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SpringerSeriesinAdvancedManufacturingSeriesEditorDucTruongPhamForfurthervolumes:http:wwwspringercomseriesWeidongLi•JörnMehnenEditorsCloudManufacturingDistributedComputingTechnologiesforGlobalandSustainableManufacturingEditorsWeidongLiCoventryUniversityCoventryUKJörnMehnenCranfieldUniversityCranfieldUKISSNISBNISBN(eBook)DOISpringerLondonHeidelbergNewYorkDordrechtLibraryofCongressControlNumber:SpringerVerlagLondonThisworkissubjecttocopyrightAllrightsarereservedbythePublisher,whetherthewholeorpartofthematerialisconcerned,specificallytherightsoftranslation,reprinting,reuseofillustrations,recitation,broadcasting,reproductiononmicrofilmsorinanyotherphysicalway,andtransmissionorinformationstorageandretrieval,electronicadaptation,computersoftware,orbysimilarordissimilarmethodologynowknownorhereafterdevelopedExemptedfromthislegalreservationarebriefexcerptsinconnectionwithreviewsorscholarlyanalysisormaterialsuppliedspecificallyforthepurposeofbeingenteredandexecutedonacomputersystem,forexclusiveusebythepurchaseroftheworkDuplicationofthispublicationorpartsthereofispermittedonlyundertheprovisionsoftheCopyrightLawofthePublisher’slocation,initscurrentversion,andpermissionforusemustalwaysbeobtainedfromSpringerPermissionsforusemaybeobtainedthroughRightsLinkattheCopyrightClearanceCenterViolationsareliabletoprosecutionundertherespectiveCopyrightLawTheuseofgeneraldescriptivenames,registerednames,trademarks,servicemarks,etcinthispublicationdoesnotimply,evenintheabsenceofaspecificstatement,thatsuchnamesareexemptfromtherelevantprotectivelawsandregulationsandthereforefreeforgeneraluseWhiletheadviceandinformationinthisbookarebelievedtobetrueandaccurateatthedateofpublication,neithertheauthorsnortheeditorsnorthepublishercanacceptanylegalresponsibilityforanyerrorsoromissionsthatmaybemadeThepublishermakesnowarranty,expressorimplied,withrespecttothematerialcontainedhereinPrintedonacidfreepaperSpringerispartofSpringerScienceBusinessMedia(wwwspringercom)PrefaceOwingtoglobalization,modernmanufacturingactivitiesaregeographicallydistributedacrosstheworldandawayfromcomprehensivevaluecreationwithinsingleenterprisesOriginalEquipmentManufacturers(OEMs)andpartners,amongwhichSmallandMidsizedEnterprises(SMEs)arethemainportion,haveformedcomplexanddecentralizedinformationchainsSettingupownmanufacturinginformationsystemswouldhavemeantamassivecapitalexpenditureforenterprisesMoreover,enterprisesareusuallyinsufficientinresourceandexpertisetomaintainsuchcomplexsystemstoachieveglobalandsustainablemanagementNoveldistributedtechnologies,suchasCloudComputing,arethenewgenerationsupplement,consumption,anddeliverymodelsfortheovertheInternetprovisionofdynamicallyscalableresourcesandutilitycomputing,cansupportmultiplecompaniestodeployandmanageservicesforaccessingandexploitingovertheInternetAsthus,aCloudManufacturingsystemorservice,whichservesmultiplecompaniestodeployandmanagemanufacturinginformationandsustainablemanagementservicesforaccessingandexploitingovertheInternet,canprovideacosteffective,flexible,andscalablesolutiontoglobalmanufacturingenterprisesbysharingcomplexdatabaseandsoftware,withlowersupportcostsontopofthatThisbookisaimedatupdatingthelatestresearchanddevelopmentinthisemergingandimportantRDfieldAnewparadigmcalledCloudManufacturingisintroduced,whichstandsfornovelscalableserviceorientedsustainableandgloballydistributedmanufacturingsystemsInthisbook,originalandinnovativechaptershavebeenincludedtoaddressthemajorchallengesofdevelopingdistributedandCloudComputingtechnologiesformanufacturingsystemsandservices,withscientificandrigorousfoundationsaswellasapplicationvaluesCoveredtopicsinclude:innovativedesignofdistributedandCloudarchitecturesforglobalandsustainablemanufacturingmanagementdistributedprocessplanningandschedulinginglobalandsustainablemanufacturingmodernevolutionalalgorithmsinCloudManufacturingsystemsandservicessustainablemanufacturingpracticeandCloudComputingcollaborativeproductandmanufacturingservicesystemsdistributeddimensionaldatasharingtechniqueforCloudandWebapplications,andrelevantvusersurveys,applications,andcasestudiesinaerospaceanddefenseindustries,remanufacturing,andsocializedmanufacturingsocietyInChap,theessentialfeaturesofCloudComputingarediscussed,followedbyaCloudManufacturingconceptAserviceorientedsystemcalledInteroperableCloudbasedManufacturingSystem(ICMS)isthenpresentedICMSprovidesaCloudbasedenvironmentintegratingtheexistingandfuturemanufacturingresourcesbypackagingthemusingtheVirtualFunctionBlockmechanismandstandardizeddescriptionInChap,adistributeddisassemblyplanningservicetosupportWasteElectricalandElectronicEquipmentremanufacturing(WEEE)isreportedInthischapter,aParticleSwarmOptimizationbasedselectivedisassemblyplanningmethodembeddedwithcustomizabledecisionmakingmodelsandanovelgenericconstrainthandlingalgorithmisdevelopedIndustrialcasesonLiquidCrystalDisplaytelevisionshavebeenusedtoverifyanddemonstratetheeffectivenessandrobustnessoftheresearchindifferentapplicationscenariosAsoutsourcingdemandsrelatedtomachiningtaskareappearingtobeincreasinglyexplosiveinrecentyears,especiallyinSMEmanufacturingenterprises,anewproductionandoperationphenomenoncharacterizedbyoutsourcingmachiningserviceshasemergedconsequentlyInordertoaddresstheneed,ChappresentsanovelCloudMachiningCommunitymainlyfocusingonoutsourcedtasksrelatedtomachiningprocessesandpartsAusecasefashioningatorquearmofanairplaneundercarriageisstudiedsoastodemonstratethefeasibilityandapplicabilityoftheproposedframeworkandtechnologiesThepurposeofChapistoconfirmwhichfactorsactuallyaffectadoptionoftheCloudComputingtechnologyinmanufacturingcompaniesThefactorsareassessedbyarandomlyselectedsampleofworkingprofessionalsintheUnitedKingdomthroughanonlinequestionnaireAnalysisoftheresultshowsthatSecurity,Cost,ServiceAvailability,Compliance,andPerceivedUsefulnessarefactorsofconcernthatorganizationswouldhavetodeeplyconsiderbeforemovingtotheCloudSustainabilitybecomesessentialtotoday’smanufacturingsystemsandanewconcernishowtoevolvetheexistingparadigmstomeetnewchallengesusingdistributedandCloudComputingtechnologiesTheobjectivesofChaparetoexaminethemanufacturingrequirementsinawiderscope,torevisittheexistingparadigmstoclarifythelimitationsandbottlenecks,andeventuallytoidentifyfutureresearchdirectionstowardsustainablemanufacturingWithinthecontext,thischapterfocusesmoreonReconfigurableandCloudmanufacturingsystemparadigms,andhighlightsthefutureendeavorstowardbettersustainabilitySustainabilityhasalsobecomeacriticaldrivingforceshapingthefutureofWasteElectricalandElectronicEquipment(WEEE)managementandremanufacturingInChap,lifecycleinformationandflowmanagementisinvestigatedtoenabletransitionfromthecurrent‘‘managementauthoritycentricreportingmodelforWEEE’’toanew‘‘globallydistributedandsustainablemanagementmodelforWEEE’’Inordertoachievethetarget,casestudiesonLCDtelevisionWEEEareconductedtounderstandsupplychaininformationflowsandrecoveryviPrefaceandremanufacturingprocessesBasedonthat,informationflowframeworkdesignforWEEEmanagementisexploredOneofthechallengingproblemsthathinderthedevelopmentofCloudbasedcollaborativesystemsisthecontradictionoflargeCADfilesandthelimitedspeedtosharethemovertheInternetandWebInChap,anewDstreamingtechnologytotransferdesignandmanufacturingvisualizationdataviatheInternetandWebisreportedChapterpresentsaparadigmofdesigningbyservices,describesthedevisingofaserviceorientedarchitectureforcollaborativeproductdevelopmentsystemsforthisparadigm,discussesthekeyenablingtechnologiesinvolved,andintroducesthedevelopmentofacollaborativesimulationusingserviceorientedcomputingasacasestudyofsoftwaresystemsimplementationRecentdevelopmentsinwirelesstechnologieshavecreatedopportunitiesfordevelopingnextgenerationmanufacturingsystemswithrealtimetraceability,visibility,andinteroperabilityinshopfloorplanning,execution,andcontrolChapterproposesareferencedinfrastructureofUbiquitousManufacturing(UM),inwhichaSmartGatewayandarealtimeworkinprogressmanagementsystembasedonsmartobjectssuchasRFIDAutoIDdevicesandWebservicetechnologiesaredesignedtoimprovetheoptimalplanningandcontroloftheentireshopfloorThepresentedframeworkisdemonstratedthroughanearreallifesimplifiedshopfloorthatconsistsoftypicalmanufacturingobjectsChapterpresentsareviewoftheRDliteratureondistributedcollaborativeengineeringandapplications,fromthetechnologiesofthestotoday’sstateoftheartResearchchallengesandopportunitiesontheresearchareasarealsodiscussedandhighlightedDistributedandCloudComputingtechnologiesapplicabletodistributedcollaborativeengineeringandapplicationsarediscussedindetailInChap,thelandscapeofCloudComputingisdescribedandafocusisputontheviewonthepossibilityofimplementingthisnewconceptinthemilitaryworldThestrengthsandtheweaknessthattheimplementationofCloudComputingcanintroduceinthemilitaryoperationsarehighlightedThechaptersinthisbookprovideanupdateandoverviewofthelatesttechnologicaldevelopmentandapplicationsinrelevantresearchareasThisbookisbelievedtomakesignificantcontributionstotheliterature,andcanbeusedasatextbookorreferenceformechanicalmanufacturingcomputerengineeringgraduatestudentsandresearchersforefficientutilization,deployment,anddevelopmentofdistributedandCloudmanufacturingsystems,services,andapplicationsDuringthedevelopmentofthisbook,wehavereceivedinvaluableinputandgottengreatsupportfromthechapterauthorsTheircommitment,enthusiasm,professionalism,andtechnicalexpertisemadethisbookpossibleWearealsogratefultothepublisherforsupportingthisproject,andwouldliketothankMrAnthonyDoyle,SeniorEditorforEngineering,andMsGraceQuinn,EditorialAssistant,fortheirconstructiveassistanceandearnestcooperationSomeresearchintheeditors’ownchapterswascarriedoutasapartoftheGREENetandCASESprojectswhicharesupportedbyaMarieCurieInternationalResearchStaffExchangeSchemeFellowshipwithinthethEuropeanCommunityPrefaceviiFrameworkProgrammeWewouldthankanumberofprojectpartnersfromEurope(UK,France,Spain,Romania,andUkraine)andChinafortheirtechnicalcooperationandsupporttotheresearchworkWehopereadersfindthisbookinformativeandusefulNovemberWeidongLiJörnMehnenviiiPrefaceContentsICMS:ACloudBasedManufacturingSystemXiVincentWangandXunWXuADistributedServiceofSelectiveDisassemblyPlanningforWasteElectricalandElectronicEquipmentwithCaseStudiesonLiquidCrystalDisplayWeidongLi,KXia,BLu,KMChao,LGaoandJXYangCloudMachiningCommunity:AMethodtoUseSocializedProductionResourcesforOutsourcingMachiningProcessesandPartsPYJiang,WCao,FQZhang,YBFuandLLuoFactorsAffectingCloudTechnologyAdoption:PotentialUser’sPerspectiveNicholasAOgundeandJörnMehnenManufacturingParadigmShiftTowardsBetterSustainabilityZMBiandLihuiWangLifecycleSustainableInformationManagementforWasteElectricalandElectronicEquipmentWeidongLi,KXiaandLGaoAStreamingTechnologyofDDesignandManufacturingVisualizationInformationSharingforCloudBasedCollaborativeSystemsWeidongLi,YLCaiandWFLuixDesigningbyServices:ANewParadigmforCollaborativeProductDevelopmentHongweiWangandHemingZhangRealTimeWorkinProgressManagementforUbiquitousManufacturingEnvironmentYingfengZhang,GeorgeQHuang,TingQuandShudongSunSurveyonDistributedCollaborativeEngineeringandApplicationsWMShen,QHaoandWeidongLiManufacturingParadigmShiftTowardsBetterCloudComputingintheMilitaryEnvironment:ANewModelforCollaborationintheOperationalInformationExchangeNetworksMicheleTutinoandJörnMehnenIndexxContentsChapterICMS:ACloudBasedManufacturingSystemXiVincentWangandXunWXuAbstractNowadays,CloudComputingtechnologyisprovidinganewwaytodobusinessbyofferingascalable,flexibleserviceovertheInternetItcreatesnewsolutionsandopportunitiestothemodernenterprises,includingthemanufacturingindustryInthischapter,theessentialfeaturesofCloudComputingarediscussedfollowedbyaCloudManufacturingconceptInthesecondpart,aserviceorientedsystemcalledInteroperableCloudbasedManufacturingSystem(ICMS)isproposedICMSprovidesaCloudbasedenvironmentintegratingexistingandfuturemanufacturingresourcesbypackagingthemusingtheVirtualFunctionBlockmechanismandstandardizeddescriptionIntroductionCloudComputingreferstothedeliveryofcomputingasaservice,insteadofatraditionalproductAccordingtothedefinitionofNationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology(NIST),,CloudComputingisamodelforenablingubiquitous,convenient,ondemandnetworkaccesstoasharedpoolofconfigurablecomputingresources(egnetworks,servers,storage,applications,andservices)thatcanberapidlyprovisionedandreleasedwithminimalmanagementeffortorserviceproviderinteractionInaCloudComputingenvironment,decentralizedXVWangXWXu()DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,SchoolofEngineering,UniversityofAuckland,Auckland,NewZealandemail:xunxuaucklandacnzXVWangemail:xwanaucklanduniacnzWLiandJMehnen(eds),CloudManufacturing,SpringerSeriesinAdvancedManufacturing,DOI:,SpringerVerlagLondonconsumersareprovidedbyflexibleandmeasurableservicefromtheresourcepoolThekeyspiritoftheCloudconceptcanbesummarizedasthecapabilityofprovidingdistributed,fastresponding,ondemandandquantifiableservicesInthepastfewdecades,manynoveltechnologieshavebeenproposedtoimprovetheenvironmentofmanufacturingbusiness,egcollaborativemanufacturing,virtualmanufacturing,agilemanufacturing,etcAmongstthesesolutions,CloudComputingtechnologyprovidesapromisingsolutionandanevenbroaderdefinitionfortheconceptof‘‘Designanywhereandmakeanywhere(DAMA)’’Inthefirsthalfofthischapter,CloudComputingtechnologyrelatedtothemanufacturingperspectiveisdiscussed,followedbyareviewoftherelatedresearchworkInthesecondhalf,aCloudbasedplatformisproposedtoachieveaninteroperabledistributedmanufacturingenvironmentCloudManufacturing:CloudComputingwithaManufacturingPerspectiveCloudComputingincludesboththesoftwareservicedeliveredtotheuserandthesystemsandhardwarethatareabletoprovidetheserviceinneedTheformerisdefinedasSoftwareasaService(SaaS)andthelaterasInfrastructureasaService(IaaS)andPlatformasaService(PaaS)UnderthebroadconceptofCloud,everythingistreatedasaService(XaaS)FromCloudComputingtoCloudManufacturingTopreciselydefineandclassifytheCloudmodel,therearefourdeploymenttypes,ieprivate,community,public,andhybridCloudTosupporttheseconceptsorarchitecture,platformsareprovidedbythemajorsoftwarevendorssuchasAmazon’sElasticComputeCloud(EC),Google’sAppengine,Microsoft’sAzureandSun’sCloudAccordingtoarecentForresterresearch,CloudComputingbusinesshasreached$billiongloballyinwhileimpactingbillionInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT)marketEventhoughsomeobstaclesareobserved,forinstancetheunpredictabilityandconfidentiality,itisstillpredictedthatCloudComputingmarketwillkeepgrowinganddevelopinginthefutureAsaservicecentricsolution,usersortheenterprisewillbenefitsfromCloudComputingfeaturessuchaslowcost,flexibility,mobilityandautomationIntheCloudComputingenvironment,anenterprisedoesnotneedtopurchasethesoftwarehardwarethatisrarelyusedBasedonthe‘‘payasyougo’’principle,thecostcanbereducedincludinglessmaintainingandlaborexpensesFortheserviceprovider,theupdatingandreproducingprocedureissimplifiedaswellByXVWangandXWXuupdatingthecodesintheprovidercloud,traditionalshipping,repackagingcostismadeavoidable,soisthecostTheuserisprovidedbymoreflexiblecomputingmethodsTherearemorechoicesforcompaniestoprocessaspecifictask,andmorefreedomtolaunchterminateaservicewithlessissueTheusersemployeescouldaccesstheapplicationinformationviavariousdevicesconnectedtothenetworkItimprovestheorganizationwithanenvironmentofdistributedcollaborationInanindustryscenario,usersareenabledtogettherealtimedevicestatus,forinstancestorageinformation,thankstothenetworksensorswithouttheneedtovisitthesceneForbothcloudusersandproviders,newapplicationpublishingandupdatingismadeeasierByupdatingtheserver,allthepersonalenterprisewouldgetthelatestservicewithoutanyadditionaleffortNowadays,manufacturingbusinessmaynotsurviveinthecompetitivemarketwithoutthesupportofcomputeraidedcapabilities(CAx)andInformationTechnology(IT)Cloudtechnologycanimprovetheenvironmentofproductdesign,manufacturingprocessmanagement,enterpriseresourceplanning,andmanufacturingresourcemanagementbyprovidingagloballyoptimizedsolutionAsmentionedabove,abroaderDAMAcanbedescribedascompletingdesigningandmanufacturingproceduresviaclouds,whiletheusersandbusinesspartnersarelooselyconnectedbyacloudcentralizednetworkItistherefore

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