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首页 LearningThe Treasure within教育财富蕴藏其中

LearningThe Treasure within教育财富蕴藏其中.pdf

LearningThe Treasure within教育财富…

annieleo
2010-01-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《LearningThe Treasure within教育财富蕴藏其中pdf》,可适用于其他资料领域

MembersoftheCommissionJacquesDelors,ChairmanIn’amAlMuftiIsaoAmagiRobertoCarneiroFayChungBronislawGeremekWilliamGorhamAleksandraKornhauserMichaelManleyMariselaPadrnQueroMarieAngPliqueSavaneKaranSinghRodolfoStavenhagenMyongWonSuhrZhouNanzhaoReporttoUNESCOoftheInternationalCommissiononEducationfortheTwentyfirstCenturyUNESCOPUBLISHINGEducation:thenecessaryUtopiaJacquesDelorsLookingaheadTensionstobeovercomeDesigningandbuildingourcommonfutureLearningthroughoutlife:theheartbeatofsocietyThestagesandbridgesoflearning:afreshapproachGettingthereformstrategiesrightBroadeninginternationalcooperationintheglobalvillage,,PARTONE:OUTLOOKS:,r‘“‘“‘,$S,,$:”::::‘:,IFromthelocalcommunity‘CtoaworldsocietyAnincreasinglycrowdedplanetTowardstheglobalizationofhumanactivityUniversalcommunicationThemanyfacesofglobalinterdependenceAnuncertainworldiThelocalandtheglobalUnderstandingtheworldandunderstandingothersPointersandrecommendations‘FromsocialcohesiontodemocraticparticipationEducationandthecrisisofsocialcohesionEducationversusexclusionEducationandtheforcesatworkinsociety:someprinciplesforactionDemocraticparticipationCiviceducationandthepracticeofcitizenshipInformationsocietiesandlearningsocietiesPointersandrecommendationsFromeconomicarowthtohumandevelopmentHighlyinequitableeconomicgrowthThedemandforeducationforeconomicpurposesTheunevendistributionofknowledgeEducationforwomen,anessentialmeansofpromotingdevelopmentCountingthecostofprogressEconomicgrowthandhumandevelopmentEducationforhumandevelopmentPointersandrecommendationsPARTTWO:PRINCIPLESThefourpillarsofeducationLearningtoknowLearningtodoFromskilltocompetenceThe‘dematerialization’ofworkandtheriseoftheservicesectorWorkintheinformaleconomyLearningtolivetogether,learningtolivewithothersDiscoveringothersWorkingtowardscommonobjectivesLearningtobePointersandrecommendationsLearningthroughoutlifeAnimperativefordemocracyAmultidimensionaleducationNewtimes,freshfieldsEducationattheheartofsocietySeekingouteducationalsynergiesPointersandrecommendationsPARTTHREE:DIRECTIONSFrombasiceducationtouniversityApassporttolife:basiceducationEarlychildhoodeducationChildrenwithspecialneedsAdultbasiceducationandliteracyCommunityparticipationandresponsibilitySecondaryeducation:thecrossroadsoflifeDiversityinsecondaryeducationVocationalguidanceHighereducationandeducationthroughoutlifeThefunctionsofhighereducationApaceforlearningandasourceofknowledgeHighereducationandthechanginglabourmarketTheuniversityasaplaceofcultureandlearningopentoallHighereducationandinternationalcooperationThevitalneedtocombatunderachievementRecognizingsubsequentlyacquiredskillsbymeansofnewmethodsofcertificationPointersandrecommendationsTeachersinsearchofnewperspectivesTheworldcomesintotheclassroomExpectationsandresponsibilitiesTeaching:anartandascienceThequalityofteachersLearningwhatandhowtoteachWorkingteachersTheschoolandthecommunityTheadministrationoftheschoolDrawingteachersintodecisionmakingoneducationalmattersFavourableconditionsforeffectiveteachingPointersandrecommendationsChoicesforeducation:thepoliticalfactorChoiceofeducationmeanschoiceofsocietyThedemandforeducationEvaluationandpublicdebateOpportunitiesofferedbyinnovationanddecentralizationInvolvingthestakeholdersintheeducationalundertakingEncouraginggenuineautonomyTheneedforoverallregulationofthesystemEconomicandfinancialchoicesTheforceoffinancialconstraintsPointersforthefutureUsingtheresourcesoftheinformationsocietyTheimpactofthenewtechnologiesonsociep:pn(oneducationAwiderangingdebate:>,‘,,,<iPointersandrecommendations,,,,,,Internationalcooperation:educatingtheglobal’villageWomenandgirls:educationforequalityEducationandsocialdevelopmentMakingdebtswapsworkforeducationAUNESCOobservatoryforthenewinformationtechnologiesFromaidtopartnershipScientists,researchandinternationalexchangesNewtasksforUNESCOPointersandrecommendationsEPILOGUEExcellenceineducation:investinginhumantalentln’amAIMuftiUpgradingthequalityofschooleducationlsaoAmagiRevitalizingthecommunityspirit:aglimpseofthesocializingroleoftheschoolinthenextcenturyRobertoCarneiroEducationinAfricatodayFayChungCohesion,solidarityandexclusionBranlawGeremek:CreatingopportunitiesAleksandraKornhauser^ri:Education,empowermentandsocial,i:,leaIingMichaelManleyEducationfortheglobalsocietyKaranSinghEducationforamulticulturalworldRodolfoStavenhagenOpeningourmindsforabetterlifeforaliMyongWonSuhrInteractionsofeducationandcultureforeconomicandhumandevelopment:anAsianperspectivezhuNanzhaoAPPENDICESTheworkoftheCommissionMembersoftheCommissionMandateoftheCommissionDistinguishedadvisersSecretariatCommissionmeetingsIndividualsandinstitutionsconsultedFollowupJacquesDelorsEducation:thenecessaryUtopiaInconfrontingthemanychallengesthatthefutureholdsinstore,humankindseesineducationanindispensableassetinitsattempttoattaintheidealsofpeace,freedomandsocialjusticeAsitconcludesitswork,theCommissionaffirmsitsbeliefthateducationhasafundamentalroletoplayinpersonalandsocialdevelopmentTheCommissiondoesnotseeeducationasamiraclecureoramagicformulaopeningthedoortoaworldinwhichallidealswillbeattained,butasoneoftheprincipalmeansavailabletofosteradeeperandmoreharmoniousformofhumandevelopmentandtherebytoreducepoverty,exclusion,ignorance,oppressionandwarAtatimewheneducationalpoliciesarebeingsharplycriticizedorpushedforeconomicandfinancialreasonsdowntothebottomoftheagenda,theCommissionwishestosharethisconvictionwiththewidestpossibleaudience,throughitsanalyses,discussionsandrecommendationsDoesthepointneedtobeemphasizedTheCommissionwasthinkingprincipallyaboutthechildrenandyoungpeoplewhowilltakeoverfromtoday’sgenerationofadults,thelatterbeingalltooinclinedtoconcentrateontheirownproblemsEducationisalsoEducation:anexpressionofaffectionforchildrenandyoungpeople,whomweneedtowelcomeintosociety,unreservedlyofferingthemtheplacethatistheirsbyrightthereinaplaceintheeducationsystem,tobesure,butalsointhefamily,thelocalcommunityandthenationThiselementarydutyneedstobeconstantlybroughttomind,sothatgreaterattentionispaidtoit,evenwhenchoosingbetweenpolitical,economicandfinancialoptionsInthewordsofapoet:‘TheChildisfatheroftheMan’OurcenturyhasbeenasmuchoneofsoundandfuryasofeconomicandsocialprogressprogressthatinanycasehasnotbeenequallysharedAtthedawnofanewcenturytheprospectofwhichevokesbothanguishandhope,itisessentialthatallpeoplewithasenseofresponsibilityturntheirattentiontoboththeaimsandthemeansofeducationItistheviewoftheCommissionthat,whileeducationisanongoingprocessofimprovingknowledgeandskills,itisalsoperhapsprimarilyanexceptionalmeansofbringingaboutpersonaldevelopmentandbuildingrelationshipsamongindividuals,groupsandnationsThisviewwasexplicitlyadoptedbythemembersoftheCommissionwhentheyacceptedtheirmandateTheywishedmoreover,bytheargumentstheyadduced,tostressthepivotalroleofUNESCO,arolethatstemsdirectlyfromtheideasonwhichUNESCOwasfounded,baseduponthehopeforaworldthatisabetterplacetolivein,wherepeoplewillhavelearnedtorespecttherightsofwomenandmen,toshowmutualunderstanding,andtouseadvancesinknowledgetofosterhumandevelopmentratherthantocreatefurtherdistinctionsbetweenpeopleOurCommissionhadtheperhapsimpossibletaskofovercomingtheobstaclespresentedbytheextraordinarydiversityofsituationsintheworldandtryingtoarriveatanalysesthatareuniversallyvalidandconclusionsacceptabletoeveryoneNevertheless,theCommissiondiditsbesttoprojectitsthinkingontoafuturedominatedbyglobalization,tochoosethosequestionsthateveryoneisaskingandtolaydownsomethenecessaryUtopiaguidelinesthatcanbeappliedbothwithinnationalcontextsandonaworldwidescaleAccordingtoUNCTADstudies,averageincomeintheleastdevelopedcountries(millioninhabitants)isfallingTheestimatedfigureis$ayearperinhabitantasagainst$fordevelopingcountriesand$,fortheindustrializedcountriesLookingaheadSomeremarkablescientificdiscoveriesandbreakthroughshavebeenmadeduringthelasttwentyfiveyearsManycountrieshaveemergedfromunderdevelopment,andstandardsoflivinghavecontinuedtorise,albeitatratesdifferingconsiderablyfromcountrytocountry,Despitethis,theprevailingmoodofdisenchantmentformsasharpcontrastwiththehopesbornintheyearsjustaftertheSecondWorldWarItmaythereforebesaidthat,ineconomicandsocialterms,progresshasbroughtwithitdisillusionmentThisisevidentinrisingunemploymentandintheexclusionofgrowingnumbersofpeopleintherichcountriesItisunderscoredbythecontinuinginequalitiesindevelopmentthroughouttheworldiWhilehumankindisincreasinglyawareofthethreatsfacingitsnaturalenvironment,theresourcesneededtoputmattersrighthavenotyetbeenallocated,despiteaseriesofinternationalmeetings,suchastheUnitedNationsConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopment(UNCED),heldinRiodeJaneiroin,anddespitetheseriouswarningsofnaturaldisastersormajorindustrialaccidentsThetruthisthatallouteconomicgrowthcannolongerbeviewedastheidealwayofreconcilingmaterialprogresswithequity,respectforthehumanconditionandrespectforthenaturalassetsthatwehaveadutytohandoningoodconditiontofuturegenerationsWehavebynomeansgraspedalltheimplicationsofthisasregardsboththeendsandmeansofsustainabledevelopmentandnewformsofinternationalcooperationThisissuewillconstituteoneofthemajorintellectualandpoliticalchallengesofthenextcenturyThatshouldnot,however,causethedevelopingcountriestodisregardtheclassicforcesdrivinggrowth,inparticularasregardstheirneedtoentertheworldofscienceandtechnology,withallthisimpliesintermsofculturaladaptationandthemodernizationofmentalitiesThosewhobelievedthattheendoftheColdWarheldoutthePEducation:prospectofabetterandmorepeacefulworldhaveanotherreasonfordisenchantmentanddisillusionmentItissimplynotanadequateconsolationorexcusetorepeatthathistoryistragicthatissomethingeveryoneknowsorshouldknowAlthoughthedeathtollinthelastworldwarwasmillion,wemustalsorememberthatsincesomemillionpeoplehavediedinaroundwars,bothbeforeandafterthefalloftheBerlinWallIthardlymatterswhetherthesearenewrisksoroldrisksTensionssmoulderandthenflareupbetweennationsandethnicgroups,orasaresultofabuildupofsocialandeconomicinjusticesAgainstabackgroundofgrowinginterdependenceamongpeoplesandtheglobalizationofproblems,decisionmakershaveadutytoassesstheserisksandtakeactiontowardthemoffButhowcanwelearntolivetogetherinthe‘globalvillage’ifwecannotmanagetolivetogetherinthecommunitiestowhichwenaturallybelongthenation,theregion,thecity,thevillage,theneighbourhoodDowewanttomakeacontributiontopubliclifeandcanwedosoThatquestioniscentraltodemocracy,Thewilltoparticipate,itshouldberemembered,mustcomefromeachperson’ssenseofresponsibilitybutwhereasdemocracyhasconquerednewterritoryinlandsformerlyinthegripoftotalitarianismanddespoticrule,itisshowingsignsoflanguishingincountrieswhichhavehaddemocraticinstitutionsformanydecades,asiftherewereaconstantneedfornewbeginningsandasifeverythinghastoberenewedorreinventedHowcouldthesegreatchallengesnotbeacauseforconcernineducationalpolicymakingHowcouldtheCommissionfailtohighlightthewaysinwhicheducationalpoliciescanhelptocreateabetterworld,bycontributingtosustainablehumandevelopment,mutualunderstandingamongpeoplesandarenewalofpracticaldemocracyTensionstobeovercomeTothisend,wehavetoconfront,thebettertoovercomethem,themaintensionsthat,althoughtheyarenotnew,willbethenecessaryUtopiacentraltotheproblemsofthetwentyfirstcentury,namely:lThetensionbetweentheglobalandthelocal:peopleneedgraduallytobecomeworldcitizenswithoutlosingtheirrootsandwhilecontinuingtoplayanactivepartinthelifeoftheirnationandtheirlocalcommunitylThetensionbetweentheuniversalandtheindividual:cultureissteadilybeingglobalized,butasyetonlypartiallyWecannotignorethepromisesofglobalizationnoritsrisks,nottheleastofwhichistheriskofforgettingtheuniquecharacterofindividualhumanbeingsitisforthemtochoosetheirownfutureandachievetheirfullpotentialwithinthecarefullytendedwealthoftheirtraditionsandtheirowncultureswhich,unlesswearecareful,canbeendangeredbycontemporarydevelopmentslThetensionbetweentraditionandmodernity,whichispartofthesameproblem:howisitpossibletoadapttochangewithoutturningone’sbackonthepast,howcanautonomybeacquiredincomplementarilywiththefreedevelopmentofothersandhowcanscientificprogressbeassimilatedThisisthespiritinwhichthechallengesofthenewinformationtechnologiesmustbemetlThetensionbetweenlongtermandshorttermconsiderations:thishasalwaysexistedbuttodayitissustainedbythepredominanceoftheephemeralandtheinstantaneous,inaworldwhereanoverabundanceoftransientinformationandemotionscontinuallykeepsthespotlightonimmediateproblemsPublicopinioncriesoutforquickanswersandreadysolutions,whereasmanyproblemscallforapatient,concerted,negotiatedstrategyofreformThisispreciselythecasewhereeducationpoliciesareconcernedlThetensionbetween,ontheonehand,theneedforcompetition,andontheother,theconcernforequalityofopportunity:thisisaclassicissue,whichhasbeenfacingbotheconomicandsocialpolicymakersandeducationalpolicymakerssincethebeginningofthecenturySolutionshavesometimesbeenproposedbuttheyhaveneverstoodthetestoftimeToday,theCommissionventurestoclaimthatthepressuresofcompetitionhavecausedmanyof,Education:thoseinpositionsofauthoritytolosesightoftheirmission,whichistogiveeachhumanbeingthemeanstotakefulladvantageofeveryopportunityThishasledus,withinthetermsofreferenceofthereport,torethinkandupdatetheconceptoflifelongeducationsoastoreconcilethreeforces:competition,whichprovidesincentivescooperation,whichgivesstrengthandsolidarity,whichuniteslThetensionbetweentheextraordinaryexpansionofknowledgeandhumanbeings’capacitytoassimilateit:theCommissionwasunabletoresistthetemptationtoaddsomenewsubjectsforstudy,suchasselfknowledge,waystoensurephysicalandpsychologicalwellbeingorwaystoanimprovedunderstandingofthenaturalenvironmentandtopreservingitbetterSincethereisalreadyincreasingpressureoncurricula,anyclearsightedreformstrategymustinvolvemakingchoices,providingalwaysthattheessentialfeaturesofabasiceducationthatteachespupilshowtoimprovetheirlivesthroughknowledge,throughexperimentandthroughthedevelopmentoftheirownpersonalculturesarepreservedlLastlyanotherperennialfactorthetensionbetweenthespiritualandthematerial:oftenwithoutrealizingit,theworldhasalonging,oftenunexpressed,foranidealandforvaluesthatweshallterm‘moral’Itisthuseducation’snobletasktoencourageeachandeveryone,actinginaccordancewiththeirtraditionsandconvictionsandpayingfullrespecttopluralism,tolifttheirmindsandspiritstotheplaneoftheuniversaland,insomemeasure,totranscendthemselvesItisnoexaggerationontheCommission’sparttosaythatthesurvivalofhumanitydependsthereonDesigningandbuildingourcommonfuturePeopletodayhaveadizzyingfeelingofbeingtornbetweenaglobalizationwhosemanifestationstheycanseeandsometimeshavetoendure,andtheirsearchforroots,referencepointsandasenseofbelongingthenecessaryUtopiaEducationhastofaceuptothisproblemnowmorethaneverasaworldsocietystrugglespainfullytobeborn:educationisattheheartofbothpersonalandcommunitydevelopmentitsmissionistoenableeachofus,withoutexception,todevelopallourtalentstothefullandtorealizeourcreativepotential,includingresponsibilityforourownlivesandachievementofourpersonalaimsThisaimtranscendsallothersItsachievement,thoughlonganddifficult,willbeanessentialcontributiontothesearchforamorejustworld,abetterworldtoliveinTheCommissionwishestostressthispointstrongly,atatimewhensomearebeingassailedbyseriousdoubtsastotheopportunitiesopenedupbyeducationItistruethatmanyotherproblemshavetobesolved,andweshallcomebacktothem,butthisreporthasbeenpreparedatatimewhen,facedwithsomanymisfortunescausedbywar,crimeandunderdevelopment,humankindisapparentlyhesitatingbetweencontinuingheadlongalongthesamepathandresignationLetusofferpeopleanotherwayThereis,therefore,everyreasontoplacerenewedemphasisonthemoralandculturaldimensionsofeducation,enablingeachpersontograsptheindividualityofotherpeopleandtounderstandtheworld’serraticprogressiontowardsacertainunitybutthisprocessmustbeginwithselfunderstandingthroughaninnervoyagewhosemilestonesareknowledge,meditationandthepracticeofselfcriticismThismessageshouldguideeducationalthinking,inconjunctionwiththeestablishmentofwiderandmorefarreachingformsofinternationalcooperationwhichwillbediscussedbelowSeeninthiscontext,everythingfallsintoplace,whetheritbetherequirementsofscienceandtec

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