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Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing Series Editor Duc Truong Pham For further volumes: http://www.springer.com/series/7113 Weidong Li • Jörn Mehnen Editors Cloud Manufacturing Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing 123 Editors Weidong Li Coventry University Coventry UK Jörn Mehnen Cranfield University Cranfield UK ISSN 1860-5168 ISBN 978-1-4471-4934-7 ISBN 978-1-4471-4935-4 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-4471-4935-4 Springer London Heidelberg New York Dordrecht Library of Congress Control Number: 2013931271 Springer-Verlag London 2013 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science?Business Media (www.springer.com) Preface Owing to globalization, modern manufacturing activities are geographically distributed across the world and away from comprehensive value creation within single enterprises. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and partners, among which Small and Mid-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are the main portion, have formed complex and decentralized information chains. Setting up own manufac- turing information systems would have meant a massive capital expenditure for enterprises. Moreover, enterprises are usually insufficient in resource and expertise to maintain such complex systems to achieve global and sustainable management. Novel distributed technologies, such as Cloud Computing, are the new-generation supplement, consumption, and delivery models for the over the Internet provision of dynamically scalable resources and utility computing, can support multiple companies to deploy and manage services for accessing and exploiting over the Internet. As thus, a Cloud Manufacturing system or service, which serves multiple companies to deploy and manage manufacturing information and sustainable management services for accessing and exploiting over the Internet, can provide a cost-effective, flexible, and scalable solution to global manufacturing enterprises by sharing complex database and software, with lower support costs on top of that. This book is aimed at updating the latest research and development in this emerging and important R&D field. A new paradigm called Cloud Manufacturing is introduced, which stands for novel scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems. In this book, original and innovative chapters have been included to address the major challenges of developing distributed and Cloud Computing technologies for manufacturing systems and services, with scientific and rigorous foundations as well as application values. Covered topics include: innovative design of distributed and Cloud architectures for global and sustainable manufacturing management; distributed process planning and schedul- ing in global and sustainable manufacturing; modern evolutional algorithms in Cloud Manufacturing systems and services; sustainable manufacturing practice and Cloud Computing; collaborative product and manufacturing service systems; distributed 3-dimensional data sharing technique for Cloud and Web applications, and relevant v user surveys, applications, and case studies in aerospace and defense industries, remanufacturing, and socialized manufacturing society. In Chap. 1, the essential features of Cloud Computing are discussed, followed by a Cloud Manufacturing concept. A service-oriented system called Interoperable Cloud-based Manufacturing System (ICMS) is then presented. ICMS provides a Cloud-based environment integrating the existing and future manufacturing resources by packaging them using the Virtual Function Block mechanism and standardized description. In Chap. 2, a distributed disassembly planning service to support Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment remanufacturing (WEEE) is reported. In this chapter, a Particle Swarm Optimization-based selective disassembly planning method embedded with customizable decision-making models and a novel generic constraint handling algorithm is developed. Industrial cases on Liquid Crystal Display televisions have been used to verify and demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the research in different application scenarios. As outsourcing demands related to machining task are appearing to be increasingly explosive in recent years, especially in SME manufacturing enter- prises, a new production and operation phenomenon characterized by outsourcing machining services has emerged consequently. In order to address the need, Chap. 3 presents a novel Cloud Machining Community mainly focusing on outsourced tasks related to machining processes and parts. A use case fashioning a torque arm of an airplane undercarriage is studied so as to demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the proposed framework and technologies. The purpose of Chap. 4 is to confirm which factors actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies. The factors are assessed by a randomly selected sample of 47 working professionals in the United Kingdom through an online questionnaire. Analysis of the result shows that Security, Cost, Service Availability, Compliance, and Perceived Usefulness are factors of concern that organizations would have to deeply consider before moving to the Cloud. Sustainability becomes essential to today’s manufacturing systems and a new concern is how to evolve the existing paradigms to meet new challenges using distributed and Cloud Computing technologies. The objectives of Chap. 5 are to examine the manufacturing requirements in a wider scope, to revisit the existing paradigms to clarify the limitations and bottlenecks, and eventually to identify future research directions toward sustainable manufacturing. Within the context, this chapter focuses more on Reconfigurable and Cloud manufacturing system paradigms, and highlights the future endeavors toward better sustainability. Sustainability has also become a critical driving force shaping the future of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) management and remanu- facturing. In Chap. 6, lifecycle information and flow management is investigated to enable transition from the current ‘‘management authority-centric reporting model for WEEE’’ to a new ‘‘globally distributed and sustainable management model for WEEE’’. In order to achieve the target, case studies on LCD television WEEE are conducted to understand supply chain information flows and recovery vi Preface and remanufacturing processes. Based on that, information/flow framework design for WEEE management is explored. One of the challenging problems that hinder the development of Cloud-based collaborative systems is the contradiction of large CAD files and the limited speed to share them over the Internet and Web. In Chap. 7, a new 3D streaming tech- nology to transfer design and manufacturing visualization data via the Internet and Web is reported. Chapter 8 presents a paradigm of designing by services, describes the devising of a service-oriented architecture for collaborative product development systems for this paradigm, discusses the key enabling technologies involved, and intro- duces the development of a collaborative simulation using service-oriented com- puting as a case study of software systems implementation. Recent developments in wireless technologies have created opportunities for developing next-generation manufacturing systems with real-time traceability, visibility, and interoperability in shop-floor planning, execution, and control. Chapter 9 proposes a referenced infrastructure of Ubiquitous Manufacturing (UM), in which a Smart Gateway and a real-time work-in-progress management system based on smart objects such as RFID/Auto-ID devices and Web service technologies are designed to improve the optimal planning and control of the entire shop floor. The presented framework is demonstrated through a near real- life simplified shop floor that consists of typical manufacturing objects. Chapter 10 presents a review of the R&D literature on distributed collaborative engineering and applications, from the technologies of the 1980s to today’s state-of- the-art. Research challenges and opportunities on the research areas are also dis- cussed and highlighted. Distributed and Cloud Computing technologies applicable to distributed collaborative engineering and applications are discussed in detail. In Chap. 11, the landscape of Cloud Computing is described and a focus is put on the view on the possibility of implementing this new concept in the military world. The strengths and the weakness that the implementation of Cloud Com- puting can introduce in the military operations are highlighted. The 11 chapters in this book provide an update and overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas. This book is believed to make significant contributions to the literature, and can be used as a textbook or reference for mechanical/manufacturing/computer engineering grad- uate students and researchers for efficient utilization, deployment, and develop- ment of distributed and Cloud manufacturing systems, services, and applications. During the development of this book, we have received invaluable input and gotten great support from the chapter authors. Their commitment, enthusiasm, professionalism, and technical expertise made this book possible. We are also grateful to the publisher for supporting this project, and would like to thank Mr. Anthony Doyle, Senior Editor for Engineering, and Ms. Grace Quinn, Editorial Assistant, for their constructive assistance and earnest cooperation. Some research in the editors’ own chapters was carried out as a part of the GREENet and CASES projects which are supported by a Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme Fellowship within the 7th European Community Preface vii Framework Programme. We would thank a number of project partners from Europe (UK, France, Spain, Romania, and Ukraine) and China for their technical cooperation and support to the research work. We hope readers find this book informative and useful. November 2012 Weidong Li Jörn Mehnen viii Preface Contents 1 ICMS: A Cloud-Based Manufacturing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Xi Vincent Wang and Xun W. Xu 2 A Distributed Service of Selective Disassembly Planning for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment with Case Studies on Liquid Crystal Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Weidong Li, K. Xia, B. Lu, K. M. Chao, L. Gao and J. X. Yang 3 Cloud Machining Community: A Method to Use Socialized Production Resources for Outsourcing Machining Processes and Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 P. Y. Jiang, W. Cao, F. Q. Zhang, Y. B. Fu and L. Luo 4 Factors Affecting Cloud Technology Adoption: Potential User’s Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Nicholas A. Ogunde and Jörn Mehnen 5 Manufacturing Paradigm Shift Towards Better Sustainability . . . 99 Z. M. Bi and Lihui Wang 6 Lifecycle Sustainable Information Management for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Weidong Li, K. Xia and L. Gao 7 A Streaming Technology of 3D Design and Manufacturing Visualization Information Sharing for Cloud-Based Collaborative Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Weidong Li, Y. L. Cai and W. F. Lu ix 8 Designing by Services: A New Paradigm for Collaborative Product Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Hongwei Wang and Heming Zhang 9 Real-Time Work-in-Progress Management for Ubiquitous Manufacturing Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Yingfeng Zhang, George Q. Huang, Ting Qu and Shudong Sun 10 Survey on Distributed Collaborative Engineering and Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 W. M. Shen, Q. Hao and Weidong Li 11 Manufacturing Paradigm Shift Towards Better Cloud Computing in the Military Environment: A New Model for Collaboration in the Operational Information Exchange Networks . . . . . . . . . . 243 Michele Tutino and Jörn Mehnen Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 x Contents Chapter 1 ICMS: A Cloud-Based Manufacturing System Xi Vincent Wang and Xun W. Xu Abstract Nowadays, Cloud Computing technology is providing a new way to do business by offering a scalable, flexible service over the Internet. It creates new solutions and opportunities to the modern enterprises, including the manufacturing industry. In this chapter, the essential features of Cloud Computing are discussed followed by a Cloud Manufacturing concept. In the second part, a service-oriented system called Interoperable Cloud-based Manufacturing System (ICMS) is pro- posed. ICMS provides a Cloud-based environment integrating existing and future manufacturing resources by packaging them using the Virtual Function Block mechanism and standardized description. 1.1 Introduction Cloud Computing refers to the delivery of computing as a service, instead of a traditional product. According to the definition of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [1, 2], Cloud Computing is a model for enabling ubiq- uitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. In a Cloud Computing environment, decentralized X. V. Wang X. W. Xu (&) Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand e-mail: xun.xu@auckland.ac.nz X. V. Wang e-mail: xwan262@aucklanduni.ac.nz W. Li and J. Mehnen (eds.), Cloud Manufacturing, Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4935-4_1, Springer-Verlag London 2013 1 consumers are provided by flexible and measurable service from the resource pool. The key spirit of the Cloud concept can be summarized as the capability of providing distributed, fast-responding, on-demand and quantifiable services. In the past few decades, many novel technologies have been proposed to improve the environment of manufacturing business, e.g. collaborative manufac- turing, virtual manufacturing, agile manufacturing, etc. Amongst these solutions, Cloud Computing technology provides a promising solution and an even broader definition for the concept of ‘‘Design anywhere and make anywhere (DAMA)’’. In the first half of this chapter, Cloud Computing technology related to the manufacturing perspective is discussed, followed by a review of the related research work. In the second half, a Cloud-based platform is proposed to achieve an interoperable distributed manufacturing environment. 1.2 Cloud Manufacturing: Cloud Computing with a Manufacturing Perspective Cloud Computing includes both the software service delivered to the user and the systems and hardware that are able to provide the service in need. The former is defined as Software as a Service (SaaS) and the later as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). Under the broad concept of Cloud, everything is treated as a Service (XaaS). 1.2.1 From Cloud Computing to Cloud Manufacturing To precisely define and classify the Cloud model, there are four deployment types, i.e. private, community, public, and hybrid Cloud. To support these concepts or architecture, platforms are provided by the major software vendors such as Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) [3], Google’s App engine [4], Micro- soft’s Azure [5] and Sun’s Cloud [6]. According to a recent Forrester research [7], Cloud Computing business has reached $40.7 billion globally in 2010 while impacting 948 billion Information and Communications Technology (ICT) market. Even though some obstacles are observed, for instance the unpredictability and confidentiality, it is still predicted that Cloud Computing market will keep growing and developing in the future [8]. As a service-centric solution, users or the enterprise will benefits from Cloud Computing features such as low cost, flexibility, mobility and automation. In the Cloud Computing environment, an enterprise does not need to purchase the soft- ware/hardware that is rarely used. Based on the ‘‘pay-as-you-go’’ principle, the cost can be reduced including less maintaining and labor expenses. For the service provider, the updating and re-producing procedure is simplified as well. By 2 X. V. Wang and X. W. Xu updating the codes in the provider cloud, traditional shipping, re-packaging cost is made avoidable, so is the cost. The user is provided by more flexible computing methods. There are more choices for companies to process a specific task, and more freedom to launch/terminate a service with less issue. The users/employees could access the application/information via various devices connected to the network. It improves the organization with an environment of distributed collab- oration. In an industry scenario, users are enabled to get the real-time device status, for instance storage information, thanks to the network sensors without the need to visit the scene. For both cloud users and providers, new application publishing and updating is made easier. By updating the server, all the personal/enterprise would get the latest service without any additional effort. Nowadays, manufacturing business may not survive in the competitive market without the support of computer-aided capabilities (CAx) and Information Tech- nology (IT). Cloud technology can improve the environment of product design, manufacturing process management, enterprise resource planning, and manufac- turing resource management by providing a globally optimized solution. As mentioned above, a broader DAMA can be described as completing designing and manufacturing procedures via clouds, while the users and business partners are loosely connected by a cloud-centralized network. It is therefore

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