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首页 *新书上架*【情境中的文本】早期现代欧洲的政治理论的语言学.pdf

*新书上架*【情境中的文本】早期现代欧洲的政治理论的语言学.pdf

*新书上架*【情境中的文本】早期现代欧洲的政治理论的语言学.p…

上传者: 九月虺 2010-01-28 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【情境中的文本】早期现代欧洲的政治理论的语言学pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含IDEASINCONTEXTTHELANGUAGESOFPOLITICALTHEORYINEARLYMODERNEUROPEIDEASINCONTE符等。

IDEASINCONTEXTTHELANGUAGESOFPOLITICALTHEORYINEARLYMODERNEUROPEIDEASINCONTEXTEditedbyRichardRorty,JBSchneewind,QuentinSkinnerandWolfLepeniesThebooksinthisserieswilldiscusstheemergenceofintellectualtraditionsandofrelatednewdisciplinesTheprocedures,aimsandvocabulariesthatweregeneratedwillbesetinthecontextofthealternativesavailablewithinthecontemporaryframeworksofideasandinstitutionsThroughdetailedstudiesoftheevolutionofsuchtraditions,andtheirmodificationbydifferentaudiences,itishopedthatanewpicturewillformofthedevelopmentofideasintheirconcretecontextsBythismeans,artificialdistinctionsbetweenthehistoryofphilosophy,ofthevarioussciences,ofsocietyandpolitics,andofliterature,maybeseentodissolveForalistoftitlesinthisseries,pleaseseeendofbookIdeasinContextispublishedwiththesupportoftheExxonEducationFoundationD>THELANGUAGESOFPOLITICALTHEORYINEARLYMODERNEUROPED>EDITEDBYANTHONYPAGDENTherightoftheUniversityofCambridgetoprintandsellallmannerofbookswasgrantedbyHenryVIIIinTheUniversityhasprintedandpublishedcontinuouslysinceCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCAMBRIDGENEWYORKPORTCHESTERMELBOURNESYDNEYPublishedbythePressSyndicateoftheUniversityofCambridgeThePittBuilding,TrumpingtonStreet,CambridgeCBRPWestthStreet,NewYork,NY,USAStamfordRoad,Oakleigh,Melbourne,AustraliaCambridgeUniversityPressFirstpublishedFirstpaperbackeditionPrintedinGreatBritainattheUniversityPress,CambridgeBritishLibrarycataloguinginpublicationdataPagden,ARTheLanguagesofpoliticaltheoryinearlymodernEurope(Ideasincontext)SociolinguisticsEuropepoliticsandgovernmentITitleIISeries'JNLibraryofCongresscataloguinginpublicationdataTheLanguagesofpoliticaltheoryinearlymodernEurope(Ideasincontext)'EarlierversionsofsevenoftheseessayswereoriginallydeliveredataconferenceonpoliticallanguagesheldattheEuropeanUniversityInstituteinFlorenceinSeptember'AcknowledgmentsIncludesindexPoliticalscienceEuropeHistoryIPagden,AnthonyIISeriesJAEL',ISBNhardcoversISBNpaperbackBOForGeoffreyHawthornCONTENTSNotesoncontributorspageixAcknowledgementsxiiANTHONYPAGDENIntroductionjGAPOCOCKTheconceptofalanguageandthemetierd'historien:someconsiderationsonpracticePARTINICOLAIRUBINSTEINThehistoryofthewordpoliticusinearlymodernEuropeDONALDKELLEYCivilscienceintheRenaissance:theproblemofinterpretationANTHONYPAGDENDispossessingthebarbarian:thelanguageofSpanishThomismandthedebateoverthepropertyrightsoftheAmericanIndiansRICHARDTUCKThe'modern'theoryofnaturallawPARTIIQUENTINSKINNERSirThomasMore'sUtopiaandthelanguageofRenaissancehumanismMAURIZIOVIROLITheconceptofordreandthelanguageofclassicalrepublicanisminJeanJacquesRousseauECOHAITSMAMULIERThelanguageofseventeenthcenturyrepublicanismintheUnitedProvinces:DutchorEuropeanMARKGOLDIEThecivilreligionofJamesHarringtonviiviiiCONTENTSPARTIIIMMGOLDSMITHLiberty,luxuryandthepursuitofhappinessISTVANHONTThelanguageofsociabilityandcommerce:SamuelPufendorfandthetheoreticalfoundationsofthe'FourStagesTheory'RICHARDBELLAMY'Dametafisicoamercatante':AntonioGenovesiandthedevelopmentofanewlanguageofcommerceineighteenthcenturyNaplesPARTIVGIGLIOLAROSSINIThecriticismofrhetoricalhistoriographyandtheidealofscientificmethod:history,natureandscienceinthepoliticallanguageofThomasHobbesROBERTWOKLERSaintSimonandthepassagefrompoliticaltosocialscienceJUDITHNSHKLARAlexanderHamiltonandthelanguageofpoliticalscienceIndexCONTRIBUTORSANTHONYPAGDENisaLecturerinHistoryattheUniversityofCambridgeandaFellowofKing'sCollegeHeistheauthorofHernanCortes:LettersfromMexico(ndedn,),TheFallofNaturalMan(ndedn,),SpanishImperialismandthePoliticalImagination()andcoeditor(withNicholasCanny)ofAnIdentityintheAtlanticColonialWorld()HeiscurrentlyworkingonahistoryofthehumansciencesintheearlymodernworldjGAPOCOCKisHarryCBlackProfessorofHistoryattheJohnsHopkinsUniversityHehaspublishedTheAncientConstitutionandtheFeudalLaw(reissued),Politics,LanguageandTime(),TheMachiavellianMoment(Cambridge,),ThePoliticalWorksofJamesHarrington()andVirtue,CommerceandHistory()HeiscurrentlyatworkonstudiesofBurkeandGibbonNICOLAIRUBINSTEINisEmeritusProfessorofHistoryattheUniversityofLondonHisworksincludeTheGovernmentofFlorenceundertheMedici,()andnumerousarticlesonthehistoryofpoliticalthought,acollectedvolumeofwhichisforthcomingfromtheCambridgeUniversityPressHeisalsogeneraleditoroftheLettersofLorenzodeMediciDONALDKELLEYisWilsonProfessorofHistoryattheUniversityofRochesterHeistheeditorofTheJournaloftheHistoryofIdeasandtheauthorofTheFoundationsofModernHistoricalScholarship(),FrancoisHotman:ARevolutionary'sOrdeal(),TheBeginningofIdeology(),HistoriansandtheLawinPostrevolutionaryFrance()andHistory,LawandtheHumanSciences()RICHARDTUCKisaUniversityLecturerinHistoryattheUniversityofCambridgeandFellowandDirectorofStudiesinHistoryatJesusCollegeHeistheauthorofNaturalRightsTheories()IXXCONTRIBUTORSQUENTINSKINNERisProfessorofPoliticalScienceattheUniversityofCambridgeandaFellowofChrist'sCollegeHispublicationsincludeTheFoundationsofModernPoliticalThought()andMachiavelli()MAURIZIOVIROLIisAssistantProfessorofPoliticsatPrincetonUniversityHeistheauthorofJeanJacquesRousseauandthe'WellOrderedSociety',L'eticalaicadiErminioJuvaltaandcoeditorofMachiavelliandRepublicanism,forthcomingfromCambridgeUniversityPressECOHAITSMAMULIERisaSeniorLecturerintheDepartmentofHistoryoftheUniversityofAmsterdamHispublicationsincludeTheMythofVeniceandDutchRepublicanThoughtintheSeventeenthCentury()andnumerousarticlesonthehistoriographyofearlymodernEuropeADictionaryofDutchHistorians(),writtenincollaborationwithGACvanderLem,isforthcomingwiththeNederlandsHistorischGenootschapMARKGOLDIEisaFellowandLecturerinHistoryatChurchillCollege,CambridgeHehaspublishedseveralarticlesonthepoliticalandintellectualhistoryoflaterStuartEngland,andhasabook,ToryIdeology:Politics,ReligionandIdeasinRestorationEnglandforthcomingfromtheCambridgeUniversityPressMMGOLDSMITH,sometimeProfessorofPoliticalTheoryattheUniversityofExeter,isHonoraryFellowofVictoriaUniversity,Wellington,NewZealandHeistheauthorofHobbes'sScienceofPolitics(),PrivateVicesandPublicBenefits:BernardMandeville'sSocialandPoliticalThought()andanumberofarticlesoncontemporarypoliticalphilosophyaswellasonseventeenthandeighteenthcenturypoliticalthoughtISTVANHONTaformerAssistantProfessorofPoliticsatColumbiaUniversity,isUniversityAssistantLecturerinHistoryattheUniversityofCambridgeandaFellowofKing'sCollegeHeistheeditor(withMichaelIgnatieff)ofWealthandVirtue:TheShapingofPoliticalEconomyintheScottishEnlightenment()andtheauthorofseveralarticlesonthehistoryofPoliticalEconomyandofMarxismRICHARDBELLAMYisLecturerinPoliticalTheoryattheUniversityofEdinburghHispublicationsincludeModernItalianSocialTheory(),and(aseditor)VictorianLiberalism:NineteenthCenturyPoliticalContributorsxiThoughtandPractice()andarticlesonthehistoryofpoliticalthoughtfromtheeighteenthcenturytothepresentHeiscurrentlyengagedonastudyofEuropeanLiberalismGIGLIOLAROSSINIisaformerattacheederechercheinPoliticalPhilosophyattheEuropeanUniversityInstituteandtheauthorofNaturaeartificionelpensierodiHobbes()JUDITHNSHKLARisJohnCowlesProfessorofGovernmentatHarvardUniversityandaMcArthurFellowHerpublicationsincludeAfterUtopia(),Legalism(),MenandCitizens:AStudyofRousseau'sSocialTheory(),FreedomandIndependence:AStudyofthePoliticalIdeasofHegel'sPhenomenologyofMind()andOrdinaryVices()ROBERTWOKLERisSeniorLecturerinGovernmentattheUniversityofManchesterWithMarkGoldie,heiseditoroftheforthcomingCambridgeHistoryofPoliticalThoughtintheEighteenthCenturyHispublicationsincludemonographsoneighteenthcenturypoliticalandanthropologicalthoughtandRousseauonSociety,Politics,MusicandLanguage()ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSEarlierversionsofsevenoftheseessays,thosebyPocock,Rubinstein,Tuck,HaitsmaMulier,RossiniandBellamy,wereoriginallydeliveredataconferenceonpoliticallanguagesheldattheEuropeanUniversityInstituteinFlorenceinSeptemberowethosesevenanapologyforhavingmadethemwaitsolongtoseetheirworkinprintTheotheressayswerewrittenspecificallyforthevolumeIwouldliketothankthePresidentandtheDepartmentofHistoryoftheEuropeanUniversityInstituteforhavingappointedmetoachairinculturalhistoryduringwhichenabledmetoorganiseameetinginwhatmustsurelybeoneofthemostspectacularsettingsinEurope,andmyformersecretary,BeatrijsdeHartogh,whoseorganisationalabilitiesmadethewholeaffairpracticableThefinalshapeofthebookalsoowesmuchtodiscussionswithJudithShklarandGeoffreyHawthornMygreatestdebt,however,istoProfessorQuentinSkinnerwhois,ineverysense,thecoeditorofthisvolumeHeislargelyresponsibleforitspresentformandhehasguidedthepreparationofthemanuscriptateverystageofitsslowandsometimestortuousdevelopmentWithouthisgenerosityand,asaneditorofthisseries,hisforbearance,thebookwouldcertainlyneverhavebeencompletedxuIntroductionANTHONYPAGDENInthepastfewdecadeshistorianshavebecomeincreasinglyconcernedwiththeroleplayedbylanguageinourunderstandingofsocialandpoliticallifeThetheoreticalsourcesforthisconcernareseveralandnotinfrequentlycontradictoryButiftheworksofWittgenstein,Heidegger,Austin,Ryle,Foucault,DerridaandRorty(totakeonlyarandomsample)oftenhavelittleelseincommon,theyhaveall,indifferentwaysandwithdifferentendsinview,insistedupontheinterdependenceofthepropositionalcontentofanargumentandthelanguage,thediscourse,inwhichitismadeAtthemostfundamentallevelsuchlanguageswillbecomposedofprecisevocabularies,metaphorsandtopoi,evenrecognisedauthorities,allreadilyidentifiableandeasilytransmittedfromoneauthortoanotherButtherearealsootherlevels,lesseasytoidentify,atwhichitmakessensetosaythataparticularauthorisspeakinginthelanguageof,say'humanism'or'scholasticism'or'politicaleconomy'Suchlanguagesare,asJGAPococksayshere,'distinguishablelanguagegamesofwhicheachmayhaveitsownvocabulary,rules,preconditionsandimplications,toneandstyle'whichthehistorianhastolearnto'read'Theyare,toborrowatermfromHobbes,'registers'inwhichspecifickindsofpropositionsmayintelligiblybecastTheauthorsrepresentedinthisvolumearecommittedtotheview,whichthisseriesisintendedtoadvance,thatideascanonlybestudiedinwhattheserieseditorscall'theirconcretecontexts',their'procedures,aimsandvocabularies'Thisisanexplicit,andnowfamiliar,rejectionofthoseoldermodesofintellectualhistorywhichstudiedtextsintermsofsourcesandinfluences,orsomevariationofLovejoy'sfamous'unitideas',andwhichfrequentlyimputedintenANTHONYPAGDENtionsandmeaningstopastauthorswhichtheycouldnotpossiblyhaveheldItisequally,however,andfarmoreurgently,arejectionofthedeconstructionists'antihumanistclaimthatnotextis,inanymeaningfulsense,theworkofaconsciousagentThediscursivepracticesdiscussedherewere,certainly,theproductoflongprocessesoflinguisticchangeButwebelievethatthosechangeswerebroughtaboutbyagentswhoclearlyintendedtosaysomethingsandnotothers,andwhoemployedthediscourseswhichtheyhad,inpartatleast,inheritedThisisnot,ofcourse,todenythatthe'prisonhouseoflanguage'isarealoneForthereclearlyisapartofeveryauthor'stextwhichcanbeshowntobederived,insomesenseofwhichtheauthormayseemunaware,fromanassemblyofpastutterancesButanyanalysiswhichconcentratesuponthatalonemustultimatelybeonlycircuitousIt,likePaulDeMan'sassaultonLocke'suseofmetaphor,'isboundtocontinuethisperpetualmotionthatnevermovesbeyondtautology'*Theessaysinthisvolumeareconcerned,notwiththearchitectureofthelinguisticprisonsofthepast,butwiththenecessarilylimited,butneverthelessintelligible,freedomofthosewhoinhabitedthemNordowebelievethatlanguages,discourses,areselflimitingAnauthormayemploytheidiomorthevocabulariesofonelanguagewhilespeakingpredominantlyinanotherHeorshemayalsocombinedifferentlanguageswithinthesametextNor,ofcourse,dolanguagesremainunchangingovertimeTheymay,asRichardTuckshows,becomewhollytransformed,almosttotheextentofconstitutingnewlanguagesbytheirexposuretootherdiscursivepracticesandchangesintheexternalcircumstancestheyseektodescribeThevocabulariesofwhichtheyareconstitutedmayalso,asNicolaiRubinsteindemonstratesinhisessayonthehistoryofthetermpoliticus,undergoradicalchangeThecontextinwhichAristotleusedthetermpolztzkosandthelanguageinwhichMicheldel'HopitalsituatedthetermpolitiquearesoverydifferentthatitmightevenseemreasonabletospeakoftwodistincttermssharingthesamesemanticoriginBut,asRubinsteinhasalsobeenabletoshow,thewordneverlostitscentralconstitutionalistapplication,andwithittheunderstandingofwhatareaofexperience'thepolitical'wasintendedtodescribeSuchcontinuitiesofsenseserve,asJudithShklarsays,todemonstrate'theextraordinarycapacityofintellectualandmoraldispositionstosurviveintactundertheassaultsofsocialchange'Butthosechangeswhichdooccurtheshiftinthe'Theepistemologyofmetaphor',inMichaelShapiro(ed),LanguageandPolitics(Oxford,),pIntroductionvaluegivento'citizen'or'luxury',thetransformationoiotiuminto'idleness'ornegotiuminto'business'arealsocrucialtoanyaccountofhowthoseintellectualandmoraldispositionsareabletosurvive,sincetheyhelptomonitorthewaysinwhichthelanguagesofpoliticsadaptedtochanginghistoricalcircumstancesTheyarealsooneoftheunifyingthemesofthisvolumeIINosinglecollectionofessaysonsovastasubjectasthisonecouldhopetobecomprehensiveinitsrangeButthecontributionstothisvolumecoverfourofthemostimportant,mosteasilyidentifiablelanguagesofpoliticaltheoryinuseinearlymodernEuropeTheyare:thelanguageofthelawofnatureandwhathascometobecalled'politicalAristotelianism'thelanguageofclassicalrepublicanismthelanguageofpoliticaleconomyandthelanguageofthescienceofpoliticsThefirstofthesetoachievewidespreadrecognitionasapoliticallanguagewaspoliticalAristotelianismThiswaslargelythecreationofStThomasAquinasandhisimmediatefollowers,TolomeoofLuccaandGilesofRomeItwas,asRubinsteinsays,WilliamofMoerbeke'stranslationofthePolitics,whicheffectively'introducedpoliticusanditsLatinequivalentcivilisintoWesternpoliticallanguage',andwiththetermcametheGreekconceptofthe'politic',theideathatmanwaszoonpolitikon,one,thatis,whowasliterallymadeforthepoliticallifeinthesensethathistrueend,histeos,asaman,couldbeachievedinnoothercontextForAquinas,andforthelargeandvariednumberofthosewhocanbedescribedasThomists,thepoliticalregimewasmorethanmerelyapracticalarrangementPoliticalsocietieswere,asDonaldKelleysays,personaefictae,worldsconstructedonthebasisofarationalunderstandingofman'smoralpotentialitiesPoliticalsciencewas,therefore,likemoralphilosophy(andforAquinas,asforAristotle,thetwowereinseparable)aformofknowledge,anepistemeAndbecauseitwasascience,itwasconcernednotwiththeunderstandingofthehuman(orpositive)law,butratherwiththeinterpretationofthelawofnature,theiusnaturae,thatbodyofrationallyperceivedfirstprincipleswhichGodhasinscribedintheheartsofallmenFortheThomists,thelawofnaturewastheefficientcauseofman'srelationshipwiththenaturalworldItwas,asKelleydescribesit,'metahistorical,andmetalinguisticaswellasmetatextual'AndsincethetheoryofnaturallawrelieduponthevocabularyofANTHONYPAGDENAristotelianlogicandAristoteliananthropology,thelanguageofpoliticalAristotelianismbecameinseparablefromthelanguageofwhat,intheseventeenthcentury,becameknownas'iusnaturalism'FromAquinashimselftothe'modern'naturallawtheoristsdiscussedbyRichardTuck,theprojectwastocreateapoliticalphilosophywhichcouldbefullyaccountableintermsofasetofrationallyconceived,andthusuniversallyacceptable,firstprinciplesTheapplicationoftheseprincipleswas,however,consensualKnowledgewas,inFranciscodeVitoria'sbluntphrase,'thatthingonwhichallmenareinagreement',anditcould,asGrotiusandPufendorfweretoargue,bemadeidenticalwithmen'sinterestsonthesameunderstanding:thatthisis,selfevidently,whatGodmusthaveintendedformanHumansocietieswere,therefore,sourcesofknowledgeButtheymust,itwasargued,havecomeintoexistencethroughanagreementorcontractamongthefirstmenBythis'socialcontract'menwilledawaytheiroriginallibertyinexchangefortheprotectionandthepossibilityofmoralunderstandingwhichcivilsocietyalonecouldprovideTheychoserulerstocreateforthemaworldinwhichtheymightliveessentiallyprivatelives,andbeabletodefendtheircommoninterestsButalthoughinordertoleavethestateofnaturetheyhadgivenupnaturalliberty,theystillretainedagainsttheirrulerscertainnaturalrightsRights,therefore,becamecentraltothelanguageofthenaturallawtheoristsInthetraditionalhistoriesofthedevelopmentofthetheoryofnaturallaw,GrotiusandPufendorf,sincetheyusedarecognisablyscholasticidiom,haveoftenbeenregardedasthesuccessorsoftheSpanishThomistsForthepostKantianhistoriansofphilosophy,thiscontinuityofvocabulariesbetweenthe'old'naturallawtheoristsandthe'moderns'madetheradicalbreakbetweenGrotiusandSuarezalmostimpercept

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