaticalsystemoflanguageItallowsustoseeonlyasmallfragmentofgrammaranddoesnotprovideuswithawayofinterpretingtheoverallorganizationofthegrammarofalanguageasasystemofinformationAtthisstageinhistoryweneedarichertheoryofgrammartomeetthechallengesoftheageofinformationegineducation(howtoorganizeandgiveaccesstoknowledge)andincomputation(howtoachievetheautomaticprocessingoftext)Wearealsoinapositiontolearnmoreaboutgrammarthankstotechnicalinnovations:thetaperecorderallowsustostoreandexaminespokenlanguage,andthecomputerallowsustomanipulatevastamountsoftext(spokenorwritten)forthepurposeofgrammaticalstudySystemicfunctionaltheoryisoneresponsetothesedemandsThetheorywasfirstdevelopedinworkonthegrammarofChineseandithasbeenusedineducationalandcomputationalcontextsfromanearlystageUnlikethetheoryofgrammarthatisstillthereceivedtraditioninschool,systemicfunctionalgrammaticstakestheresourceperspectiveratherthantheruleperspectiveanditisdesignedtodisplaytheoverallsystemofgrammarratherthanonlyfragmentsWehopetobringthisoutinthediscussionwhichfollowsGrammarasresourcesystemstheirrealizationinstructureWeuselanguagetointeractwithoneanothertoconstructandmaintainourinterpersonalrelationsandthesocialorderthatliesbehindthemandindoingsoweinterpretandrepresenttheworldforoneanotherandforourselvesLanguageisanaturalpartoftheprocessoflivingitisalsousedto'store'theexperiencebuiltupinthecourseofthatprocess,bothpersonalandcollectiveItis(amongotherthings)atoolforrepresentingknowledgeor,tolookatthisintermsoflanguageitself,forconstructingmeaningGrammaris'partof'thisresourceButtherelationofgrammartoother'parts'ofthelinguisticsystemisnotaparttowholerelationrather,itisasymboliconeGrammarisaresourceforcreatingmeaningintheformofwordingsLetusillustratethispointbyreferencetoonebroadareaofsemanticsandgrammaranareathatweshallcharacterizeasinterpersonal:thisisoneofthreesuchgeneralareas,theothertwobeingideationalandtextualIninteractingwithoneanother,weenterintoarangeofinterpersonalrelationships,choosingamongsemanticstrategiessuchascajoling,persuading,enticing,requesting,ordering,suggesting,asserting,insisting,doubting,andsoonThegrammarprovidesuswiththebasicresourceforexpressingthesespeechfunctions,intheformofahighlygeneralizedsetofclausesystemsreferredtoasMOODAsystem,inthistechnicalsense,isapointofchoiceInthegrammarsofChinese,English,andJapanese,themostgeneralchoiceinmoodisthatbetween'indicative'and'imperative'clausesThesetwoaretheoptionsortermsinthesystemThefollowingexamplesillustratethecontrastbetween'indicative'and'imperative'inEnglish:systemicoption(term)example'indicative'thespyIyoucamecomeswillcomeinfromthecoldwhocamecinfromthecolddiddoeswillthespyIyoucomeinfromthecold'imperative'Youcomeinfromthecold!Anygrammaticalchoicecanberepresentedasasystemwithtwoormorealternativetermsorfeatures,asshowngraphicallyinFigureentryconditionsystemnametermsclauseindicativeimperativeMOODTYPEFig:AsystemThisgraphicrepresentationshows(i)thesystemname(MOODTYPE)(ii)thetermsfromwhichonehastobechosen('indicative''imperative')(iii)theconditionunderwhichthechoiceisavailable,theentrycondition('clause')ThefullsetofconventionsforthesystemicrepresentationisgivenintheAppendixHowdoweknowthatthissystemispartofthegrammarofEnglishTherearethreepartstotheanswer(i)Ifwelookatthewordingoftheexamplesgiveninthetableabove,wecanseethattherearesystematicdifferencesbetweenthe'indicative'onesandthe'imperative'onesTheformerhaveaFiniteverb,whereasthelatterdonotandtheformerhaveaSubject,whereasthelattermayormaynothaveoneitistypicallyabsent(ii)Ifwelookatthesystemitselftoconsiderwhatchoicesareavailablefor'indicative'clauses,wefindthattheyhaveachoiceintense('pastpresentfuture'),expressedthroughtheFiniteverbandalsoinperson,expressedthroughtheSubjectIncontrast,ifwelookatthesystemtoconsiderthechoicesthatareavailablefor'imperative'clauses,wefindthattheyhavenochoiceintenseandtheSubjectcan(inprinciple)onlybetheaddressee,'you'(iii)Ifwelookatthedistinctioninmeaningthatthesystemmakes,wefindthatthechoicehastodowiththenatureofwhatisbeingnegotiatedinthedialogue:eitherinformation('indicative',egDidthespycomeinfromthecoldYes,hedid),orgoodsservices('imperative',egComeinfromthecold!OK)Thesethreepartstotheanswerillustratethreegeneralanglesofapproachtoanysysteminthegrammar:(i)'frombelow',(ii)'fromaround',and(iii)'fromabove'seeFigure(WereturntothispointbelowinSection)Wenowexplorethesystemfromdifferentangles,beginning'frombelow'fromthepointofviewofhowthesystemiccontrastiscreatedinthewordingThesystemnameisnotaformalpartofthesystemitismerelyaconvenientindexclauseMOODTYPEindicativeimperative(i)'frombelow'(ii)'fromaround'(iii)'fromabove'Fig:Perspectivesonasystem(i)Systemiccontrastsarecreatedbysomeaspectofthewording:thetermsofthesystemaredifferentiatedbymeansofgrammaticalstructure(egtheabsencevspresenceofanelementofstructuresuchasSubject),bymeansofgrammaticalorlexicalitems(egthegrammaticalitemkainJapaneseindicatinginterrogativeclauses),or,asafurtherstep,bymeansofaphonologicalfeature(egrisingvsfallingintonation)Wesaythatsystemicterms,orfeatures,arerealized(expressed,coded)byaspectsofthewordingThechoiceintheMOODsystembetween'indicative'and'imperative'isrealizedstructurally:onlyindicativeclausesnormallyhaveaSubjectWecanindicatethepresenceofthegrammaticalfunctionSubjectinindicativeclausesasinFigureclauseindicativeimperativeMOODTYPESubjectFig:SystemwithassociatedrealizationstatementThearrow(«)representstherelationofrealization:thefeature'indicative'isrealizedbythepresenceofthefunctionSubject,statedasSubjectThedifferenttypesofrealizationstatementaresummarizedintheAppendixThepresenceofSubjectisonestepinthespecificationofthefunctionstructureofanindicativeclause,ieoftheorganizationoftheclauseasaconfigurationoffunctions(ii)Whenwecometoexplore'fromaround',wefindthat,throughtheirentryconditions,anumberofsystemscometogetherasaninterrelatedset,calledasystemnetworkWecanillustrateagainfromthegrammarofMOODThechoicebetween'indicative'and'imperative'isthemostgeneraloneinthisareaofthegrammarbuteachalternativeleadstofurtherchoicesForinstance,indicativeclausesareeither'declarative'(theyrodehorses)or'interrogative'(didtheyrodehorseswhorodehorses)declarativeclausesareeither'untagged'(eg,theyrodehorses)or'tagged'(eg,theyrodehorses,didn'tthey),andinterrogativeclausesareeitherofthewhtype(eg,whorodehorses)ortheyesnotype(egdidtheyridehorses)SeeFigureFig:NetworkofMOODsystems(realizationstatementsinboxes)InthediagraminFigure,thegrammaticalresourcesarerepresentedasanetworkofinterconnectedsystems,eachofwhichisachoicepointThesystemsinthenetworkareorderedfromlefttoright,startingwiththemostgeneraloptionandmovingtowardsmorespecificones:if'clause',then'indicative'or'imperative'if'indicative',then'interrogative'or'declarative'if'declarative',then'tagged'or'untagged'if'interrogative',then'yesno'or'wh'Thisisthescaleofdelicacy(degreeofdetail,specificity,granularity)IntheexampleinFigure,eachentryconditionisasimplefeature,'clause'butentryconditionscanalsobecomplexesoffeatures,involvingconjunctionandordisjunctionSuchfeatureslikewisearealwaystermsinothersystemsLetusillustratedisjunctioninanentryconditionConsideragaintheMOODgrammarofFigureIthasonesystem,MOODTAG,whoseentryconditionis'declarative'However,thissystemisactuallynotrestrictedtodeclarativeclausesitisalsoopentoimperativeones(eg,yousaddlethehorses,willyoulet'ssaddlethehorses,shallwe)Consequently,weneedtobeabletostate"ifeither'declarative'or'imperative',then'tagged''untagged'"Thatis,weneedadisjunctiveentrycondition:seeFigureFig:DisjunctiveentryconditionThesamesystemicfeatureorcomplexoffeaturesmayoccurastheentryconditiontomorethanonesysteminthesystemnetworkInthiscase,thesystemsaresimultaneousForexample,theprimaryMOODsystem(MOODTYPE)issimultaneouswiththesystemPOLARITYthechoicebetween'positive'and'negative'clauses:seeFigureFig:SimultaneoussystemsTwosimultaneousstrandsinasystemnetworkdefineatwodimensionalparadigmItisoftenusefultopresentexamplesintheformofamatrixtable,withonesystemrepresentedbythecolumnsandanotherbytherowsThusMOODTYPEandPOLARITYintersectasfollows:MOODTYPE:indicativeimperativePOLARITY:positiveThespycameinfromthecoldComeinfromthecold!negativeThespydidn'tcomeinfromthecoldDon'tcomeinfromthecold!Suchmatricescanbeusedinprobingtheaccuracyofacomplexsystemnetwork:ifitisnotpossibletofindexamplesforoneormoreofthecellsofamatrix,thismeansthatthesystemnetworkpredictsacombinationofsystemictermsthatdoesnotexistLetussummarizewhatwehaveshownabouttheconceptsofsystemandstructure,andtherelationbetweenthemTheseconceptstheorizetheaxesoforganizationinlanguage,theparadigmaticandsyntagmaticThesystemic,paradigmatic,axisisprimaryintheparticularsensethatitdefinestheoverallorganizationofthegrammarofalanguageandthestructural,syntagmatic,axisissecondaryintheparticularsensethatitisspecifiedlocallyintheenvironmentofthevarioustermsofthesystemicaxisFigureshowstheintersectionofthetwoaxesinthegrammarofMOOD,withthesystemicaxisprovidingtheoverallorganizationThisbifurcationintotheparadigmaticaxisandthesyntagmaticaxismakesitpossibleforthesystemtorelatebothtowhatisaboveandtowhatisbelowinotherwords,bothtowhatthesystemrealizesandtowhatitisrealizedby(iii)Lookingatthesystemfromabove,weareaskingwhatitmeans:inotherwords,whatsemanticfeaturesarebeingrealizedbythisparticularsetofoptionsinthegrammarAsalreadynoted,inthecaseofMOODthemeaninghastodowiththenegotiationofspeechfunctionalrolesindialogue:withbasiccategoriessuchasstatementandquestion(exchangeofinformation),commandandoffer(exchangeofgoodsservices),andthecomplexnetworkofvariableandmoredelicatecategoriesofverbalinteractionWeshallnotpursuethesemanticanalysisherebutwemaynotethattheresourcesandmethodsforrepresentingsemanticcategoriesareformallyidenticalwiththoseusedinthelexicogrammarExample:MOODThegrammarofalanguageisaveryrichandcomplexsystemthegrammaticsmustbringoutthatrichnessandcomplexity,andnotobscureitThismeansrecognizingthedifferentvectorsalongwhichthecomplexityisordered,andexploringonestepatatimeHerewehaveintroducedonlyone'corner'ofthegrammar,andonlyinthemostgeneralterms:theprimarysystemsofMOOD,asthesearefoundinEnglishBecausegrammarisviewedasaresourceratherthanasasetofrules,itisinterpretedinsystemicfunctionaltheoryasasystemnetworkthisrepresentsthegrammaticalpotentialavailabletothelanguageuserThesystemnetworkallowsustomapouttheoverallorganizationofthegrammarofalanguage,withdelicacyasthemainprinciplefororderingthevarioussystemsrelativetooneanotherNaturallysuchnetworkssoongetverylargeinthesystemicgrammarsofEnglishstoredincomputers,therearesomewherearoundsystemsWehaveillustratedsuchamapofthegrammarofEnglishwithfragmentsfromtheMOODgrammar,asinFiguresandThepartialEnglishMOODgrammarwehavepresentedisasystemicfunctionaldescriptionofoneparticularlanguage,castinthetheoreticaltermsofsystemicorganizationwithassociatedstructuralrealizationsThatis,whilethetypeoforganizationembodiedinthesystemnetworkispartofthetheory,andisageneralfeaturecommontoalllanguages,theparticularsystemicfeaturesandstructuralrealizationsarepartofourdescriptiveinterpretationofEnglishTheyarenotpartofthegeneralsystemicfunctionaltheoryofgrammar(seefurtherSectionbelow)majorclauseminorclauseindicativeimperativeMoodResidueFiniteSubjectPredicatorResiduePredicatortaggeduntaggedMoodSubjectFinitePredicatorResidueFiniteMoodtagSubjectFig:Thesystemic(paradigmatic)andstructural(syntagmatic)axesintersectingAsadescriptivegeneralizationaboutinterpersonalgrammar,wecanassumethatalllanguageshaveasystemofMOOD:iegrammaticalresourcesfortheinteractionbetweenspeakerandaddressee,expressingspeechfunctionalselectionsindialogueFurther,thesemanticcategoriesofgivinginformation(statement),demandinginformation(question),anddemandingservicesorgoods(commands)areverylikelyenactedinthegrammarsofalllanguagesHowever,theorganizationoftheMOODsystem,andtherealizationsofthevariousoptions,differfromonelanguagetoanotherForinstance,thedegreetowhichthereisadistinctgrammaticalcategorycorrespondingtocommandsisvariable:theremayormaynotbeadistinctformoftheimperative,andevenwherethereis,thereareusuallymanyotherpossiblereal

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系统功能语法简介 韩礼德等著 Into systemic functional grammar

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