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horngren_ima15_im_03.doc

horngren_ima15_im_03

大白很好
2014-01-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《horngren_ima15_im_03doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

ChapterCHAPTER:OUTLINEICostDriversandCostBehaviorAccountantsandmanagersassumethatcostbehaviorislinearoversomerelevantrangeofactivitiesorchangeincostdriversLinearCostBehaviorgraphedwithastraightlinewhenacostchangesproportionatelywithchangesinasinglecostdriverVolumeofaproductproducedorserviceprovidedistheprimarydriverforsomecosts(eg,printinglabor,ink,paper,andbindingcostsofproducingthetextbook)OthercostsaremoreaffectedbyactivitiesnotdirectlyrelatedtovolumeandoftenhavemultiplecostdriversThesecostsarenoteasilyidentifiedwithortracedtounitsofoutput(eg,thesalariesoftheeditorialstaffofthepublisherofthetext)Inpractice,manyorganizationsuseasinglecostdrivertodescribeeachcosteventhoughmanyhavemultiplecausesCarefuluseoflinearcostbehaviorwithasinglecostdriveroftenprovidescostestimatesthatareaccurateenoughformostdecisions,thougheachcostmayhaveadifferentcostdriverTheuseoflinearcostbehaviormaybejustifiedoncostbenefitgroundsSeeEXHIBITforagraphoflinearcostbehavior,therelevantrange,andanactivityorresourcecostdriverlevelAStepandMixedCostBehaviorPatterns{LO}CHAPTERdescribesvariablecostsasthosethatvaryinproportiontochangesintheircostdriversandfixedcostsasthosethatarenotaffectedbycostdriveractivityTwotypesofcostscombinecharacteristicsofbothfixedandvariablecostbehaviorStepcostschangeabruptlyatintervalsofactivitybecausetheresourcesandtheircostscomeinindivisiblechunksAlargestep(eg,thecostofleasingoilandgasdrillingequipment)isastepfixedcostAsmallstep(eg,thewagecostofcashiersinasupermarket)isastepvariablecost(seeEXHIBIT)MixedcostscontainelementsofbothfixedandvariablecostbehaviorThefixedportionisdeterminedbytheplannedrangeofactivitylevel,whilethevariablecostelementvariesproportionatelywithactivitywithintherelevantrange(eg,thecostoffacilitiesmaintenanceinamedicalcenter)Salariesofthemaintenancepersonnelandcostsofequipmentarefixed,whilecleaningsuppliesandrepairmaterialsvarywiththenumberofpatientdays(seeEXHIBIT)IIManagementInfluenceonCostBehavior{LO}Managerscaninfluencecostbehaviorthroughtheirdecisionsaboutsuchfactorsasproductorserviceattributes,capacity,technology,andpoliciestocreateincentivestocontrolcostsAProductandServiceDecisionsandtheValueChainproductmix,design,performance,quality,features,distribution,andsooninfluencecosts(ie,thevaluechain)BCapacityDecisionsStrategicdecisionsaboutthescaleandscopeofanorganization'sactivitiesresultinfixedlevelsofcapacitycostsCapacityCostsarethefixedcostsofbeingabletoachieveadesiredlevelofproductionorserviceCompanies,suchasFord,mustbecarefulincontrollingthelevelofcapacitycostswhentheyhavelongtermvariationindemandCCommittedFixedCostsusuallyarisefromthepossessionoffacilities,equipment,andabasicorganizationThesearelarge,indivisiblechunksofcostthattheorganizationisobligatedtoincurorusuallywouldnotconsideravoiding(eg,mortgageorleasepayments,interestpaymentsonlongtermdebt,propertytaxes,insurance,andsalariesofkeypersonnel)DDiscretionaryFixedCostsnoobviousrelationshiptolevelsofoutputactivitybutaredeterminedaspartoftheperiodicplanningprocessManagementdecidesthatcertainlevelsofthesecostsshouldbeincurredtomeettheorganization'sgoals(eg,advertisingandpromotioncosts,publicrelations,researchanddevelopmentcosts,charitabledonations,employeetrainingprograms,andpurchasedmanagementconsultingservices)DiscretionaryfixedcostscanbeeasilyalteredbutbecomefixeduntilthenextplanningperiodETechnologyDecisions(eg,laborintensiveversusroboticmanufacturingortraditionalbankingservicesversusautomatedtellers)positionacompanytomeetcurrentgoalsandtorespondtochangesintheenvironmentandaffectthecostsofproductsandservicesFCostControlIncentivescreatedbymanagementinordertohaveemployeescontrolcostsManagersusetheirknowledgeofcostbehaviortosetexpectations,andemployeesmayreceivecompensationorotherrewardsthataretiedtomeetingtheseexpectationswhilemaintainingqualityandserviceIIICostFunctions{LO}CostMeasurement(ormeasuringcostbehavior)thefirststepinestimatingorpredictingcostsasafunctionofappropriatecostdriversThesecondstepistousethesecostmeasurestoestimatefuturecostsatexpectedlevelsofthecostdriveractivityMeasuringcostswithoutobviouslinkstocostdriverspresentssomedifficultyAssumedrelationshipsbetweencostsandcostdriversareoftenusedAFormofCostFunctionsCostFunctionAlgebraicequationsthatdescribetherelationshipbetweenacostanditscostdriver(s)Atypicalcostfunctionequationis:Y=FVXwhere:Y=TotalcostF=FixedcostV=VariablecostX=CostdriveractivityWhenthismixedcostfunctionisgraphed,FistheinterceptoftheverticalaxisandVistheslopeofthecostfunctionSometimestwoormorecostdriversareusedBDevelopingCostFunctionsTwoprinciplesshouldbeappliedtoobtainaccurateandusefulcostfunctions:plausibility(ie,believable)andreliability(conformitybetweenacostfunction’sestimateofcostsatactuallevelsofactivityandactuallyobservedcosts)CChoiceofCostDrivers:ActivityAnalysis{LO}ActivityAnalysisidentifiesappropriatecostdriversandtheireffectsonthecostsofmakingaproductorprovidingaserviceThefinalproductorservicemayhaveanumberofcostdriversbecauseanumberofseparateactivitiesmaybeinvolvedCostPredictionappliescostmeasurestoexpectedfutureactivitylevelstoforecastfuturecostsActivityanalysisisespeciallyimportantformeasuringandpredictingcostsforwhichcostdriversarenotobviousFormanyyears,mostorganizationsusedonlyonecostdriver:theamountofdirectlaborHowever,previously"hidden"activitiesgreatlyinfluencecostbehaviorActivitiesrelatedtothecomplexityofperformingtasksaffectcostsmoredirectlythanlaborusageorothervolumerelatedactivitymeasuresIVMethodsofMeasuringCostFunctions{LO}AEngineeringAnalysismeasurescostbehavioraccordingtowhatcostsshouldbe,notbywhatcostshavebeenItentailsasystematicreviewofmaterials,supplies,labor,supportservices,andfacilitiesneededforproductsandservicesThiscanbeusedforexistingproductsorfornewproductssimilartowhathasbeenproducedbeforeDisadvantagesarethatitisextremelycostlyandnottimelyBAccountAnalysisselectsavolumerelatedcostdriverandclassifieseachaccountfromtheaccountingrecordsasavariableorfixedcostThecostanalystthenlooksateachcostaccountbalanceandestimateseitherthevariablecostperunitofcostdriveractivityortheperiodicfixedcostCHighLow,VisualFit,andLeastSquaresMethodsThesemethodsrelyontheuseofpastcostdatatopredictcostsThesemethodsmaynotbeparticularlyusefulinpredictingcostsforchangingorganizationsIfthesemethodsareused,thecostanalystmustbecarefulthatthehistoricaldatathatisfromapastenvironmentisnotobsoleteHistoricaldatamayhidepastinefficienciesthatcouldbereducediftheyareidentifiedHighLowMethodmakesuseofthecostsandactivitylevelsforthehighandlowactivitylevelsinasetofdata(unlessoneoftheselevelsisviewedasanoutlier)ThedifferenceincostsforthetwoactivitylevelsisdividedbythedifferenceinactivitylevelstodeterminethevariablecostperunitofactivityThen,eitherthehighactivitylevelandthecostatthatactivitylevelorthelowactivitylevelandthecostatthatactivityareusedtosolveforthefixedcostDuetoitsrelianceonjusttwodatapoints,thismethodisrarelyusedinpractice(seeEXHIBIT)VisualFitMethodmorereliablethanthehighlowmethodbecausealltheavailabledataareusedInthevisualfitmethod,thecostanalystvisuallyfitsastraightlinethroughaplotofalloftheavailabledataThelineisextendedbackuntilitintersectstheverticalaxisofthegraphTheanalystmeasureswherethelineintersectsthecostaxistoestimatethefixedcostAnactivitylevelisselectedandthemixedcostatthatactivitylevelisusedtodeterminethevariablecostperunitofactivitybysubtractingfixedcostfrommixedcostanddividingbytheactivitylevelThesubjectivityinplacingthelineandinestimatingthefixedandvariablecostsaredisadvantagesofthismethodandisrarelyusedinpractice(seeEXHIBIT)LeastSquaresRegressionMethod–(orsimplyregressionanalysis)usesstatisticstofitacostfunctiontoallthedataUsingonecostdriverrequiressimpleregression,whileusingmorethanonecostdriverrequirestheuseofmultipleregressionRegressionanalysisusuallymeasurescostbehaviormorereliablythanothercostmeasurementmethodsInaddition,regressionanalysisyieldsimportantstatisticalinformationaboutthereliabilityofcostestimatessoanalystscanassessconfidenceinthecostmeasuresandselectthebestcostdriverCoefficientofDetermination(R)measureshowmuchofthefluctuationofacostisexplainedbychangesinthecostdriver(seeEXHIBIT)VAppendix:UseandInterpretationofLeastSquaresRegressionThisappendixprovidesanexampleoftheuseofcomputerspreadsheetregressioncommandstoperformsimplelinearregressionPlottingthedataandthepossibleeliminationofoutliersarediscussedAdatasetwithtwopossiblecostdriversispresented(seeEXHIBIT)andtheoutputfromtheregressioncommandsispresentedTheRvaluesoftworegressionequationsarecomparedtoseewhichregressionequationbestfitsthedataCautionisprovidedbecausetheassumptionsofregressionanalysisshouldbeexaminedtoensurethatthedatacomplysothatusefulresultscanbeobtainedRegressionAssumptions–()Linearitywithintherelevantrange()Constantvarianceofresiduals()Independenceofresidualsand()NormalityofresidualsCHAPTER:QuizDemonstrationExercisesLearningObjectiveAcostthatchangesabruptlyatintervalsofactivitybecausetheresourcesandthecostscomeinindivisiblechunksiscalleda(n)costaindivisiblebmixedcactivitydstepTheportionofamixedcostthatremainsconstantperunitwithactivitywithintherelevantrangeaindivisiblebfixedcvariabledstepLearningObjectiveManagersinfluencecostbehaviorthroughtheiratechnologydecisionsbproductandservicedecisionsccapacitydecisionsd​ alloftheseeonlyAandB​ Oneofthefollowingcostsisanexampleofadiscretionaryfixedcosta​ investmentinproductionequipmentb​ investmentinthefactoryc​ electricitycostsd​ researchanddevelopmentcostserawmaterialpurchasesLearningObjectiveInthecostfunctionequationY=FVX,VrepresentstheatotalcostattheXlevelofactivitybfixedcostattheYlevelofactivitycvariablecostperunitofactivityXdvariablecostattheFlevelofactivityInthecostfunctionequationY=FVX,Frepresentsthea​ slopeb​ interceptc​ dependentvariabled​ independentvariableLearningObjectiveWhichofthefollowingmayuseactivityanalysisaAppleIncbGooglecPriceWaterhouse,CoopersLLP(internationalauditing,tax,andconsultingfirm)donlyAandBe​ onlyCf​ A,B,andC​ ActivityanalysisprovidescostdriversforcostfunctionsThecostfunctionsshoulda​ predictcostsb​ beplausiblec​ bereliabled​ havebenefitsthatoutweighthecostseA,B,C,andD​ fonlyAandDg​ onlyA,C,andDLearningObjectiveThecafeteriadepartmentatOlmsteadCenterincurredthefollowingcostsforSeptemberx:MonthlyCostSeptemberxAmountManager'ssalary$,Hourlyworkers'wagesandbenefits,Food,Equipmentdepreciationandrental,Supplies,Totalcafeteriacosts$,Thecafeteriaserved,mealsduringthemonthUsinganaccountanalysistoclassifycosts,thecostfunctionforOlmstead'scafeteriadepartmentispermeala$,$b$,$c$,$d$,$UsethefollowinginformationforquestionsthroughThecafeteriadepartmentatMercyHospitalhasexperiencedthefollowingcostsandnumberofmealsservedfromJanuarythroughSeptemberofx:MonthCafeteriaCostsMealsServedJanuary$,,February,,March,,April,,May,,June,,July,,August,,September,,Usingthehighlowmethodofcostestimation,thevariablecostpermealservedisa$b$c$d$Theestimateofthefixedcostsofrunningthecafeteriadepartmentusingthehighlowmethodisa$b$,c$,d$,Thecostfunctionderivedusingthehighlowmethod,whichcanbeusedtoestimatethecostsofrunningthecafeteriaisa$$Xb$,$Xc$,$Xd$,$Xe$,$AxelCorpusedregressionanalysistopredicttheannualcostofindirectmaterialsTheresultswereasfollows:RegressionOutput:Constant$,StdErrofYEst$,RSquaredNumberofObservationsXCoefficient(s)StdErrofCoefWhatisthelinearcostfunctionaY=$,$XbY=$$XcY=$,XdY=$,$XCHAPTER:SolutionstoQuizDemonstrationExercisesdcddcbfeaInordertoanswerthisproblem,thecostsmustfirstbeclassifiedasfixedorvariableinrelationtothecostdriverInthiscase,thesupervisor'ssalary($,permonth)andtheequipmentdepreciationandrental($,permonth)arefixed,whiletheremainingcosts($,)varywiththenumberofmealsservedDividingthevariablecostsbythenumberofmealsservedgives$permeal,andthedepartment'scostfunctionis$,$permealcThedataforJanuaryandAugustareusedsince,isthelowlevelofactivityforthedatasetand,isthehighlevelofmealsservedSubtractingthecostforthelowactivitylevelfromthecostatthehighactivitylevelgives$,($,$,)Dividingthisbythedifferenceintheactivitylevelsof,meals(,,)givesarateof$permealbUsingthevariablecostpermealfoundaboveof$andthelowlevelofactivityof,meals,thevariablecostatthatactivitylevelis$,Sincethetotalcostofoperatingthecafeteriawhen,mealswereservedis$,,$,istheestimateoffixedcosts($,$,)Thevariablecostpermealcouldalsobemultipliedbythehighactivitylevel,toget$,whichcanbedeductedfromthetotalcostatthatlevelof$,toalsoarriveattheestimateoffixedcostsof$,cThisanswerisconstructedusingtheelementsfoundinansweringquestionsandc

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