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首页 文化中国系列·书法

文化中国系列·书法.pdf

文化中国系列·书法

182*****195@sina.cn
2014-02-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《文化中国系列·书法pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

ChineseCaligraphyCulturalChinaSeriesChenTingyouTranslatedbyRenLingjuanyanNoteCHENTINGYOUwasbornin,andgraduatedinfromShanghaiJinanUniversity,havingmajoredinforeignliteratureFromto,heworkedasaneditorandreporterofPeople'sChinaandBeijingReviewLater,heworkedasanexecutiveeditorattheCommercialPressChenisamemberoftheChineseCalligraphers'AssociationandamemberoftheAllChinaAssociationofEstheticsHisworksincludeTheBeautyofCalligraphy,TheEstheticsofChineseCalligraphy,TheEstheticsofCalligraphy(publishedinJapanesebytheTokyoBookCo),ANewStudyoftheEstheticsofCalligraphy,andTheOriginandCreationoftheEstheticsofCalligraphyChineseCalligraphy图书在版编目(CIP)数据中国书法/陈廷祐著任灵娟译北京:五洲传播出版社ISBNI中II①陈②任III汉字书法研究英文IVJ中国版本图书馆CIP数据核字()第号中国书法著者/陈廷祐译者任灵娟责任编辑/邓锦辉整体设计/海洋出版发行/五洲传播出版社(北京北三环中路号邮编:)设计制作/北京锦绣东方图文设计有限公司承印者/北京华联印刷有限公司开本/×毫米字数/千字印张/版次/年月第1版印次/年月第1次印刷书号/ISBNJ·定价/元Calligraphy:ACulturalTreasureofChinaUniqueChineseCharactersOracleBoneInscriptionsandInscriptionsonAncientBronzeObjectsOfficialScriptandLaterScriptsFourTreasuresoftheStudyBeautyofStrokesBeautyofCompositionBeautyoftheWholeWorkReflectionofExcellentSkillsBeyondtheWorkConveyingtheEmotionsoftheAuthorContentsContentsChineseCalligraphyExpressingKnowledgeoftheAuthorFeelings,DionysusandCursiveStyleCalligraphyandtheTraditionalChineseCulturalMindsetFatherandSon:LeadersoftheTimesTwoMastersoftheTangDynastyThreeMastersFocusingonTemperamentandTasteContemporaryReformsandModernBrillianceChineseCalligraphySpreadsWorldwideAppendixTheDynastiesMentionedinThisBookAppendixListofMainIllustrationsCalligraphy:ACulturalTreasureofChinaCalligraphy:ACulturalTreasureofChinaCalligraphyisthequintessenceofChinesecultureTherehaveemergedsome,kindsofwri�enlanguagesintheworldFirst,theywereusedtorecordeventsandwhatpeoplewantedtosayInwriting,peoplestrivetomakethescriptslookbeautifulandelegantTomeetspecialneeds,theyarewri�eninartisticstylesThewritingofChinesecharactershasbeendevelopedintoaspecialhighlevelartChinesecalligraphyhasflourishedforseveralthousandyearsLikepainting,sculpture,poetry,music,danceandopera,itisafullmemberofthefamilyofartsCalligraphycanbefoundeverywhereinChina,andiscloselylinkedtodailylifeInaddition,itleadsotherartsinthenumberofpeoplewhopracticeitSignboardswithinscriptionsbyfamousfiguresareo�enfoundinshopsandshoppingcenters,addinganantiqueelegancetobusyandnoisytradingareasCalligraphicworksalsodecoratesi�ingrooms,studiesandbedroomsTheChinesecharactersarewri�enonXuanpaperwhichisgoodatabsorbinginkTheworkwillbeChineseCalligraphypastedonapieceofthickpaperwithasilkedge,andthenmountedonascrollorputintoapictureframeforhangingonawallUsually,thecalligraphicworkcontainsapoem,apairofcoupletsoramo�othehostlikesverymuchIfthecalligraphicworkiswri�enbythehosthimself,itwilldemonstrateshisaspirationandinterestaswellashisliteraryorartistictalentAcalligraphicworkcanbringAtraditionalsittingroomofascholarChineseCalligraphyChineseCalligraphyCalligraphy:ACulturalTreasureofChinavitalitytoawhitewall,pleasingtoguestsandfriendsSpringFestivalcoupletsarecalligraphicworksproducedspeciallyforthecelebrationoftheSpringFestival,themostimportanttraditionalfestivaloftheChinesepeopleWri�enonredpaper,suchcoupletsarepostedongateposts,doorpanels,wallsorcolumnsofhousesThecharactersonthecoupletsalwaysexpressgoodwishesfortheyearCharactersinspecialstylesappearasmastheadinscriptionsfornewspapersormagazines,orasthetitlesofbooksThesixcharactersmeaningthePeople’sBankofChinaonChinesebanknoteswerewrittenbyafamouscalligrapherThecalligraphiccharactersorpaintingsonfoldedfansdemonstratetheeleganceoftheuserItisnoexaggerationtosaythattheChinesepeoplehaveanindissolublebondwithcalligraphyThefirstphotoalbumofanewbornbabyhascongratulationswrittenbyhiselderswithbrushandinkwhenhegetsmarried,thepillowcasesareembroideredwithArunningstylecalligraphicworkbyPanBoyingonafancoveringApairofSpringFestivalcoupletsandNewYearpicturesonthemaingateofahouseChineseCalligraphythe“doublehappiness”symbolincalligraphicstyleonhisbirthday,abigcharactermeaning“longevity”inacalligraphicstyleishungupinthehouseAfterhisdeath,theinscriptiononthememorialtabletinfrontofhistombiswrittenbyacalligrapherTouristscanseecalligraphicworksinpavilions,towersandbuildingsinvariousscenicspotsSuchcalligraphicThegatetoweroftheShanhaiPassandthehorizontalplaqueCalligraphy:ACulturalTreasureofChinainscriptionsonwoodenboardsorrocksintegrateharmoniouslywiththesurroundingscenery,andaddradianceandbeautytoitThegatetoweroftheShanhaiPassattheeasternendoftheGreatWall,kilometersawayfromBeijing,wasbuiltinFromthetower,touristscanhaveabird'seyeviewoftheseaandmagnificentmountainsUndertheeavesofthegatetowerisahorizontalplaqueinscribedwithfivehugeChinesecharactersmeaning"TheFirstPassUnderHeaven"TheywerewrittenbythefamouscalligrapherXiaoXianoftheMingDynasty()TheplaquematchesthemagnificentsceneryaroundIfyouvisitMountTaishaninShandongProvince,youcanvisittheSutraStoneValleytotheeastofLongquanPeak,where,onaflat,squaremeterrock,acalligraphercarvedthetextoftheBuddhistDiamondSutrainthesixthcentury,eachcharactermeasuringsquarecentimeters,andthelargestonemeasuringsquarecentimetersHowever,only,ofthe,originalcharactersarelegibleInShaoxing,ZhejiangProvince,yourguidewilltakeyoutovisittheOrchidPavilion,aMeccaforcalligraphersinChinaOnaspringdayin,WangXizhi,wholaterbecameoneofChina’smostdistinguishedcalligraphers,andothermenoflettersgatheredattheOrchidPavilionPartofthetextoftheBuddhistDiamondSutraintheSutraStoneValleyChineseCalligraphyCalligraphy:ACulturalTreasureofChinaChineseCalligraphytocomposepoemswhiledrinkingwineWangXizhiwroteacharacterPrefacefortheCollectionofOrchidPavilionPoemsonthespotwithhisbeautifulcalligraphy,makingtheOrchidPavilionfamousHiscalligraphyhasbeenpraisedasthe“firstrunninghandunderHeaven”Unfortunately,theoriginaloftheprefacewasburiedtogetherwithLiShimin,thesecondemperoroftheTangDynasty,whowasalsoafinecalligrapherTheprefaceweseetodayisacopydonebyFengChengsuoftheTangDynastyTheForestofStelesintheancientcapitalcityofXi'anistheoldestandbestcollectioninChinaandatreasurehouseofancientChinesecalligraphy,art,classicsandstoneengravingMorethan,inscribedtabletsandmemorialtabletsfromtombsandpavilionsoftheHanandTangdynastiesaredisplayedinexhibitionhalls,galleriesandpavilionsFirstbuiltin,theForestofStelesisapartoftheShaanxiProvincialMuseum,andaculturalsiteunderstateprotectionTherearerigorousstandardsandcriteriaforassessingcalligraphicskillsandworksThecalligraphicPrefaceforthe“CollectionofOrchidPavilionPoems”writtenbyWangXizhioftheJinDynastyCalligraphy:ACulturalTreasureofChinaskillsdemonstratetheculturalbackground,artisticlevelandsentimentsofthecalligrapherThroughtheages,manyoffamouscalligraphershavebeenpainters,thinkers,politiciansorscholarstooWhentalkingaboutaperson’sachievementsincalligraphy,hisachievementsinotherfieldsarealwaysmentionedExcellentcalligraphicworksareheldtodemonstrateoutstandingabilityandgreatlearningCalligraphyisthefirstartisticendeavortheChinesepeoplelearnWhileteachingchildrentoreadcharacters,parentsandteachersnotonlyshowthemthestrokes,theyalsotrytoarousetheiraestheticconsciousnessanddeveloptheirartisticjudgmentandcreationThisishelpfulfortheirfuturelivesPeoplecallcalligraphy"paintingwithoutimages,apieceofmusicwithoutsounds,astagewithoutactorsandactressesandabuildingwithoutcomponentsandmaterials"Calligraphicworksexpressvariousessentialfactorsofbeauty–balance,proportion,variety,continuity,contrast,movement,changeandharmony–throughthedifferentshapesandformsofthelines,theircombinationsandwaysofmovementCalligraphyhasalsoinspiredotherarts,andviceversaLikemusic,calligraphyhasrhythmasitsmainelementThedotsandstrokesinthickandlightinkorinroundorsquareshapesdemonstrateobviousrhythms,likechangingandmovingmusicalrhythms,expressingthesurgingthoughtsandemotionsofthecalligrapherandmusicianalikeItisnowonderthatApictureofLuXun(),agreatwriterofchinaArunningscriptletterbyLuXunChineseCalligraphycalligraphytheoristspraisecalligraphicworksasbeinglike“musicintheair”oras“awonderfulpieceofmusicplayedbyanexcellentmusician”Also,calligraphicworkscandemonstratethebeautyofboththebodyandmovement,liketheartofdanceBothhaveartisticfeaturesconcerningthespaceandtimeCalligraphyanddancecanabsorbinspirationfromeachotherZhangXu,acursivescriptcalligraphymasteroftheTangDynasty,wasfamousfordistinctiverhythmsandawildstyleLegendsaysthathemadeswiftprogressinhiscalligraphyafterhegotinspirationfromadanceperformedbythefamousdancerGongsunThroughdistinctiverhythmsandneatmovements,thedancerdemonstratesvariouskindsofcharmsandemotionssuchasvividness,joy,sadness,anger,aspiration,demand,boldnessandinspirationThecursivescriptcalligraphicworksbyZhangXu,thepoemsbyLiBaiandthesworddancebyPeiMinwerepraisedasthreewondersbytheemperoroftheirtimeTheFourModelsofCalligraphyofClassicalPoemsisoneofthefewcalligraphicworksbyZhangXuhandeddownbyhistoryThecharactersPartoftheFourModelsofCalligraphyofClassicalPoems,byZhangXuCalligraphy:ACulturalTreasureofChinausedinthisworkareboldandunrestrained,andlinkedtogetherlikeonecharacterThespacebetweenthecharactersvariesgreatlyInthes,atelevisionstationinBeijingbroadcastanartisticprogramentitled"InkDance,"whichdemonstratedtheartsofcalligraphyanddanceatthesametimeWiththebackgroundofacalligraphicwork,thedancerpresentedthedancemovementsaccordingtothemeaningsandshapesofthecharactersThelightsteps,softwaistmovementsandgentlemusicstimulatedtheaudience'simaginationCalligraphyhasanevencloserrelationwithtraditionalChinesepaintingBothusebrushesandXuanpaperthedifferenceisthattheformerusesblackinkonly,whilethelatterusesvariouskindsofcolorsCalligraphy,asakindofart,existstogetherwiththeotherartsInbookstores,calligraphicworksaresoldtogetherwithpaintingsAtsomeexhibitions,calligraphicworksareondisplaytogetherwithpaintingsUsually,apainterleavessomespaceforacalligraphertowriteaclassicalpoemorpoeticAwashpainting,Shrimps,byQiBaishiChineseCalligraphylinesrelatedtothescenesandobjectsappearingonthepictureinordertoincreaseitsattractionThepicturewillbemorecharmingandtastefulifitbearsapoemcreatedandwrittenbythepainterhimselforherselfInthepast,anartistwhowasgoodatpoetry,calligraphyandpaintingwascalleda“personwiththreewonderfultalents”SincetheTangDynasty,eachhistoricalperiodhasproducedmanysuchtalentedpeopleCalligraphyandpaintinghavemanyskillstoexchangeTraditionalpaintinghasdrawninspirationfromcalligraphyinusingbrushandink,especiallyinthefieldofabstractimplicationsandfreeingitselffromshacklesofconcreteobjectsChinesewashpaintingoriginatedinthesimplebutsmoothbrushstrokesofcalligraphyQiBaishi’spaintingsofshrimpsaregoodexamplesofsuchwashpaintingsQisketchesshrimpswithafewsimplestrokes,usingdifferentshadesofinkWithoutanyconcretedepictionofwater,peoplecanvisualizethemurmuringstream,andsmelltherefreshingfragranceofwaterTheguidingandleadingpositionofcalligraphywithregardtovariouskindsofartsislikethatofthemathematicsamongthevariousnaturalsciences,suchasphysics,chemistry,geologyandmeteorologyIngeneral,mathematicaltheoryisabstractbutprofoundlyreflectstherelationsbetweenspaceandmathematicsSoallschoolshavepaidgreatattentiontoeducationinmathematics,andnaturalscientistshavereliedonsoundmathematicalknowledgetostudytheprofoundmysteriesandmastertheprinciplesofthenaturalsciencestheyareengagedinTalkingaboutthisremindsmeofacelebrateddictumofLaoZi,thegreatTaoistphilosopherwholived,yearsago:“TheTao(Way)ismysteriousandprofound,andisthedoortovariouswonders”HereIapplyhisdictumtoChinesecalligraphy,whichIseeasmysteriousandprofound,andisthedoortovariouskindsofartsChineseCalligraphyUniqueChineseCharacters火土金木水UniqueChineseCharactersAllwrittenlanguageshavethreekeyelementsorfunctions:shape,pronunciation,andmeaningWithregardtoChinesecalligraphy,theshapeofthecharactersiscloselyrelatedtoitthemeaningsofthecharactershavesome,butnotagreatrelationshipwithitandthepronunciationofthecharactershasnorelationshipwithitatallSoIwillmainlyintroducetherelationsoftheuniqueshapesoftheChinesecharacterstotheartofcalligraphyThespecialanduniqueshapesoftheChinesecharactersandtheprincipleoftheircompositionformthebasisoftheemergenceanddevelopmentofChinesecalligraphyLikeastronomicalphenomena,amongnumerousstarsintheuniverseonlytheearthhaswaterandairhere,alllivingthings,especiallyhumanbeings,cansurviveandreproduceForcalligraphy,theuniqueChinesecharactersareitswaterandairChinesecharactersaresquare,andeachoccupiesasquarespaceonpaperStatisticsshowthatthereare,commoncharacters,againstthetotalof,TheChinesepeopleusethesecharacters,whichoccupyasimilarspaceeachbutwithdifferentshapes,asmeanstoThespecialformsandcompositionofChinesecharactersChinesecharactersoccupyasquarespaceeachChineseCalligraphyrightdownwardstrokeverticalstrokehorizontalstrokerightupwardstrokeleftdownwardstrokehookstrokedotexchangeorrecordinformationYoucanimaginehowmanywonderfularrangementsareneededforthecreationofChinesecharactersofthousandsofdifferentshapestofitinasmallsquareChinesecharacters,ingeneral,arecomposedofadozenbasicstrokes,whichhavesimilarfunctionstothelettersoftheWesternlanguagesButtheydonotcombinesoundsintosyllablesThereareeightbasicstrokes:dot,horizontalstroke,turningstroke,verticalstroke,hookstroke,rightupwardstroke,leftdownwardstrokeandrightdownwardstrokeTheycanbedemonstratedusingthecharacter"永"(yong)inthesocalledformalscriptInpractice,inindividualhandwriting,thestrokesshowsomevariations,astheydoindifferentstylesofscriptTaketheformalscriptforexampleAdotintheformalscriptiswritteninmorethanThecharacter“yong”demonstratestheeightfundamentalstrokesThenumbersinthetwopicturesaboveshowthewritingorderofthestrokesturningstrokeUniqueChineseCharacters(Singledots)(Doubledots)(Tripledots)(Fourdots)differentways,andthehookstrokeinadozendifferentwaysSomeareillustratedonthispageInasmallsquarespace,charactersarecomposedofdifferentstrokeslinkedandarrangedinvariousways,thustheyareeasilytorecognize,andlookneatThesestrokesareplacedinvariouspositionsinthesquare–upperorlower,le�orright,separateorlinked,crossed,goingthrough,overlapping,pilinguporsurroundingWesternlanguageshavele�ers,morethanthebasicstrokesofChinesecharacters,buthaveonlythreeforms:straightline,curvedlineanddotAndthele�ers,disregardingtheirnumbers,arearrangedfromle�toright,quitedifferentfromChinesecharacters,whichcanbearrangedinorder,irregular,closeandloosewaysaccordingtothevariedcompositionsoftheirstrokesIngeneral,therearetwoorthreehandwritingstyleslikeformalandcursivescriptsintheworld,muchfewerthanthedozenscriptsinChinesecalligraphyHereIintroducefivescriptsThefirstthreearecommonlyused,whiletheothertwoarearchaicandonlyusedincalligraphynowadaysCharactersarecomposedofstrokesarrangedindifferentwaysDotsandhookstrokesindifferentformsChineseCalligraphyFormalscript,orregularstyleWithahistoryofmorethan,years,formalscriptisafundamentalwritingstyleandusuallyappearsinprintedmatterandoncomputerscreens,featuringstandardstrokes,rigorousrulesandaslowspeedofwritingTheChinesecharactersinthisstyleareeasytorecognizeThisstyleiscommonlyusedinshopsigns,horizontalorverticalsignboardsonbuildings,SpringFestivalcouplets,tabletsinfrontoftombs,monuments,nameplatesofnewspapersandofficialdocumentsandcorrespondenceRunningscriptThisscripthasbeendevelopedfromthequickwritingformalscript,andisastylehalfwaybetweenformalscriptandcursivescriptSuchastyleislooserthantheformalscript,andhasmorelinksbetweenstrokesMostcharactersinthisstylehaveslantingshapesMovingofthestrokesissimple,smoothandlight,andcharactersareeasilyrecognizable

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