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首页 *新书上架*悲观论:哲学、伦理、精神

*新书上架*悲观论:哲学、伦理、精神.pdf

*新书上架*悲观论:哲学、伦理、精神

九月虺
2010-01-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*悲观论:哲学、伦理、精神pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PESSIMISMPHILOSOPHY,ETHIC,SPIRITJoshuaFoaDienstagPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSPRINCETONANDOXFORDCopyright©byPrincetonUniversityPressPublishedbyPrincetonUniversityPress,WilliamStreet,Princeton,NewJerseyIntheUnitedKingdom:PrincetonUniversityPress,MarketPlace,Woodstock,OxfordshireOXISYAllRightsReservedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDienstag,JoshuaFoa,Pessimism:philosophy,ethic,spiritJoshuaFoaDienstagpemIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(cloth:alkpaper)ISBN:X(cloth:alkpaper)PessimismPessimismPoliticalaspectsITitleBD'dcBritishLibraryCataloginginPublicationDataisavailableThisbookhasbeencomposedinSabonTypefacePrintedonacidfreepaperpupprincetoneduPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaforJennAllthetragedieswhichwecanimaginereturnintheendtotheoneandonlytragedy:thepassageoftimeSIMONEWElLCONTENTSPREFACEIXACKNOWLEDGMENTSXVABBREVIATIONSXVllPARTICHAPTERONETheAnatomyofPessimismPARTIICHAPTERTWO"APhilosophyThatIsGrievousbutTrue":CulturalPessimisminRousseauandLeopardiCHAPTERTHREE"TheEvilsoftheWorldHonestlyAdmitted":MetaphysicalPessimisminSchopenhauerandFreudCHAPTERFOUR"ConsciousnessIsaDisease":ExistentialPessimisminCamus,Unamuno,andCioranPARTIIICHAPTERFIVENietzsche'sDionysianPessimismCHAPTERSIXCervantesasEducator:DonQuixoteandthePracticeofPessimismCHAPTERSEVENAphorismsandPessimismsCHAPTEREIGHTPessimismandFreedom(ThePessimistSpeaks)AFTERWORDBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXPREFACEPERHAPSIshouldgetthemostdifficultmattertosomenodoubtthemostshockingmatteroutofthewayfirst:namely,thatthisbookonthepessimisticspiritisnotanattackonthatspiritbut,instead,anappraisaland,indeed,anendorsementofit,atleastinacertainformThatthiswillstrikemostreadersasperversecannotbehelpedIndeed,itismyfirstrequestofreadersthattheytakethisreaction,quitecommoninitself,andexamineitWhyisitthatpessimism,oncearespectableifnotpopularphilosophy,hasbecomesodespisedinourculturethattheword"pessimist"canbeusedtodayasatermofpoliticalorintellectualabuseLookinanyAmericannewspaperforafewdaysandonewillimmediatelyseethatthisistrueItisenoughtolabelanidea(oraperson)"pessimistic"inordertobeallowedtodismissit(orhim)withoutfurtherdiscussionasirrational,emotional,indefensibleor,worstofall,unpatrioticWhyshouldthisbeAfterall,anexpectationthatthingswillgobadlyisnot,onthesurface,anymoreorlessrationalthantheexpectationthatthingswillgowellAnextendedexaminationofthequestioncouldwellyieldajudgmentinfavoroftheoneortheotherbutthelabelisusedpreciselytoforeclosesuchaninquiryPessimismisdismissedbeforeseriousdebatebegins,notduringorafterwardOnemightventurethat,somehow,theideaofpessimismissothreateningthatpeopledeclinetoconsideritseriouslybecausetheyareafraidoftheeffectssuchaconsiderationmightproduceButthenthisphenomenonitselfshouldbeenoughofacuriositytorequireinvestigationWhilethosesofearingmightbetemptedtostopatthispoint,IcanatleastdisputethecommonperceptionthatpessimismmustsomehownecessarilyissueinbehaviorsofresignationandwithdrawalOfcourse,somepessimismsmightresultinsuchapostureButtoassumethatallpessimistsarethusisakintoclaimingthatalloptimistsmustarriveattheattitudeofDrPangloss,whobelievedthatthiswasthebestofallpossibleworldsNoteverytheoryofprogressisPanglossianand,likewise,notallpessimismsaresuicidalornihilisticThisbookdoesnotdefendallpessimisms,then,butamoreparticularonethatwillemergeinthecourseofitschaptersOnepointofmytitle,however,istoreversethecustomaryunderstandingofpessimismassomethingnecessarilydispiritingIntherighthands,pessimismcanbeandhasbeenanenergizingandevenaliberatingphilosophyWhileitdoesindeedaskustolimitandeliminatesomeofourhopesandexpectations,itcanalsoprovideuswiththemeanstobetternavigatetheboundeduniverseitdescribesThereexiststodayanentireliterature,bothscholarlyandpopular,dexPREFACEvotedtoblamingpessimismforwhateverspiritualcrisisisthoughttooccupyusatthemomentIndeed,"pessimism"issuchaflexibletermofabusethatithasreadilybeenappliedtoalmosteverynonliberalpoliticaltheorythathasappearedinthiscenturyExistentialism,psychoanalysis,criticaltheory,andpostmodernismareallroutinelylabeledpessimistic,asifthatwereenoughtodiscreditthemWhilethetermismoreappropriateinsomeofthesecasesthanothers,thoughtshouldbegiventothequestionofwhythiswordfunctionssowellasagestureofdismissalInpart,thisisacaseofkillingthemessenger:philosopherswhohavewritteninthesetraditionshaveoftenpresentedableakpictureofhumanexistenceandtherebyoffendedmodernsensibilitiesButofcoursetheauthorsoftheseimagesdonotcelebratesuchasituationtheysimplyconsiderittheirdutytocallattentiontoitCriticshaveoftenmistakenadepictionoftheworldforachoiceaboutourfuture,asifphilosophershadrejoicedatthedeclineordecaythattheydescribedButthisislikederidingscientistswhowarnofglobalwarmingbecausetheirmodelsgiveapocalypticpredictionsDowenormallyassumethatsuchscientistswanttheirpredictionstocometrueMigueldeUnamunooncecomplainedaboutastyleoftheologythatalwaysattackedthe"banefulconsequences"ofopposingviews:"thebanefulconsequencesofadoctrinemayprove,atbest,thatthedoctrineisbaneful,butnotthatitisfalse"(TSL)Ratherthanaddressthethreatstohappinessthattheworldprovidesonadailybasis,criticsofpessimismhavefocusedonthebearersofilltidingsandhopedthatsilencingthemwouldabolishthe"banefulconsequences"aswellYetdespitetheabusetheyattractpessimistskeepappearingandthisshouldnotbesurprisingsincetheworldkeepsdeliveringbadnewsInsteadofblamingpessimism,perhapswecanlearnfromitRatherthanhidingfromtheuglinessoftheworld,perhapswecandiscoverhowbesttowithstanditAsInotedabove,pessimism'scriticshaveoftenassumedthatitmustissueinsomesortofdepressionorresignationButthisassumptionsaysmoreaboutthecriticsthanabouttheirtargetsWhoisit,exactly,thatcannotbearastoryunlessguaranteedahappyendingPessimiststhemselveshaveoftenbeenanythingbutresignedIndeed,theyhavetakenitastheirtasktofindawaytolivewiththeconclusionstheyhavearrivedat,andtolivewell,sometimesevenjoyfullyIfthiscannotbetrueforallofus,itisnotthepessimistswhoaretoblame,buttheproblemstheygrapplewithSomerepresentativetitles:TheFutureandItsEnemiesbyVirginiaPostrelEnoughofPessimismbyPhilipAbelsonEnemiesofHope:ACritiqueofContemporaryPessimismbyRaymondTallisTheIdeaofDeclineinWesternHistorybyArthurHermanandSweetViolencebyTerryEagletonThislistcouldbelonger,butevenapartfrombooksdevotedtothesubject,myconcernisasmuchwiththeroutineuseof'pessimist'anditscognatesasacasualintellectualputdownPREFACEXlThepessimismthatisofferedhereisneitheratheoryofhistorynor(asIwillemphasizebelow)anemotionalcomplexInstead,itiswhatusedtobecalledan"ethic"andwhattodaymightbecalleda"techniqueoftheself"ora"formoflife"Moremodestly,pessimismisaphilosophicalsensibilityfromwhichpoliticalpracticescanbederivedItisaproposedstancefromwhichtograpplewithaworldthatwenowrecognizeasdisorderedanddisenchantedItincludesjudgmentsabouthistoryandthepossiblecourseofourcivilization,butitisnotreallyadetailedsetofpredictionsaboutfuturepoliticsoreconomicsAssuch,pessimismstandsopposedtoamodernoptimismthathastakenmanyformsMost,ifnotall,politicalwriterstodayarereadytorecognizeandrejectthehistoricalutopianismfoundinthephilosophicaldescendantsofHegelPessimism,however,isequallycriticalbothofthattraditionandofthelessflamboyantbut,fromitsperspective,similarlyprogressiveliberalismfoundinthedescendantsofLocke,Kant,Mill,andDeweyIndeed,oneoftheintellectualbenefitsofrevivingthetraditionofpessimismisthewaythatitcausesustoreassessthetheoreticaldebatesofthelastthreecenturiessothatweseemoreclearlyhowthevariousformsofoptimismhavebeenalliedFromthisperspective,thegreatdivideinmodernpoliticaltheoryisnotbetweentheEnglishspeakingandtheContinentalschools,butbetweenanoptimismthathashadrepresentativesinbothofthesecampsandapessimismwhoseveryexistencethoserepresentativeshavesoughttosuppressRecentlytherehasbeenagreatdealsaidaboutrevivingthephilosophyoftheselfasifnonehadbeenwrittensincelateantiquityItismycontentionherethatphilosophiesoftheselfhaveremainedwithusallalong,oftenunremarkedassuch,andoftenunderthenameofpessimismLiketheStoicsandEpicureans,thepessimistshavebeenconcernedtolocatethebestpathtowardfreedominapoliticalenvironmentthatpresentstheindividualwithalandscapewhosebasicfeaturesarewellbeyondhisorhercontrolavast,disordered,anddangerousterrainthatconfrontsusasLaManchaconfrontedDonQuixoteForcenturies,muchphilosophy,bothAngloAmericanandContinental,hasbeenpremisedontheidea(notalwaysexplicitlydefended)ofagradualimprovementinthehumanconditionButwhatifwegrapplewiththepossibilitythatsuchameliorationcannotbeexpected,thatwemustmakedowithwhoandwhatwearePessimismisthephilosophythatacceptsthischallengeItdoesnotpreachinevitablegloomInarelentlesslyoptimisticworld,itisenoughtogiveupthepromiseofhappinesstobeconsideredapessimistPessimism'sgoalisnottodepressus,buttoedifyusaboutourconditionandtofortifyusforthelifethatliesaheadTobuildproperfortifications,onemusthaveapropersenseoftheenemyandhisweaponsForthepessimists,itisfundamentallyourtimexuPREFACEboundconditionthatthreatensusButthispresentsaspecialproblemsinceitisalsoourexistencewithintime,andourconsciousnessoftime,thatmakespossiblemanyofthemostexcellentandgloriousofhumanattributes,notleastofwhichisthereasonthatallowsustophilosophizeatallSopessimismmustsuggestakindoffortificationoftheselfagainstanenemythatisalreadyinsidethegatesofthesoulInsuchasituation,therecanbenoimpregnablebarrierthat,onceperfected,wouldobviatetheneedforfurtherattentiontothethreatConsequently,thepessimists,likeancientphilosophersoftheself,oftensuggestanddescribeaperpetualwrestlingwithinone'sownpsyche,asJacobwrestledonthemountaintop,withafoehecouldbarelymakeout,inordertolearnhisownnameItisastrugglewiththeselfthatneverends,butcanproductivelydefineusAnditisneverthesame,because,foreverythingwedo,timeflowsoutaheadofus,relentlesslychangingourselvesandourcircumstancesPessimismisaphilosophyofselfconductitsuggestsanapproachtoauniversalproblemthatanyindividualwillhavetomodifyinthecourseoftakingitupWecanevenlearn,asJacobdid,tofindablessinginsuchastruggleManyofthegreatestpessimists(eg,ArthurSchopenhauer,GiacomoLeopardi,FriedrichNietzsche,EMCioran)havealsobeenaphoristsandthisoverlapisnotaccidentalIsuggestinsteadthatsomanypessimistshavechosentoemployaphorismbecauseitsveryformsuggestsandrepresentsthedissonanceanddisorderthatpessimismseesintheworldTherarenessofaphorismtodayisperhapsonemorereflectionoftheunpopularityofpessimismitselfMyattempttoreviveinterestintheaphoristicformispartandparcelofanattempttoreexplorepessimismnot,Irepeat,outofadesiretodepressandstupefymyreaders,butratherwiththegoalofstimulatingthemtothecriticalenergythathasalwaysbeenthebestoutcomeofthewritingsofpreviousaphorists"Aphorism"isfromtheGreekaphoreizen,tosetaboundaryorahorizonAphoristicwriting,whenitworks,drawsone'sattentionawayfromtheeverydaytothefarthestfrontierofvisionSuchavistamaybejarring,butitissurelybettertolivewithaclearviewoftheworldthantoremainoptimisticbyavertingone'sgazefromitsfearfulandterriblemomentsMygoalinwritingthisbookisthustwofold:first,tointroducemyreaderstopessimismandtopersuadethemtoseeitasanimportanttraditioninthehistoryofpoliticalthought(likeliberalism,republicanism,Marxism,pragmatism,etcetera)eveniftheydonotfinditappealingIundertookthisproject,however,becauseIconsiderpessimismtobefarmorethanahistoricalcuriosityItismyclaimthatthefieldofpoliticalphilosophy,andmoreimportantly,theverylivesthatwelead,havebeendiminishedbythesuppressionanddismissalofpessimismthathastakenplaceinthelasthundredyearsSomysecondtaskistoexplaintheappealPREFACEXlllthatIfindinpessimismandtorecreateit,insofarasispossible,inthemindsofmyreadersThesetwotasksarenotfullyseparable,ofcoursebutIwouldrestsatisfiedif,afterreadingthisbook,pessimism(distinguishedfromsuchtraditions,orpseudotraditions,asnihilism,skepticism,andcynicism,withwhichitistoooftenwillinglyconfused)remainsonmyreaders'horizonsasachallenge,eveniftheyaredispleasedtofinditthereTosurviveaviolentstream,youcanchartitseddiesandswirlsinevermoredetailedcomplexityandthoroughnessoryoucanbuildastrongerboatThedrawbackofthesecondmethod:someofthemostadaptableboats,kayaksforexample,arebuilttothecontoursoftheirowners'bodiesyoucannotsharethemasyousharenavigationchartsYoucanlendyourboattosomeone,butitmaynotfitothersnearlyaswellThis,too,ispartofthepredicamentthatpessimistsfaceTheburdenoftimestrikeseveryhumandifferentlyandatechniqueorfortificationfittedtoonepersonmaynotsitsowellonanotherTheproblemisbothuniversalandinfinitelyindividualizedthesolutionsonofferpartial,temporary,andalwaysinneedofrevision,asashiptackingintothewindmustconstantlyalteritscoursetocontinueitsjourneySowebeaton,boatsagainstthecurrent,bornebackceaselesslyintothepastFitzgerald,ACKNOWLEDGMENTSAMONGthosewhohavereadandcommentedhelpfullyonsomeporntionofthemanuscriptareLawrieBalfour,JaneBennett,AurelianCriatu,AurelianDemars,JasonFrank,MatthewGoldfeder,AmyGutmann,GeorgeKateb,CharlesMatthews,SaraMonoson,AlexanderNehamas,AndrewNorris,BernardReginster,SophieRosenfeld,KellyAnnSarabyn,DanaVilla,andStephenWhitelowespecialthankstothosewhoreadandoffereddetailedcommentsonanearlycompletedraftofthewhole:AllanMegill,RobynMarasco,MelissaOrlie,VeritySmith,AnnieStilz,andananonymousreviewerforPrincetonUniversityPressIalsowanttonoteaspecialdebttothelateIlincaZarifopolJohnstonfordiscussionsaboutEMCioranthatwereespeciallyhelpfulandencouragingMyapologiesifIhaveforgottenanyoneTheUniversityofVirginiaandtheAmericanCouncilofLearnedSocietiessupportedtheleavetimeduringwhichmuchofthewritingtookplaceNorthwesternUniversityandtheHarvardLawSchoolgraciouslyprovidedofficespaceandlibraryaccessthatwasusefulat,respectively,theverybeginningandtheveryendofthisprojectIwouldalsoliketothankthepanelistsandaudiencemembersatvariousconferencesanduniversitycolloquiaforstimulatingfeedbackwhenIpresentedsegmentsofthisbookLikewisethestudents,graduateandundergraduate,inmypessimismthemedseminarsenduredmanypreliminaryformulationsofthethesesofferedhereandhelpedtoimprovethemIanMalcolm,ofPrincetonUniversityPress,stewardedthemanuscriptthroughtheeditorialprocess,andofferedadviceaswell,forwhichIamextremelygratefulJonMunkpreformedanexcellentcopyedit,andtheindexwaspreparedbyJimCurtisAnearlierversionofchapterappearedintheAmericanPoliticalScienceReviewIthanktheeditorsforpermissiontoreproduceitMyparentswitnessedthelonggestationofthisprojectwiththeirusualgoodhumorandsageadvice,mychildrenwiththeirunusualgoodhumorandcheerful,blessedignoranceThededicationofthisbookcannotbegintoreflectthedebtlowetomywife,JenniferMnookin,forsupportofadegreeandkindthatitwouldbeuselesstoattempttocatalogABBREVIATIONSQUOTATIONSarefollowedbytheabbreviationandapagenumberor,ifnotedbelow,anotherreferencenumberForworksnotlistedhere,IfollowamodifiedMLAcitationstyleFulldetailsforcitedtextscanbefoundinthebibliographyWorksbyAlbertCamusMSTheMythofSisyphusRTheRebelRRDResistance,Rebellion,andDeathWorksbyMigueldeCervantesDQTheIngeniousHidalgoDonQuixotedelaMancha(citedbyAAAGDDAQFTHUNGoOHDSHDTBBTETSvolumeandchapter)WorksbyEMCioranAnathemasandAdmirationsAllGallIsDividedDrawnandQuarteredTheFallintoTimeHistoryandUtopiaTheNewGodsOeuvresOntheHeightsofDespairAShortHistoryofDecayTheTroublewithBeingBornTheTemptationtoExistTearsandSaintsWorksbySigmundFreudBPPBeyondthePleasurePrincipleCDCivilizationandItsDiscontentsXVlllABBREVIATIONSCPCollectedPapersEITheEgoandtheIdIDTheInterpretationofDreamsWorksbyGiacomoLeopardiOMTheMoralEssays(OperetteMorali)PThoughts(Pensieri)ACAOMBGEBTCWDEHHHGSGMKGWPTGTIUMWPZWorksbyFriedrichNietzsche(allcitedbynumberedsectionwhenavailable)TheAntiChristAssortedOpinionsandMaximsBeyondGoodandEvilTheBirthofTragedyTheCaseofWagnerDaybreakEcceHomoHuman,AllTooHumanTheGayScienceOntheGenealogyofMoralsWerke:KritischeGesamtausgabe(citedbyvolume,book,andpage)PhilosophyintheTragicAgeoftheGreeksTwilightoftheIdolsUntimelyMeditationsTheWilltoPowerThusSpokeZarathustraWorksbyJeanJacquesRousseauEEmileESEmileandSophieFDDiscourseontheSciencesandArts(FirstDiscourse)LDLettertoMd'AlembertontheTheatreOLEssayontheOriginofLanguagesRSWReveriesoftheSolitaryWalkerSCOntheSocialContractABBREVIATIONSSDDiscourseontheOriginandtheFoundationsofInequalityEAPPWWROLDQTSL(SecondDiscourse)W

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*新书上架*悲观论:哲学、伦理、精神

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