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首页 Wittgenstein - Anthony Kenny

Wittgenstein - Anthony Kenny.pdf

Wittgenstein - Anthony Kenny

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简介:本文档为《Wittgenstein - Anthony Kennypdf》,可适用于财会领域

OfRelatedInterestTheWittgensteinReader(SecondEdition)EditedbyAnthonyKennyWittgenstein’sMethod:NeglectedAspectsGordonBakerWittgenstein:UnderstandingandMeaning,VolumeofAnAnalyticalCommentaryonthePhilosophicalInvestigationsPartI:EssaysGPBakerandPMSHackerSecondextensivelyrevisededitionbyPMSHackerWittgenstein:UnderstandingandMeaning,VolumeofAnAnalyticalCommentaryonthePhilosophicalInvestigationsPartII:Exegesis§§–GPBakerandPMSHackerSecondextensivelyrevisededitionbyPMSHackerWittgenstein:MeaningandJudgementMichaelLuntleyWittgenstein’sOnCertaintyRushRheesWittgensteinandthePossibilityofDiscourseRushRheesForthcoming:WittgensteinandHisInterpretersEditedbyGuyKahane,EdwardKanterianandOskaariKuuselaKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amWittgensteinANTHONYKENNYRevisedEditionKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:am�,byAnthonyKennyblackwellpublishingMainStreet,Malden,MA,USAGarsingtonRoad,OxfordOXDQ,UKSwanstonStreet,Carlton,Victoria,AustraliaTherightofAnthonyKennytobeidentifiedastheAuthorofthisWorkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeUKCopyright,Designs,andPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,exceptaspermittedbytheUKCopyright,Designs,andPatentsAct,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherFirstpublishedbyHarvardUniversityPressThisrevisededitionpublishedbyBlackwellPublishingLtdLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataKenny,AnthonyJohnPatrickWittgenteinAnthonyKennyRevedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(hardback:alkpaper)ISBN:(hardback:alkpaper)ISBN:(pbk:alkpaper)ISBN:(pbk:alkpaper)Wittgenstein,Ludwig,–ITitleBWKdcAcataloguerecordforthistitleisavailablefromtheBritishLibrarySetinptMinionbySPIPublisherServices,Pondicherry,IndiaPrintedandboundintheUnitedKingdombyTJInternational,Padstow,CornwallThepublisher’spolicyistousepermanentpaperfrommillsthatoperateasustainableforestrypolicy,andwhichhasbeenmanufacturedfrompulpprocessedusingacidfreeandelementarychlorinefreepracticesFurthermore,thepublisherensuresthatthetextpaperandcoverboardusedhavemetacceptableenvironmentalaccreditationstandardsForfurtherinformationonBlackwellPublishing,visitourwebsite:wwwblackwellpublishingcomKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amContentsPrefaceviiAbbreviationsinReferencestoWorksbyWittgensteinixIntroductiontotheRevisedEditionxiBiographicalSketchofWittgenstein’sPhilosophyTheLegacyofFregeandRussellTheCriticismofPrincipiaThePictureTheoryofthePropositionTheMetaphysicsofLogicalAtomismTheDismantlingofLogicalAtomismAnticipation,IntentionalityandVerificationUnderstanding,ThinkingandMeaningLanguageGamesPrivateLanguagesOnScepticismandCertaintyTheContinuityofWittgenstein’sPhilosophySuggestionsforFurtherReadingIndexKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:pmKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:pmPrefaceSomuchofWittgenstein’sworkhasnowbeenposthumouslypublishedthatanoverallstudyisboundtobeselective,andsomanyvolumeshavebeendevotedtoitselucidationthatanewonemaywellappearsuperfluousIhaveexercisedselectivitybyconcentratingonWittgenstein’sphilosophyoflanguageandmind,andbyalmostignoringthephilosophyofmathematicstowhichhedevotednearlyhalfhisworkIhavehopedtoescapesuperfluitybyemphasizingthecontinuityofWittgenstein’sthoughtandtracingitsevolutionthroughtherecentlypublishedandlittlestudiedworksofhismiddleyearsThefirstandlastchaptersofthebooktracethegeneralcontinuity,thefirstinasimplifiedandbiographicalmanner,thelastinmoretechnicalsummaryThesecondchapterattemptstoprovidesufficientphilosophicalandlogicalbackgroundtoenableareadertofollowWittgenstein’sownwritingsTheinterveningchaptersareeachcentredonasingleproblemandasinglework:thusChapterdealswiththeearlynotebooks,ChaptersandwiththeTractatus,ChapterwiththeconversationswithWaismann,ChapterwiththeBemerkungen,ChapterwiththeGrammatik,andsoonTheabbreviationsbywhichtheworksarereferredtoaregiveninalistonppix–xIamindebtedtomanypeoplebutespeciallytoProfessorPTGeach,ProfessorGEMAnscombe,ProfessorNormanMalcolm,ProfessorErnstTugendhat,DrAnselmMu¨ller,DrPeterHacker,MrBrianMcGuinnessandMrHaimMarantzforcommentsonportionsofthetexttoMacmillanforallowingthereprintingofmaterialfrommycontributiontoThePrivateLanguageArgument,edORJonesandtoRoutledgeKeganPaulandBasilBlackwellforpermissiontoquotefromWittgenstein’sworksPassagesfromuntranslatedworksIhavetranslatedmyselfelsewhereIhavecommonlyfollowedthePears–McGuinnessandKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amAnscombetranslations,occasionallypreferringmyowntranslationIamgratefultoMissPLloydfortypingandotherassistanceinpreparingthemanuscriptAugustKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amviiiprefaceAbbreviationsinReferencestoWorksbyWittgensteinbbTheBlueandBrownBooks(BasilBlackwell,)followedbypagenumberllwLettersfromLudwigWittgenstein,withamemoirbyPEngelmann(BasilBlackwell,)followedbypagenumbermlGEMoore,‘Wittgenstein’sLecturesin–’,Mind,()()nbNotebooks–(BasilBlackwell,)followedbypagenumberocOnCertainty(BasilBlackwell,)followedbyparagraphnumberpbPhilosophischeBemerkungen(BasilBlackwell,)followedbypagenumberpe‘PrivateExperience’,edRushRhees,PhilRev,lxxvii()pgPhilosophischeGrammatik(BasilBlackwell,)followedbypagenumberpiPhilosophicalInvestigations(BasilBlackwell,),Parti,followedbyparagraphnumberPartii,followedbypagenumberptlpPrototractatus(RoutledgeKeganPaul,)followedbysentencenumberrfmRemarksontheFoundationsofMathematics(BasilBlackwell,)followedbysectionandparagraphnumbersrlf‘RemarksonLogicalForm’inCopiandBeard,EssaysonWittgenstein’sTractatus(RoutledgeKeganPaul,)followedbypagenumbertlpTractatusLogicoPhilosophicus(RoutledgeKeganPaul,),OgdenandRichardstranslation,PearsandMcGuinnesstranslationfollowedbysentencenumberKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amwwkLudwigWittgensteinundderWienerKreis,shorthandnotesofFWaismann,edBMcGuinness(BasilBlackwell,)followedbypagenumberzZettel(BasilBlackwell,)followedbyparagraphnumberTheabbreviation‘gb’standsforTranslationsfromthePhilosophicalWritingsofGottlobFrege,edPeterGeachandMaxBlack(BasilBlackwell,)ThetitlesofotherworkshavebeengiveninreferencesinfullKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amxabbreviationsIntroductiontotheRevisedEditionThisbookwaswrittenbetweenandinresponsetoarequestfromPenguinforanelementaryintroductiontoWittgensteinIwashappytorespondtotheinvitationbecauseinmyview(thenasnow)WittgensteinisthegreatestphilosopherofthetwentiethcenturyandhisphilosophicalinsightshavesignificanceformanydifferentareasofhumanendeavourMoreover,IwasatthattimeaphilosophytutoratBalliolCollege,Oxford,andOxfordatthattimecouldstillprideitselfonhousingthemostimportantphilosophydepartmentintheEnglishspeakingworldamongitsfacultyweresomeofthefinestphilosophersworkingintheWittgensteiniantradition,suchasElizabethAnscombeandGilbertRyleIwrotethebook,therefore,inaspiritofoptimism,believingthatIwaswellplacedtounderstandthemostvaluableelementsofWittgenstein’sphilosophy,andthatIcouldpresenttomembersofawidepublicideaswithwhichtheywouldincreasinglywanttobefamiliarThoughwrittenforthegeneralreaderandtheundergraduateclassroom,thebookalsocontainedsomechallengestothecontemporaryorthodoxyamongprofessionalscholarsInparticular,IrejectedthecommonviewthatWittgensteinhadfatheredtwounconnectedphilosophies,therigidlogicalatomismoftheTractatusLogicoPhilosophicusatthetimeoftheFirstWorldWar,andamorefluidordinarylanguageversionofanalyticalphilosophyintheposthumouslypublishedPhilosophicalInvestigationsIshowedthatthisviewwasnolongertenableinthelightofWittgenstein’sintermediatewritingsofthes,thenrecentlypublished,andthathisphilosophicalinterestshadremainedremarkablyconstantwhilehisideashaddevelopedinacontinuousandorganicmannerInpart,myoptimismwasjustifiedThebookwasgenerouslyreviewedandwidelyadoptedasatextbookOvertheyearsithasbeentranslatedKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amintoFrench,Dutch,Italian,Spanish,German,KoreanandJapaneseItsfirsteditionremainedinprintfortwentyfiveyearsAllthemainelementsofitsinterpretationofWittgensteinappeartometoremaincorrect,thoughifIwerewritingthebookafreshIwouldexpandcertainsections,forreasonsthatwillbecomeclearinthecourseofthisIntroductionThethesisthatWittgenstein’sphilosophydevelopedbyorganicchangesratherthanthroughasinglecataclysmhasnowbecomeacommonplaceThelastthirtyyears,however,broughtmedisappointmentnotaboutthefateofmyownbookbutaboutthemuchmoreimportantmatterofthereceptionofWittgensteinhimselfIhadimaginedthatoncehisphilosophicalideashadbeenabsorbed,thinkersinvariousdisciplineswouldbegintoapplythem,withbeneficialeffect,toworkintheirownfieldInanumberofpapersItried,inasmallway,toshowtheirrelevancetoworkinevolutionarybiology,humanpsychology,andtheoreticallinguisticsButbythetimeIcametopublishacollectionofsuchpapersinTheLegacyofWittgenstein(Oxford:BasilBlackwell,)IhadtolamentthatthephilosophicalinfluenceofWittgensteinseemedtobediminishingratherthanincreasingSomeofWittgenstein’sinsightsintophilosophyoflanguageandphilosophyofmind,Ihadbelieved,constitutedirreversibleadvancesinthesubjectButnowtheywereobscuredorforgottenMetaphysicalweedsthathisprobingshouldhaverooteduponceandforallreturnedinevermoreabundantstrengthIronically,whileWittgenstein’sNachlasswasbeingprogressivelyundervaluedbyphilosophicalfashion,itbecamethesubjectofkeenscholarlyattentionFurtherposthumousworksissuedregularlyfromthepressthroughthesands,andseveralprojectswereconceivedforaGesamtausgabecollectingtogetherallofWittgenstein’swritingsThehistoryoftheseprojectswaslong,difficult,andattimesstormybutmatterswerebroughttoahappyconclusionwiththepublicationinoftheOxford–BergenCDROMeditionoftheNachlass,withfacsimilesandtranscriptsofWittgenstein’sentireoutputBecauseWittgenstein’smethodofcompositioninvolvedmultiplerevisionandrewriting,greatlightcanoftenbethrownonthemeaningofdifficultpassagesinworkslikePhilosophicalInvestigationsbycomparingthemwithearlierattemptstoformulatethesame,orsimilar,thoughtsTheelectroniceditiongreatlyfacilitatessuchcomparisonsbutovertwodecadesPeterHackerandGordonBakerhadbeenemployingthesamemethod,atmuchgreatercostinhumanlabour,intheirencyclopaedicAnalyticalCommentaryonthePhilosophicalInvestigationsTheBergeneditionandtheHacker–BakercommentaryremainastheprincipalKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amxiiintroductiontotherevisededitionmonumentsofWittgensteinianscholarshipinthelatterpartofthetwentiethcenturyThetwentyfirstcenturystartedauspiciouslywiththepublicationofacriticaleditionofthePhilosophicalInvestigationsbyJoachimSchulteandothers,whichpresenteditinitsseveralsucceedingversions,andgaveadefinitivehistoryofthematerialthatwaspublishedinasPartIIoftheworkItisnot,then,thelackofaccessibletextsorofaidstotheirunderstandingthathasledtothevirtualeclipseofWittgensteininthephilosophicalfirmamentRather,itwasduetochangesinphilosophicalfashioninEuropeandAmericaNocomparablegeniushassucceededWittgensteintosupersedehisworkorputitintheshadeofnewphilosophicalenlightenmentHowever,afterWittgenstein’sdeathWVOQuinewaswidelyregardedasthedoyenofAnglophonephilosophyQuinehadattackedthetraditionaldistinctionbetweenanalyticandsyntheticpropositions,andthisledmanyphilosophers,particularlyintheUnitedStates,toquestionwhethertherewasasharpboundarybetweenphilosophyandempiricalscienceInparticular,therewasadrivetoamalgamatethephilosophyofmindwithempiricalpsychologyThiswasspearheadedfromthephilosophicalsidebyDonaldDavidsoninthequestofasystematictheoryofmeaningfornaturallanguages,andfromthesideoflinguisticsbyNoamChomskywithsuccessivetheoriespostulatinghiddenmechanismsunderlyingeverydaygrammarTheculminationofthesedevelopmentsinthephilosophyofmindhasbeentheproclamationofanewcognitivesciencewhichwillcombinetheresultsofphilosophy(understoodasthestudyofCartesianconsciousness),psychology(conceivedofonthebehaviouristpattern)andneurophysiology(inspiredbycomputationalmodels)ThroughouthislifeWittgensteinconceivedtherelationshipbetweenscienceandphilosophyinaverydifferentmanner‘Philosophyisnotoneofthenaturalsciences,’hewroteintheTractatus()‘Theword‘‘philosophy’’mustmeansomethingwhichstandsaboveorbelow,butnotbesidethenaturalsciences’IntheInvestigationsheinsistedthatphilosophicalproblemsweretobesolvednotbytheamassingofnewempiricalknowledge,butbytherearrangementofwhatwealreadyknow(pi,i,)ThemessagewaswellabsorbedbyRyle,whowroteintheprefacetoTheConceptofMind:‘Thephilosophicalargumentswhichconstitutethisbookareintendednottoincreasewhatweknowaboutminds,buttorectifythelogicalgeographyoftheknowledgewealreadypossess’Philosophyseeksnotinformationnorexplanation,butunderstandingScientism(ietheattempttoseephilosophyasascience)wasWittgenstein’sbeˆtenoireIntheBlueBookhewrote:‘PhilosophersconstantlyseeKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amintroductiontotherevisededitionxiiithemethodsofsciencebeforetheireyes,andareirresistiblytemptedtoanswerquestionsinthewaysciencedoesThistendencyistherealsourceofmetaphysics,andleadsthephilosopherintocompletedarkness’Philosophy,hesaid,wassomethingthathadtobepossiblebeforeallscientificinvestigationWhatdoesthismeanSupposeacognitivescientisttellsusthatheisgoingtoinvestigatewhathappensinthebrainwhenwethinkWeaskhim,beforestartinghisresearch,tobequitesurethatheknowswhatthinkingis,what‘think’meansPerhapshewillreplythatinordertobeclearaboutthemeaningofthewordallwehavetodoistowatchourselveswhilewethink:whatweobservewillbewhatthewordmeans(pi,i,)Wittgenstein’spatientresearchesintotheuseofthewordshowthatthisisamisunderstandingoftheconceptofthoughtIfaneurophysiologistdoesnothaveasoundgraspoftheconceptpriortohisinvestigations,thenwhateverhediscovers,itwillnottellusmuchaboutthoughtHemayprotestthatheisnotinterestedinthelinguistictrivialitiesthatentertainphilosophersButafterall,heistakingourordinarylanguagetoidentifytheproblemhewantstosolve,andtodefinetheboundariesofhisresearchprogrammeHeneeds,therefore,totakeordinarylanguageseriously:heshouldnotdismissitas‘folkpsychology’ThosewhoignoreWittgenstein’scriticismoffalsephilosophyandpseudoscienceruntheriskofconstructingimposingedificesofthoughtthatturnouttobenothingbuthousesofcardsButinascientisticclimatethephilosophicalseedsheplantedhaveapoorchanceofflourishingItisintheUnitedStatesespeciallythatascientisticviewofphilosophyhasprevailedOnthecontinentofEurope,ontheotherhand,thephilosophicalharvesthasbeenthreatenedbywindsfromanoppositepointofthecompassPhilosophyhasbeenassimilatednottosciencebuttorhetoricIntheworkofauthorssuchasFoucault,DerridaandLacan,itisnotthelinebetweeninformationandunderstandingthatisdeliberatelyblurred,butthelinebetweenrationalandirrationalmodesofpersuasionAntonyQuintonhaswritten:‘TermsindicativeoflogicalorganisationaboundinthewritingsoftheunmaskingthinkersofcontemporaryEurope:thusandso,thereforeanditfollows,contradictoryandincompatibleBut,whenexamined,theseprovetobeakindofornamentationWhereaneffortismadetoextractanintelligiblelineofargumentitturnsouttobeabsurdlyfallacious’(Values,EducationtheHumanWorld,edJHaldane,ImprintAcademic,)Methodsregardedas‘rational’whetherinscienceorphilosophyhavenoobjectivevalidity,butmerelyreflecttheprejudicesofsomeparticularhegemonicgroupInhislaterwritingsDerridatriedtoKennyWittgensteinpreFinalProofpage:amxivintroductiontotherevisededitionshow,byexampleaswellasbyargument,thatphilosophywasessentiallyaplayfulactivityAdmirersofcontinentalpostmodernismhaveoftenclaimedWittgensteinasanallyDidhenot,afterall,saythattherecouldbeaworkofphilosophyconsistingofnothingbutjokesAsimilarapproachtoWittgenstein’sphilosophyhasbecomefashionableintheUnitedStatesunderthetitle‘TheNewWittgenstein’ThisapproachtakesitspointofdeparturefromtheremarksintheTractatus:‘Mypropositionsareelucidatoryinthisway:hewhounderstandsmefinallyrecognisesthemassenseless’()ItregardsthepropositionsnotonlyoftheTractatusbutalsoofthelaterworksasbeingnonsensical,andnonsensicalnotinanyspecialtechnicalsense,butnonsensicalinjustthesamewayasJabberwockyisWittgenstein’saim,onthisview,w

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