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horngren_ima15_im_04.doc

horngren_ima15_im_04

大白很好
2014-01-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《horngren_ima15_im_04doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

ChapterCHAPTER:OUTLINEICostManagementSystems{LO}Acollectionoftoolsandtechniquesthatidentifieshowmanagement'sdecisionsaffectcostsTheprimarypurposesare)aggregatemeasuresofinventoryvalueandcostofgoodsmanufacturedforexternalreportingtoinvestors,creditors,andotherexternalstakeholders)costinformationforstrategicmanagementdecisionsand)costinformationforoperationalcontrolACostAccountingSystemsAllkindsoforganizationsneedsomeformofcostaccounting,thatpartofthecostmanagementsystemthatmeasurescostsforthepurposesofmanagementdecisionmakingandfinancialreportingThecostaccountingsystemtypicallyinvolvestwoprocesses:()CostAccumulationcollectingcostsbysome"natural"classificationsuchasmaterialsorlabor,and()CostAllocationAssignmentattachingcoststooneormorecostobjectives(SeeEXHIBIT)BCostObjectives{LO}CostasacrificeorgivingupofresourcesforaparticularpurposeCostObject(orCostObjective)anythingforwhichmanagerswantaseparatemeasurementofcosts(eg,aproduct,adepartment,asalesregion,aprogram,orsomethingelseforwhichdecisionsaremade)IICostTermsUsedforStrategicDecisionMakingandOperationalControlPurposesADirect,Indirect,andUnallocatedCosts{LO}DirectCostsidentifiedspecificallyandexclusivelywithagivencostobjectiveinaneconomicallyfeasibleway(tracing)IndirectCostsnotidentifiedspecificallyandexclusivelywithagivencostobjectiveinaneconomicallyfeasiblewayCostallocation–toassignindirectcoststocostobjectsAcostallocationbaseissomemeasureofinputoroutputthatdeterminestheamountofcosttobeallocatedtoaparticularcostobjectManagersprefertoclassifymanycostsasdirectwheneveritis"economicallyfeasible"becauseitgivesthemgreaterconfidenceintheircostsofproductsandservices(ie,lesssubjectivity)AparticularcostcanbedirectforonecostobjectivebutindirectforothersBPurposesofCostAllocation{LO}Fourpurposesofcostallocation:()Topredicttheeconomiceffectsofstrategicandoperationalcontroldecisions()Toprovidedesiredmotivationandtogivefeedbackforperformanceevaluation()Tocomputeincomeandassetvaluationsforfinancialreportingand()TojustifycostsorobtainreimbursementAllocatingfixedcostsusuallycreatesthegreatestproblemsCMethodsofCostAllocationAllocatingindirectcostsisastepprocess:​ AccumulateindirectcostsforaperiodoftimeintooneormorecostpoolsAcostpoolisagroupofindividualcoststhatacompanyallocatestocostobjectsusingasinglecostallocationbase​ Selectanallocationbaseforeachcostpool,preferablyacostdriver,thatis,ameasurethatcausesthecostsinthecostpool​ Measuretheunitsofthecostallocationbaseforeachcostobject(eg,aproduct)andcomputethetotalunitsforallcostobjects(eg,allproducts)​ Determinethepercentageoftotalcostallocationbaseunitsusedforeachcostobject​ MultiplythepercentageinstepbythetotalcostsinthecostpooltodeterminethecostallocatedtoeachcostobjectD​ UnallocatedCostsUnallocatedCostsaretoodifficulttoestablishacauseandeffectrelationship(seeEXHIBIT)Unallocatedcostsarecoststhatanaccountingsystemrecordsbutdoesnotallocatetoanycostobject(eg,researchanddevelopment,processdesign,legalexpenses,accounting,informationservices,andexecutivesalaries)(SeeEXHIBIT)IIICostTermsUsedforExternalReportingPurposesA​ CategoriesofManufacturingCosts{LO}DirectMaterialsCoststheacquisitioncostsofallmaterialsthatarephysicallyidentifiedasapartofthemanufacturedgoodsandthatmaybetracedtothemanufacturedgoodsinaneconomicallyfeasiblewayDirectLaborCoststhewagesofalllaborthatcanbetracedspecificallyandexclusivelytothemanufacturedgoodsinaneconomicallyfeasiblewayIndirectProductionCosts(IndirectManufacturingCosts,FactoryOverhead,FactoryBurden,orManufacturingOverhead)includeallcostsotherthandirectmaterialordirectlaborthatareassociatedwiththemanufacturingprocess(eg,power,supplies,indirectlabor,supervisorysalaries,propertytaxes,rent,insurance,anddepreciation)B​ ProductCostsandPeriodCostsProductCostscosts(eg,directmaterials,directlabor,andfactoryoverhead)initiallyidentifiedwithgoodsproducedorpurchasedforresale(ie,inventory)andbecomeexpenses(ie,costofgoodssold)onlywhentheinventoryissoldPeriodCostscosts(eg,sellingandgeneraladministrationexpenses)thataredeductedasexpensesduringthecurrentperiodwithoutgoingthroughtheinventorystageEXHIBITshowstheflowofcostsforbothmerchandisingcompaniesandmanufacturingcompaniesNotethatmanufacturingcompanieshavethreecategoriesofinventorywhileonlyoneispresentformerchandisersDirectMaterialsInventorymaterialsonhandandawaitinguseintheproductionprocessWorkInProcessInventorygoodsundergoingtheproductionprocessbutnotyetfullycompletedCostsincludeappropriateamountsofthethreemajormanufacturingcosts(ie,directmaterial,directlabor,andfactoryoverhead)FinishedGoodsInventorygoodsfullycompletedbutnotyetsoldCBalanceSheetandIncomeStatementPresentation{LO}ofCostsTypically,manufacturingandmerchandisingcompaniestreatsellingandadministrativeexpensesinthesamemanner,butthedetailofCOGSdiffersManufacturersshowthemanufacturingcostofgoodsproducedandthensold,whichiscomposedofthethreemajorcostcategories:directmaterials,directlabor,andfactoryoverhead(seeEXHIBIT)Merchandiserssimplyshowthepurchasedcostofitems,includingfreight,ratherthanthecostofgoodsmanufacturedandsoldIVTraditionalandActivityBasedCostAccountingSystems{LO}Inthepast,almostallcompaniesusedtraditionalcostingsystems–thosethatdonotaccumulateorreportcostsofactivitiesorprocessesThisworkswellforfairlysimpleproductionandoperatingsystemsThebusinessenvironmenthasbecomemorecomplexThishasledtothemostsignificantimprovementincostaccountingsystemdesign–activitybasedcosting(ABC)ManyABCteamsfinditusefultodevelopaprocessmap–aschematicdiagramwithsymbolsthatcapturestheinterrelationshipsbetweencostobjects,activities,andresources(seeEXHIBIT)AAnIllustrationofTraditional(seeEXHIBIT)andABCSystemsActivityBasedAccounting(ABA)orActivityBasedCosting(ABC)systemsfirstaccumulateoverheadcostsforeachoftheactivitiesofanorganization,andthenassignthecostsofactivitiestotheproducts,services,orothercostobjectsthatcausedthatactivityCostDriversareidentifiedforeachactivitytoestablishacauseeffectrelationshipbetweenanactivityandacostobjectTraditionalsystemsoftenuseonlyonecostdriveranddonotattempttoidentify,accumulate,orreportcostsbyactivitiesperformedTherearemanyvariationsinthedesignofABCsystemsInatwostageABCsystem(seeEXHIBIT),therearetwostagesofallocationtogetfromtheoriginalresourcecosttothefinalproductorservicecostThefirststageallocatescoststoactivitycostpoolsAcostpoolisagroupofindividualcoststhatisallocatedtocostobjectivesusingasinglecostdriverThesecondstageallocatesactivitycoststotheproductsorservicesThefirststagecostdriversareusuallypercentagesVActivityBasedManagement:ACostManagementSystemTool{LO}Activitybasedmanagement(ABM)isusingtheoutputofanactivitybasedcostaccountingsystemtoaidstrategicdecisionmakingandtoimproveoperationalcontrolofanorganizationOneofthemostusefulapplicationsofABMisdistinguishingbetweenvalueaddedcost(thenecessarycostofanactivitythatacompanycannoteliminatewithoutaffectingaproduct’svaluetothecustomer),andnonvalueaddedcost(unnecessarycoststhatacompanytriestominimizeandeliminatewithoutaffectingaproduct’svaluetothecustomer)Examplesofnonvalueaddedcostsarehandlingandstoringinventories,andchangingthesetupofproductionlineoperationstoproduceadifferentmodeloftheproductAnotherABCrelatedtechniquethathasgainedpopularityisbenchmarking(thecontinuousprocessofcomparingproducts,services,andactivitiestothebestindustrystandardsA​ BenefitsofActivityBasedCostingandActivityBasedManagementManyorganizationsinthemanufacturingindustryandservicesectorareadoptingABCsystemsbecause:FiercecompetitivepressurehasresultedinshrinkingprofitmarginsCompaniesoftendonothaveconfidenceintheaccuracyofthemarginsforindividualproductsorservicesGreaterdiversityinthetypesofproductsandservices,aswellascustomerclasses,resultsingreaterbusinessoperatingcomplexityTheconsumptionofacompany’ssharedresourcesalsovariessubstantiallyacrossproductsandcustomersNewproductiontechniqueshaveincreasedtheproportionofindirectcostsTherapidpaceoftechnologicalchangehasshortenedproductlifecyclesCompaniesdonothavetimetomakepriceorcostadjustmentsoncetheydiscovercostingerrorsThecostsassociatedwithbaddecisionsthatresultfrominaccuratecostdeterminationsaresubstantial(eg,lostbidsandhiddenlossesfromundercostedproducts)ComputertechnologyhasreducedthecostsofdevelopingandoperatingABCsystemsVIAppendix:DetailedIllustrationofTraditionalandActivityBasedCostAccountingSystemsThechapterpresentsanillustrationoftheuseofactivitybasedcostingtoprovidemoreaccuratecostingfortheBillingDepartmentofATT’ssmallercustomercarecenters,withtwomajorcustomerclasses(ie,accountinquiryandbillprintingservices)EXHIBITshowsthetraditionalcostingsystemthathasbeeninuseAllbillingdepartmentcostsaretotaledandthendividedbythetotalnumberofcustomerinquiries(residentialcommercial)toarriveatacostperinquiryThisamountisthenmultipliedbythenumberofinquiriesfromeachtypeofcustomeranddividedbythenumberofcustomersofeachtypetogivethecostcustomerTheamountsderivedare$perresidentialcustomerand$percommercialcustomerNotbeingsatisfiedwiththeaccuracyoftheamountsproducedundertheirtraditionalcostingsystem,ATTdevelopedanactivitybasedcostingsystemADesignofanActivityBasedCostAccountingSystem{LO}Determinethekeycomponents(projectscope,costobjectives,keyactivities,resources,andrelatedcostdrivers)Determinetherelationshipsamongcostobjects,activities,andresources(seeEXHIBIT)Collectrelevantdataconcerningcostsandthephysicalflowofcostdriverunitsamongresourcesandactivities(seeEXHIBITSand)​ Calculateinterpretthenewactivitybasedcostinformation(seeEXHIBITSand)ThedetailedapplicationofthesestepsforATTisprovidedinthetextOfparticularinterestarethekeyresultsofthestudy–theactualdeterminationoftheactivitybasedcostsInthekeyresults,theresidentialcustomer'scostis$comparedto$withthetraditionalcostingsystem,andthecommercialcustomer'scostis$comparedto$derivedunderthetraditionalsystemThisresultiscommonwhenhighvolumecostobjectswithsimpleprocessesareovercostedwhenonlyonevolumebasedcostdriverisusedBStrategicDecisions,OperationalCostControl,andABMTheconclusionoftheATTchapterproblemissummarizedCHAPTER:QuizDemonstrationExercisesLearningObjective​ TheprimarypurposesofacostmanagementsystemdonotincludeaoperationalcontrolbcostallocationcstrategicmanagementdecisionsdinventoryvaluationThecostaccountingsystemtypicallyinvolvestwoprocessescostallocationassignmentandacostestimationboptimalcostmixccostaccumulationdcostidentificationLearningObjectiveThetracingorreassigningofcoststooneormorecostobjectivesisreferredtoasamixedupcostingbcostallocationchistoricalcostingdcostmakingAsacrificeorgivingupofresourcesofparticularpurposeiscalledacostobjectivebcostcobjectivedallocationbaseLearningObjectiveItemsandarebasedonthefollowingdata:MARIO,Inc,incurredthefollowingcostsininproducingvideogames:WagesMaterialsusedMachineoperators$,Computerchips$,Factoryjanitors,Casings,Factorysupervisor,Labels,Glue,Mario'sproductindirectlaborwasa$,b$,c$,d$,Mario'sproductdirectmaterialscostsforwerea$,b$,c$,d$,LearningObjectiveWhichofthefollowingcanbeinventorycostsarawmaterialsbindirectlaborcdirectlabord​ factoryoverheade​ onlyA,B,andCfA,B,C,andD​ YIPPEECompanyhadthefollowingpartialbalancesheetfortheyearendedxCash$,Accountsreceivable,Merchandiseinventories,,Plantandequipment,,YIPPEEisanexampleofaamerchandisecompanybservicecompanycwholesaleorganizationdnoneoftheseLearningObjectiveThecostaccountingsystemthatusesasinglecostpoolforallindirectproductioncostsiscalleda​ activitybasedcostingb​ traditionalcostingc​ singlelevelcostingd​ alloftheabove​ Acostpoolisagroupofcoststhatisallocatedtocostobjectivesusinga​ atleasttwocostdriversb​ thenumberofproductsmadec​ thenumberofproductssoldd​ onlyonecostdriverenomorethanfivecostdriversLearningObjectiveThefourthstepinthedesignandimplementationofanactivitybasedcostingsystemisa​ calculateandinterprettheactivitybasedinformationb​ collectrelevantdataconcerningcostsc​ determinecostobjectivesddevelopaprocessbasedmapthatrepresentstheflowofactivitiesActivitybasedcostingusuallycana​ decreasethenumberofcostdriversb​ reducetheaccuracyofthecostallocationsc​ turnindirectcostsintodirectcostsddecreasetheamountofmoneyspentonasystemCHAPTER:SolutionstoQuizDemonstrationExercisesbcbbbIfthecostobjectiveistheproduct,thendirectlaborcostsarethosetraceabletotheproductUndermostaccountingsystems,onlythemachineoperatorscostswouldbetraceabletotheproductandthejanitorsandsupervisorswageswouldbeclassifiedasindirectbWhileallofthematerialscostswouldbedirecttotheplant,onlythecomputerchip,casing,andlabelcostswouldbedirecttotheproductThegluewouldbeanallocatedcosttotheproductfa}ManufacturingcompaniestypicallyhavethreecategoriesofinventorywhilemerchandisershaveonlyonecategorylistedintheirbalancesheetsTheincomestatementsalsodiffer(eg,acostofgoodsmanufacturedandsoldversusacostofpurchasedgoodssold)bdqb

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