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首页 0199247900 Time for Aristotle.pdf

0199247900 Time for Aristotle.pdf

0199247900 Time for Aristotle.p…

上传者: bc.mcnally 2014-01-26 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《0199247900 Time for Aristotlepdf》,可适用于游戏领域,主题内容包含TIMEFORARISTOTLEOXFORDARISTOTLESTUDIESGeneralEditorsJuliaAnnasandLindsayJu符等。

TIMEFORARISTOTLEOXFORDARISTOTLESTUDIESGeneralEditorsJuliaAnnasandLindsayJudsonpublishedintheseriesAristotleonMeaningandEssenceDavidCharlesTimeforAristotlePhysicsIV–UrsulaCoopeAristotleonTeleologyMonteRansomeJohnsonOnLocationAristotle’sConceptofPlaceBenjaminMorisonOrderinMultiplicityHomonymyinthePhilosophyofAristotleChristopherShieldsAristotle’sTheoryofSubstanceTheCategoriesandMetaphysicsZetaMichaelVWedinAristotle’sDeInterpretationeContradictionandDialecticCWAWhitakerTimeforAristotlePhysicsIV–URSULACOOPECLARENDONPRESSOXFORDGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordoxdpOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYorkUrsulaCoopeThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethesameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableTypesetbySPIPublisherServices,Pondicherry,IndiaPrintedinGreatBritainonacidfreepaperbyBiddlesLtd,KingsLynn,NorfolkISBNISBNToNicholas,whowasjuststartingoutinphilosophyatqueinperpetuum,frater,aveatquevaleThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceThisbookisamuchrevisedversionofmyPhDdissertationItisaproductnotonlyofmyownefforts,butalsoofthehelpandadviceIhavereceived,overtheyears,fromothersAboveall,IwouldliketothankSarahBroadieMyinterestinAristotle’sdiscussionoftimestemsfromagraduateseminarofhersonPhysicsIII–IVWithouther,itisunlikelythatIwouldhavewritteneitherthebookorthedissertationShehasreadandcommentedoneverydraft,andhasfromfirsttolastbeenasourceofencouragement,helpfulcriticisms,andinterestingsuggestionsIwasalsoveryluckytobeabletoworkwithAlanCodeatBerkeley,whenIwasinthefinalstagesofwritingthedissertationIdiscussedeachchapterwithhimasIwroteit,andbenefitedagreatdealfromhisabilitytocomeupwithargumentsindefenceofmyposition,atatimewhenIcouldonlyseewhatappearedtobedevastatingobjectionstoitThoughIonlyworkedwithhimforashorttime,thebookisverymuchbetterasaresultIwouldalsoliketothankTonyLong,who,asoneofmyexaminers,readthefinalversionofthedissertationandmadeseveralhelpfulcommentsonitAnumberofpeople,besidesthosenamedabove,havereadandcommentedondraftsofallorpartofthebookBetweenthem,theyhavesavedmefrommanyblundersandconfusionsMyparticularthanks,forthis,gotoVerityHarte,BobHeinaman,PhilipHunter,JonathanLear,andBenMorisonEdwardHussey,whoreadthebookforOUP,wrotepagesofdetailedcomments,fullofinterestingandconstructivecriticisms,andananonymousrefereeforOUPalsomademanyhelpfulsuggestionsforimprovementIwouldalsoliketothankPeterMomtchiloffofOUPforhishelpfulnessandforhispatienceinthefaceofmanymisseddeadlinesMostoftheworkformydissertationwasdoneduringthethreeyearsIspentasavisitinggraduatestudentatPrincetonIwouldliketothankthePhilosophyDepartmentthere,andespeciallythemembersoftheancientphilosophyprogram,forprovidingsuchafriendlyandintellectuallystimulatingenvironmentIwasparticularlyfortunatetobethereatthesametimeasmyfellowstudents,JonathanBeere,ZenaHitz,andGabrielRichardsonLearManyoftheideasinthisbookweredevelopedinconversationswiththem,andtheirfriendshipwasagreatsupporttomeinverydifficulttimesTheworkofturningthedissertationintoabookwasmostlycarriedoutinLondon,firstofallasaJacobsenFellowatUniversityCollegeand,morerecently,asalectureratBirkbeckIamgratefultomycolleaguesandstudentsinLondonforhelpingtomakeitsuchawonderfulplacetostudyphilosophyMuchofthematerialinthebookwaspresentedaspartofagraduateseminarIgaveatPrinceton,whenIwasavisitingassistantprofessorthereinIthanktheparticipantsinthatseminarformuchinterestingdiscussionThanksareduealsotoPrincetonforinvitingme,andtomyBirkbeckcolleaguesforallowingmetotakeuptheofferIhavepresentedpapersbasedondraftsofpartsofthebooktoaudiencesattheCambridgeBClub,theNorthernAssociationofAncientPhilosophy,theUCLDepartmentofScienceandTechnologyStudies,andtothephilosophydepartmentsatBirkbeck,Bristol,Princeton,Sheffield,andStAndrewsIamgratefulforthemanyinterestingcommentsandquestionsIreceivedontheseoccasionsFinally,manythankstomyparents,ChristopherCoopeandJenniferJackson,foralltheirsupportandencouragementovertheyears,andtomyhusband,PhilipHunter,formakingthefinalstagesofwritingthebooksoextraordinarilyhappyTimeforAristotleisdedicatedtomyyoungerbrother,Nicholas,whodiedclimbinginGlenClova,whenhewasjustabouttoembarkonaphilosophydegreeatStAndrewsviiiPrefaceContentsIntroductionPARTI–INTRODUCTORYPUZZLESANDTHESTARTINGPOINTSOFINQUIRYTheintroductorypuzzlesTimeisnotchangebutsomethingofchangePARTII–TIME’SDEPENDENCEONCHANGETimefollowschangeandchangefollowsmagnitudeThebeforeandafterPARTIII–TIMEASANUMBERANDTIMEASAMEASUREThedefinitionoftimeasakindofnumberTimeasameasureofchangePARTIV–THESAMENESSANDDIFFERENCEOFTIMESANDNOWSAllsimultaneoustimeisthesameThesamenessofearlierandlatertimesandnowsPARTV–TWOCONSEQUENCESOFARISTOTLE’SACCOUNTOFTIMEBeingintimeTimeandthesoulAppendix:Theexpression‘hopoteonXesti’BibliographyIndexLocorumGeneralIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionAristotle’saccountoftimeispartofhisPhysicsPhysicsisthestudyofnaturalthings,ofthosethingsthathaveanature(phusis)ForathingtohaveanatureisforittohaveaninnersourceofchangingandofstayingthesameAnoaktree,forinstance,hasanatureabeddoesnotTheoaktreehascertaincharacteristicwaysofchanging:itlosesitsleavesinautumn,itgrowsacorns,itputsoutrootsofacertainshapeAccordingtoAristotle,thesecharacteristicchangesarenotcausedpurelybythetree’senvironmentorbythestuVofwhichthetreeismadeThoughtheyrequirecertainbackgroundenvironmentalconditions(water,sunlight,andsoon),theyarechangesthattheoaktreeundergoesofitself:theprimaryreasonwhyitchangesinthesewaysisthatitisanoaktreeIncontrast,abeddoesnothavecharacteristicwaysofchangingTherearenochangesthatitundergoesofitselfinvirtueofbeingabedItschangesarecausedpartlybyitsenvironmentandpartlybythestuVofwhichitismadeIfweburyabedanditsrottingframeputsoutshoots,thiswillbebecauseitiswooden,notbecauseitisanexbedThebedwillnotspawnbabybedsLivingthingsallhavenaturesSoalsodoAristotle’sfour‘simplebodies’:earth,air,Wre,andwater,eachofwhichhasanaturaltendencytooccupyaparticularplaceintheuniverse(theearthatthecentre,then,inconcentriccircles,water,air,andWre)Physics,then,isthestudyofthesethingsAnyparticularoaktreewillalsoundergootherchangesthatarecausedprimarilybyitsenvironmentForexample,ifthetreeisstruckbylightning,itwillburnifwetakeasawtoitsbranches,theywillfalloVAristotlelaysouthisaccountofnatureinPhysicsIITheexampleofabedwasoriginallyfromthephilosopherAntiphon,whodidnotmakeAristotle’sdistinctionbetweennaturalandartiWcialthings,butinsteadusedthisexampletoarguethatthenatureofathingisthestuVofwhichitismade(PhysicsIIa–)ThatsuchascienceispossibleisnotsomethingAristotlecanjusttakeforgrantedHeiswritingagainstaPlatonicbackgroundPlatoandhisfollowersintheAcademyheldthatthemostfundamentalkindsofbeingwereunchangingandimperceptible:forms,liketheOneandtheGood,or(forthoseundertheinXuenceofPythagoras)numbersThisraisesaquestionaboutthestatusofchanging,perceptiblethings:cantherebeanysystematicstudyofsuchthingsPlato’sowndiscussionofphysicalphenomena,intheTimaeus,ispresentedasaneikosmuthos,alikelytaleAristotlewantstoshowthatphysicscanbeagenuinescienceItispossibletohaveasystematicbodyofknowledgeofsuchthingsasoaktrees,giraVes,buttercups,andspidersHeargues,intheCategories,thatthebasickindsofbeing,theprimarysubstances,arenotPlatonicformsbutratherparticularpersistingthings,likethismanandthishorseOneofthedistinctivecharacteristicsofprimarysubstancesisthattheycanstaythesamethroughchangeIfthereisknowledgeofanything,theremustbeknowledgeofsubstances,sothisclaimintheCategoriesalreadyimpliesthattherecanbeascienceofchangingthingsButitisinthePhysicsthathedoesthemosttoputthisscienceonaWrmfootingItistherethatheexplainswhatitisforsomethingtohaveanatureanddistinguishesthosethingsthathappenbynaturefromthosethingsthathappenbyaccidentHealsoarguesinthePhysicsthatifthereistobechangeatall,theremustbecertainimperishablethingsthatareforeverinmotionTheunendinganduniformrotationoftheheavenlybodies(theplanetsandthestars)providesanecessarybackdroptotheintermittentandvariouschangesthatweseearoundusInthesectionofthePhysicsthatwillchieXyconcernus,helaysouthisaccountsoffourthingsthatarefundamentaltothestudyofnature:change,theinWnite,place,andtimeSincenatureisasourceofchange,Timaeusb–dIndeed,asigniWcantportionofhisoutputisamonumentalattempttogatherandrecordfactsaboutthephysiologyofdiVerentkindsoflivingthing(See,forinstance,hisHistoryofAnimalsandPartsofAnimals)Categoriesa–Thereis,hesays,noscienceoftheaccidental(MetaphysicsVIa–)HedefendsthisclaiminPhysicsVIIIPhysicsIIIandIVHealsodiscussesthevoidAtthebeginningofPhysicsIII,hesaysthatitisgenerallythought(dokei)thatchangeisinWnitelydivisibleandthattherecanonlybechangeifthereareplace,time,andvoid(IIIb–)ItlateremergesIntroductioninordertounderstandwhatitistohaveanatureweneedanaccountofchangeChanges,Aristotlethinks,areinWnitelydivisible,soinprovidingafoundationforphysics,wemusttackletheobscurenotionoftheinWniteHeprovidesanaccountofplace,becauseifthereistobeanykindofchangetheremustbechangeofplaceAndanaccountoftimeisalsoneeded,since‘allchangesandallchangingthingsareintime’(b–)ThisexplainstherolethattheaccountoftimeplaysinAristotle’soverallsystemIfwearetounderstandhisphysicsasawhole,weneedtograpplewithhisdiYcultremarksabouttimeButaretheseremarksofmorethanhistoricalinterestDotheyhavesomethingimportanttosaytoamodernphilosopherwhoisinterestedinthenotionsoftimeandchangeMycontentionisthattheydo,butthatthewayinwhichtheydoisratherindirectAmodernphilosopherwhoreadsAristotle’sdiscussionoftimewillWndthat,thoughitisexpressedinlanguagethatisfrustratinglyobscureandelliptical,thequestionsitaddressesseemrelativelyfamiliarAristotlestartsoutbypuzzlingoverwhethertimecanbesomethingthatis,giventhatneitherthepastnorthefutureisThiscallstomindtheargumentsofthosemodernphilosopherswhocallthemselves‘presentists’andclaimthateverythingthatexistsispresentHegoesontoarguethatthepresent,or‘now’,issomethingthatinawayremainsalwaysthesame,butisalsoalwaysdiVerentThisisoftentakentoshowthathethinksthenowissomethingthatmoves,aviewmuchcriticizedandoccasionallydefendedinmodernphilosophyHediscussestime’srelationtochangeandtothemind,arguingthatbothchangeand(morethatheendorsesallofthisgenerallyacceptedviewexceptfortheclaimthattherecanonlybechangeifthereisvoidInhisdiscussionofvoidheargues,notonlythattherecanbechangeintheabsenceofvoid,butthatitis,infact,impossiblefortheretobevoid(IV–)AsIhavesaid,fortheretobechange,theheavenlybodiesmustengageineternalmovement(thatis,changeofplace)Moreover,wheneveronethingactsonanothertoproduceachange,theremustbespatialmovement,sincebeforeonethingcanactonanother,thethingthatactsandthethingthatisacteduponmustapproachoneanother(PhysicsVIII)Asweshallsee,AristotlelaterqualiWesthisclaimHethinksthatthereisasenseinwhichthingsthatareineverlastingmotionarenotintime(seebelow,Ch)Presentismisdefended,forinstancebyBigelow()ThemovingnowviewisdefendedbySchlesinger()ItiscriticizedbyWilliams()andSmart()(amongothers)Introductionsurprisingly)mindarenecessarypreconditionsfortheexistenceoftimeWhetherornottherecanbetimewithoutchangeisaquestioncentraltocertainmoderndebatesaboutthereducibilityoffactsabouttimetofactsaboutthingsintimeFinally,hegivesanaccountofwhathecallsthe‘beforeandafterintime’intermsofitsrelationtoamorebasickindofbeforeandafterorder:thebeforeandafterinchangeItiseasytoberemindedhereofreductivetheories,suchascausaltheoriesoftime,thatattempttoexplaintemporalasymmetryintermsofsomeother,morebasickindofasymmetryHowever,thisappearanceoffamiliarityis,Ithink,largelydeceptiveForthemostpart,thequestionsAristotleaddressesherearediVerentfromthoseraisedinmoderndiscussionsWhenhepuzzlesoverwhethertimecanbesomethingthatis,heisnotconsideringthepresentistviewthatnothingcanexistexceptwhatisatthepresentUnlikethepresentist,hispuzzleissolelyabouttime,notaboutthingsthatareintimeHeneversuggeststhatthereisadiYcultyabouthowthings,likechanges,thatareintimecanextendbeyondthepresentMoreover,inhisremarksaboutthesamenessofthenow,heisnotdescribingthenowassomethingthatmovesTheclaimthatearlierandlaternowsareinsomewaythesameis,instead,boundupwithanaspectofhisaccountthatis,tous,distinctlyodd:hisviewthattimeisakindofnumberHeholdsthatthesamenessofearlierandlaternowsisanecessaryconditionoftheircountabilityFinally,inspiteofitsconcernwithorderandasymmetry,Aristotle’saccountturnsouttohavelittleincommonwithmodernreductiveexplanationsoftemporalorderThatthisissoisbroughtout,amongotherthings,byhisreadinesstotakeforgrantedthenotionofsimultaneityHethinksitimportanttoarguethatsimultaneouschangesareallatoneandthesametime,butheseesnoneedtoexplaininvirtueofwhatcertainchangesaresimultaneousHesimplyassumestheexistenceofthisrelationbetweenchanges,asifitissomethingbasicandinexplicableItfollowsthattheinterestofAristotle’saccountdoesnotlieinitsabilitytoprovideanswerstothequestionsmodernphilosophersaskabouttimeItrarelyevenaddressesthesequestionsItsintereststemsinsteadfromthefactthatthequestionsthattroublehimaresodiVerentForadiscussionofthis,seeNewtonSmith(:ch)NewtonSmithcallsthereductionistassumptionthattherecanbenotimewithoutchange‘Aristotle’sPrinciple’Mellordefendssuchatheory(SeeMellor:chand)IntroductionfromthosethatnaturallyoccurtousThechallengetotheinterpreteristounderstandwhythesearethequestionsAristotleconsidersimportantIfwecanunderstandthis,weshallgainanewperspectiveonourownthinkingabouttimeWecanshedlightonourownassumptionsbythinkingourselvesintothepositionofsomeonewhodoesnotsharethemByaskingwhyAristotlethoughtcertainquestionsbutnotothersimportant,wecanbetterunderstandourownpresuppositionsaboutwhichquestionsarecentralinthephilosophyoftimeAndasweshallsee,thequestionsheasksarealsointerestingintheirownrightIshallarguethatAristotle’saccountrepresentstimeasakindofuniversalorderandthatthisiswhyhedeWnesit,oddly,asanumberItis,hesays,a‘numberofchange’,asingleorderwithinwhichallchangesarerelatedtooneanotherHearguesthattheexistenceofthissingleorderdependsontheexistenceofbeings,likeus,whocancountItdependsonthefactthatwecountnowsinacertainwayTocountanowistomarkadividingpointinallthechangesthataregoingonatitOurcountingthusintroducesakindofuniformityintotheworldItallowsustodelimit,withinachange,arbitrarypartsthatareexactlysimultaneoustocorrespondingpartsineveryotherchangethatisgoingonAsweshallsee,oneofAristotle’scentralconcernsistoexplainhowtimecanhavethiskindofuniformityHeaskswhataccountoftimewillmakesenseofthefactthat‘thoughchangesarevariousandseparatefromoneanother,timeiseverywherethesame’(b–)Beforewecanbegintounderstandtheseclaims,weneedtohavesomefamiliaritywithAristotle’sviewsontwocloselyrelatedsubjectsWeneedtolookathisaccountofchangeandathisremarksaboutthesenseinwhichchangeisdivisibleTHEACCOUNTOFCHANGEIndeWningtimeasanumberofchange,Aristotleassumesthatchangeis,inanimportantsense,priortotimeTimeissomethingthatisessentiallydependentonchange,andbecauseofthis,atrueunderstandingoftimemustdrawuponapriorunderstandingofchangeThisimpliesthatchangeitselfcanbedeWnedinawaythatmakesnoreferencetotimeItthusrulesoutacertainnaturalwayofusingtheIntroductionnotionoftime

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