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首页 Owen, Stephen - The Great Age of Chinese Poetry …

Owen, Stephen - The Great Age of Chinese Poetry - The High T'ang.pdf

Owen, Stephen - The Great Age o…

yuwensuoan
2010-01-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Owen, Stephen - The Great Age of Chinese Poetry - The High T'angpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THEGREATAGEOFCHINESEPOETRYTheHighTangSTEPHENOWENNewHavenandLondon,YaleUniversityPressPublishedwithassistancefromtheFrederickWHinesPublicationFundofYaleUniversityCopyright©ttbyValeUniversityAUrightsreservedThisbookmaynotbereproduced,inwholeorinpartinanyform(beyondthatcopyingpermittedbySectionsandoftheUSCopyrightLawandexceptbyreviewersforthepublicpress)withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublishersDesignedbySallyHarrisandsetinMonophotoBembotypebyAscoTradeTypesettingLtd•HongKongPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyVailBallouPress,BinghamtonNYLibraryofCongreuCataloginginPublicationDataOwenStephenThegreatageofChinesepoetryBibliog<aphy:pIncludesindexIChinesepoetryT'angdynastyHistoryandcriticismITitlePLJ'ISBN)<>)I)ContentsAcknowledgmentsChronologyofRulersIntroductionVIIIXXIPartOne:TheBeginningoftheHighT'angandtheFirstGenerationPoetsIEarlyT'angandHighT'angThePoetsofTransitionIITheSocialContextWangWei:TheArtificeofSimplicityTheFirstGeneration:CapitalPoetsoftheK'aiyiianTs'uiHaoCh'uKuanghsiMengHaojan:TheFreedombeyondDecorumCh'angChienWangCh'angIingandLiCh'i:NewInterestsinCapitalPoetryLiPo:ANewConceptofGeniusWuYiinKaoShihPartTwo:The"LaterBorn":TheSecondandThirdGenerationsoftheHighT'angTs'enShen:TheSearchforDifferenceIITuFuFukuRevival:YiianChieh,theCh'idlchungchi,andtheConfucianIntellectualsPoetsoftheCh'iehchungchiTheIntellectualsVIConteItsMinorPoetsoftheK'aiyiianandT'ienpaoTheTraditionsofCapitalPoetryintheLaterEighthCenturyLiteraryActivityintheSoutheastIThePoetMonksChiaojanTheLinkedVersesKuK'uangWeiYingwu:AnElegyfortheHighTangNotes:ListofAbbreviationsNotestotheTextNotestothePoems:IntroductionNotestothePoemsFindingListAnIntroductoryBibliographyIndexAcknowledgmentsStoleneveningsandweekends,evenwellprotectedsummers,cannotprovidethetimenecessaryforaprojectofthismagnitudeMythanks,therefore,gofirstofalltotheMorseFellowshipofYaleUniversityforitsfinancialsupportduringtheacademicyear,allowingme(withanextrasummer)sixteenuninterruptedmonthstodoresearchforthisvolumeMythanksalsogototheMooreFundofYaleforhelpingtodefraytheconsiderablecostsofprintingthisvolumewithChinesecharactersandthetextsofthepoemsOfmymanyfriendsandcolleagueswhohavecommentedonpartsofthemanuscript,IwouldlikeespeciallytothankHughStimson,HansFrankel,MaureenRobertson,andMarshaWagnerIshouldalsothankmystudents,whohaveforseveralyearsbeenreadingandcommentingonthevariouschaptersManythankstoWentaoChengforhiscalligraphyinthisvolumeandtoCh'unghoFrankel,whoinadvertentlywasnotacknowledgedforhercalligraphyforPoetryojtheEarlyT'angIwouldliketodedicatethebooktomyparents,GeorgeandDehaOwen,fortheirmanyyearsofloveandsupportVIIChronologyofRulers(withimportantreigntitles)ozI呵呵呵呵呵『f呵『f。。一一一一一一一OZzzDI的引f弓弓呵弓弓弓弓呵元﹒寶闊天nn揖且索韋w可﹒啥叫UEEfAT串串玄RR家索nb前m可容嗎甜甜肅代呵德旭UHupgLIh叫阿舟呵tr時m盯呵團軍unM晦us﹒山nutd司a'a﹒'atdet司ahUUHnmkTH﹒恥TNoheHF凶TTIntroductionChinesecriticsusuallydesignatedtheperiodsofliteraryhistorybyreignsbydynastiesorbydynasticsubdivisionssuchas“Early"“Middle"and“Late"WhentheylookedbackontheT'anghoweveranewtermoriginallyfromthevegetativecycleintrudedbetweenthe“EarlyT'ang"and“MidT'ang"Thistermrevealstheextenttowhichwonderovercametheliteraryhistorian'susualsobriety:asinthepoetryofnootherdynastythereisa“HighT'ang"盛唐a‘'T'anginFullFlower"TolaterreadersthiseracenteredinthereignofHsüantsungpossessedauniqueauraofsplendorandgreatnesswasamomentwhenculturaleffiorescenceandliterarygeniushappilycoincidedTheirawewasjustified:theworkofatleastthreemajorpoetsandofadozennearlygreatshedalightthatnoreadercouldignoreButthatveryradiancealsoobscuredtheliterary­historicalrealitiesoftheperiod:acomplexprocessofcontinuouschangewasperceivedasasinglesunburstofgeniusandvarietythatvanishedalmostasquicklyasitappearedleavinglateragestostruggleforitsafter­glowAppearingintheninthcenturygrowingthroughtheSungandfirm­lyrootedinthemindsofallbornlaterwastheconvictionthattheHighT'anghadbeentheapogeeofallChinesepoetryLaterpoetslamentedtheirowndimnessinfaceofitsluminositytheyimitateditslavishlyre­voltedagainstitviolentlydeclaredtheywouldignoreitandwritespon­taneouslyaccordingtothedictatesoftheirinnernaturesbutinthehistoryofChinesepoetryitremainedthefixedcenterthatdefinedthepositionsofalllaterpoetsAnyseriousunderstandingpftheperiodanditspoetrydemandsthatweputasidethemythofradianceWangWei'spoemscontainanallegoryofamountaintemplewhosenaturalbeautyexistedtoleadthepilgrimtoXlXIIIntroductionatruthbehindtheseductivesurface(p)inasimilarway,themythofthegoldenageofpoetryisnotthegoalitself,butanenticementtoentertheageandcomprehenditstruenatureIfwearecontentsimplytocon­templateitfromafar,wecannotappreciateitsfulldynamismandvariety:theinternalrelationshipsbetweenthepoetsaredistortedtheage'srootsinpastpoetryareseveredandaseriesofreductive,platitudinousattributesareallowedtocharacterizetheperiodstyleThetenacityofthemythofthegoldenageofpoetrydemandscautioninthreeimportantareasFirst,theperiodmustnotbeidentifiedwiththetwopoetswhodominateditforlaterreaders:LiPoandTuFuLiteraryhistorycannotcomprehendthefullnessofmajortalentmoremodestly,itseekstosetthattalentinitsessentialcontextsIfwesetasidetheHighTangmyth,werealizehowuncharacteristicoftheperiodLiPoandTuFuwereLaterreaderstendedtocomplacencyaboutthestatureofLiPoandTuFu:theywereviewednotonlyastheheightofpoetrybutalsoasthetwoantitheticalnormsofthepoeticpersonalityButthecontextofcontem­porarypoetrycastsLiPoandTuFuinaverydifferentlight,andinthatlightcanbeseenthenatureanddegreeoftheiroriginalityLaterreaderswouldoftenlinkWangWeiandMengHaojanfortheirsharedinterestinthethemeofreclusionAcontemporarypoeticcontextrevealshowfarapartthetwomenwereintraining,insensibility,andinthenatureoftheirpoetictalentsOurgoalthusbecomesnottodefinetheagebyitsmajortalents,butrathertousethetruenormsoftheagetounderstanditsgreatestpoetsThesecondcautionliesinthegenera}problemofperiodstyleFromthepointofviewofconservativeliteraryhistorians,thereistheillusionthataperiodstyleisafullycoherententitywithconvenientlyfixeddatesOthersdistrustanyperiodlabelsandseeinthemsomethinginimicaltothetrueappreciationofpoetryPeriodstylesarereal:nosensitivereaderofChineseorEnglishpoetrycanescapethathistoricalsenseoflanguage,style,andliterarycontextwhichisanaturalandpleasurablepartofthereadingprocessButperiodstylesareshapeless,multifaceted,andpermeableen­titiesthatdonotsubmittoeasydefinitionTheyaremostcomprehensibleattheirboundaries:newideas,influentialpoets,orrediscoveriescancon­tributetoageneralchangeinpoetryoverthecourseofafewyearsTheseboundariesarehighlypermeable:theretherootsofanewstyleandthecontinuitiesofanolderoneareclearestTheshapethatHighT'angpoetrytookroughlybetweenandwasclearlyanoutgrowthoftheEarlyTangstyleatthesametime,thechangesthentakingplaceweregroundedinthedissatisfactionsofmanyEarlyTangpoetswiththepoetryoftheirownageAtitsotherboundary,theHighTangstylelingeredonafterthedeathofitslastmajortalent,TuFuTherealbreakintotheMidTangdidItroductiolXllnotoccuruntiltherenewedinterestinfuku復古intheearlySButthatboundaryisfarfromabsolute:conservativepoetscontinuedtowriteborderpoemsinthestyleofWangCh'anglingwhiletheradicalinno­vatorsfashionedanewpoetrywiththeireyessetonLiPOandTuFuThethirdandmostseriousdangeroftheHighT'angmythisthecollapseofitsinternalchronologyintoamomentofglitteringvarietyThevarietyofHighT'angpoetryisindeedpartiallyafunctionofthediffer­encesbetweenindividualpoetsbutitisalsoinpartaresultofthechangesintheliterarysituationoverthecourseofseventyyearsApoetwhoreachedhismaturityintIeshadaverydi恥rentviewofpoetryandhispoeticpastthanapoetwhomaturedinthesIntheSpoetrywasapolishedcraftthatcouldtheoreticallyaspiretodeepmoralandculturalsignificance此reoverthattherehadbeennounquestionablym句orpoetforcenturiesleftampler叩O∞omforgeniu瓜出he白sfac臼edahcritageoftwentyye臼arsofcreativemagni廿ificenceThusTuFustandsintheshadowofhisimmediatepredecessorsinawaythattheearlierMengHao才anneverdidInadditiontoitspurelydescriptiveresponsibilitiesliteraryhistoryisastüdyofpoeticnormsandtheprocessesofchangeRatherthantrytodefinetheperiodstylebyanewseriesofattributesshallinsteadestablishseveralgeneralareasofconcerntofollowthroughthisstudyTheseareasofconcernlooselydistinguishtheHighT'angfromitspredecessorsandsuccessorsbutatthesametimetheyadmitthemanyindividualresponsesthatgivetheperioditsvarietyTheHighT'angwasdominatedbyaphenomenonthatwewillcall“capitalpoetry"adirectdescendantofthecourtpoetryoftheprecedingcenturyCapitalpoetrywasneveramonolithicentitybutitpossessedanamazingtenacitycoheren白andcontinuityofliteraryvaluesCapitalpoetryre長的tothenormsofsocialandoccasionalpoctrypracticcdandappreciatedbytheuppercircleofcapitalsocietyMcmbcrsofthegrcateighthcenturyclansfigurepromincntlyamongitspractitioncrsandrecip­icntsanditwaslargelythroughthemthatapoetwouldbecome“bmousintheage"Incapitalpoetrywefindthestrongestinterestinregulatedverseforms(thoughotherformscouldbedemandedbyanoccasion)wefindaspecialinterestinBuddhistanderemiticthemesasthegreattopiXIVIntroductionsocialrelationshipsappearsclearlyintheexchangesofoccasionalpoetrythatinevitablyconstitutealargepartofthepoeticcorpusofthecapitalpoetsInspiteofthesocialprestigeandinfluenceofthecapitalpoets,thegreatestpoetryoftheagewaswrittenbyoutsiders,withthenotableex­ceptionofWangWeiWangWeiwasatoncetheapogeeofcapitalpoetryanditstransfiguration:hewasthepoetwhoworkedwithintherulestogobeyondthemLiPoandTuFurnayhavedominatedtheimaginationsofreadersfromtheninthcenturyonward,butduringthesecondhalfoftheeighthcenturyitself,WangWei'swasthelingeringpoeticvoicethathauntedthepoemsoflessermenTheothergreatnamesofHighTangpoetryMengHaojan,KaoShih,WangCh'angIing,LiPo,Ts'enShen,TuFu,WeiYingwuallworkedtosomedegreeoutsidetheworldofcapitalpoetry,becauseofsocialrank,historicalcircumstance,orpersonaldispositionSomeaspiredtocapitalpoetrysomerejecteditbutitwasthebackgroundagainstwhichtheybecamepoetswithtrulyindividualvoicesInthisliesonepartialexplanationforHighT'anggreatness:neverbeforeandneverafterwardinthehistoryofChinesepoetrywasthereasingle,unifiedaestheticnormbesidewhichpoetscouldstillattainthefulllatitudeofindividualtalentTheageofcourtpoetrypossessedaunifiedpoeticnorm,butthatnormtoorigidlycircumscribedpoeticidentityEvenasgiftedapoetasYiiHsinwasheldinchainsbyitsstrictrhetoricalrulesOntheotherhand,intheninthcenturyandafterwardthereweremanyaestheticnorms,andnosingleonecouldcarrythefullauthorityofsocialsanctionRelatedtothisbalanceofaunifiedaestheticnormwithindividualtalentwerechangestakingplaceintheveryconceptofpoetryItwasap�iodoftransitionbetweenaviewofpoetryasasocialgesture,repre­sentedbycapitalpoetrywithitsrootsinthetraditionofcourtpoetry,andpoetryasanartwithculturalandpersonaldimensionsthattranscendedsocialoccasionHighTangoccasionalpoetsspokewithoneeyeonpos­terityandoneeyeonthepoem'srecipientChineseoccasionalpoetryisaliveandwelleventoday,butaftertheHighTang,muorpoetsincreas­inglylookedtoposteritywithbotheyesPoetsbegantoprepareandedittheirowncollections,andeachoccasionalpoemcametorestmorecom­fortablyinthefullcontextofthepoetictraditionTheslowtransmutationofChinesepoetryintoaselfconsciousartformdidnotpreventthecreationofpoemsasgreatasanyintheHighTang,butwesenseinHighTangpoetrydeeperrootsinthefleshlyworldofhistoricalandsocialcircumstanceFurthermore,thestrongcommitmenttopoeticcraftthatwasthelegacyofcourtpoetryenabledgenuinelyminorpoetstocreatemorethanafewgreatIntroductionxvpoemsForcontrast,oneneedonlycomparetheminorpoetsoftheSung,whoarealltoooftengenuinelyunreadable,producingadoggerelthatobservesnoaestheticstandardsbutrhymeOccasionalpoetryhadceasedtobeanintegralpartofsocialintercourse,andbecomeanamusing,aes­theticpastimeOneparticularlysignificanteventduringtheHighTangwasthe"rediscovery"ofthepoeticpastandtheattendantexcitementthisbroughttopoetsPoetsofthesixthandseventhcenturieswerenotunawareoftheirpoeticpast,butmoreoftenthannotthoughtitonlyaquaintartifactthesocialdemandsofthepoeticpresentwerefarmoreacuteCelebratinganimperialvisittoanaristocraticvilla,SungChihwenwouldneverhavethoughttowriteinthestyleofTaoCh'iensimplybecauseitattractedhimorbecausehethoughtitastyleonwhichtobasegreatpoetryButHighTangpoetsdrewstylesandpoetsoutofthepastinrapidsuccession,makingthemthesilentheroesofawholedecadeorasinglepoemJuanChi,TaoCh'ien,SsumaHsiangju,YuHsin,HsiehLingyun,andothersroseandfellwiththepassingdecadesThisexcitementintherediscoveryofthepoeticpastcontinuedthroughtheMidTang,butduringlatercen­turiestheliterarypastbecameafamiliarpartofcontemporarypoetry,aseriesofstylestodrawupon,toimitate,ortorecombineFamiliaritybrednotcontemptbutlimitation,andtheliterarypastbecameatrueburdenratherthanameansforliberationThefirstdecadesoftheHighTangsoonbecamethemselves:lburden­someliterarypastAlreadyintheSpoetswereturningwistfuleyesbacktotheK'aiyiianandearlyTienpaoreigns,firstasaperiodoflostculturalandsocialsplendor,butsoonasavanishedliterarygloryaswellThemythoftheHighTangbeganalmostimmediatelyaftertheAnLu­shanRebellion,theeventthatmarkstheendoftheTienpaoandliterarygloryThemythwasbuiltconsciollslybypoetslikeTuFuandWeiYing­wuandunconsciouslybythemelancholyconservatismofthelatercapitalpoetsMidTangpoetsstoodinitsshadownolessthanthelatercapitalpoets,buttheydifferedfromtheirimmediatepredecessorsbycreatingthefirstofalongsuccessionofcreativereinterpretationsofHighTanggreat­nesshavetriedtokeepthisworkasselfcontainedaspossible,butitbuildsonThePoetryojtheEarlyTang(NewHaven:Yale,),andthetwobooksshould,ideally,bereadinsequenceTheformatusedisbasicallythesameasthatofThePoetryojtheEarlyTangPoemsarereferredtobytheirnumbersinTodainoshil!enWhereavailable,Iusedcriticaltextselsewhere,ImadechoicesamongtheearliesttextsPARTONETheBeginningoftheHighT'angandtheFirstGenerationPoetsIEarlyT'angandHighT'angDuringtheseventhandeighthcenturiesm句orandfundamentalchangesoccurredinChinesepoetry(shih詩)IntheearlyseventhcenturypoetrywasprimarilyastylizedformofsocialdiscoursepracticedmainlyincourtcirclesBytheendoftheeighthcenturypoetrywhileretainingitsfunc­tionassocialdiscoursehadalsobecomeaconsciousartformservingavarietyofendsandpracticedbyawiderangeofliterateChineseNeverintraditionalChinawaspoetryanautotelic"pureart"intheWesternsense:itwasboundbothtooccasionandtoconceptsofpoetryastheex­pressionofinnernatureorasavehiclefortheenduringprincip!esofthecivilizationButduringthecourseofthesetwocenturiespoetrywastrans­formedfromaminordiversiontoanartthatfullyembodiedtheseprivatesocialandculturalvaluesThecourtpoetryoftheEarlyT'angrigidlycircumscribedtheocca­sionsforcompositionthetopicsthedictionandthestructureofpoetryItwasapoetrytobeenjoyedmostatthetimeofcompositionanditsqualitydependedonthefulfillmentofclearstandardsofjudgmentButthehistoryofEarlyT'angpoctryisprimarilyahistoryofthcbrcakdownofthatoldworldofpoctrywhichwasthrcatcncdbothbyprosepolemicsagainstitandbyanincreasingindividualityinthepoetsthemselvesM建jorchangeshoweverawaitedthesecondandthirddecadesoftheeighthcenturythebeginningoftheHighT'angTheHighT'angbeganinmuterebellionagainsttheEarlyT'angTherewerenomanifestosnodenunciationsoftheprecedingageinfactthefirstgenerationofHighT'angpoetsrarelyacknowledgedeventheexistenceoftheirEarlyT'angpredecessorspreferringtolookpastthemtomoreremoteancestorsRebellionisaformofcloserelationshiphoweveranddespiteallthechangesinHighT'angpoetryitspaternityisunmis­takable:itspoetictraditionwasthatoftheEarlyT'angHighT'angregu­latedverse(lüshih律詩)haditsoriginsinEarlyT'angcourtpoetrytheHighT'angkufeng古風camedirectlyfromtheEarlyT'angpoetCh'enTzuang陳子昂andtheoppositionpoeticsoftheseventhcenturylTheheptasyllabicsongsoftheHighT'angretainedmanyofthetopicsmodalEarlyT'angandHighT'angassociations,andconventionsofdictionoftheheptasyllabicsongspopularinEmpressWu'sreignTheconventionsofayungwu*i�topic(an"object"or"phenomenon"),thecommonconsolationsinpartingpoems,andtheformalstructureofajourneythroughalandscapeallhadtheirrootsinthepoetryoftheEarlyTang

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Owen, Stephen - The Great Age of Chinese Poetry - The High T'ang

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