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首页 枪炮,细菌与钢铁英文版 - Guns, Germs and Steel

枪炮,细菌与钢铁英文版 - Guns, Germs and Steel.pdf

枪炮,细菌与钢铁英文版 - Guns, Germs and S…

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2010-01-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《枪炮,细菌与钢铁英文版 - Guns, Germs and Steelpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Diamond,Jared,Guns,GermsandSteel:Ashorthistoryofeverybodyforthelast,yearsmyownbookscanspreservedInthisPulitzerPrizewinningbook,JaredDiamondarguesthatbothgeographyandtheenvironmentplayedmajorrolesindeterminingtheshapeofthemodernworldThisargumentrunscountertotheusualtheoriesthatcitebiologyasthecrucialfactorDiamondclaimsthattheculturesthatwerefirstabletodomesticateplantsandanimalswerethenabletodevelopwritingskills,aswellasmakeadvancesinthecreationofgovernment,technology,weaponry,andimmunitytodiseasePrologue:Yali'sQuestion:TheregionallydifferingcoursesofhistoryChUptotheStartingLine:Whathappenedonallthecontinentsbefore,BCChANaturalExperimentofHistory:HowgeographymoldedsocietiesonPolynesianislandsChCollisionatCajamarca:WhytheIncaemperorAtahuallpadidnotcaptureKingCharlesIofSpainChFarmerPower:Therootsofguns,germs,andsteelChHistory'sHavesandHaveNots:GeographicdifferencesintheonsetoffoodproductionChToFarmorNottoFarm:CausesofthespreadoffoodproductionChHowtoMakeanAlmond:TheunconsciousdevelopmentofancientcropsChApplesorIndians:WhydidpeoplesofsomeregionsfailtodomesticateplantsChZebras,UnhappyMarriages,andtheAnnaKareninaPrinciple:WhyweremostbigwildmammalspeciesneverdomesticatedChSpaciousSkiesandTiltedAxes:WhydidfoodproductionspreadatdifferentratesondifferentcontinentsChLethalGiftofLivestock:TheevolutionofgermsChBlueprintsandBorrowedLetters:TheevolutionofwritingChNecessity'sMother:TheevolutionoftechnologyChFromEgalitarianismtoKleptocracy:TheevolutionofgovernmentandreligionChYali'sPeople:ThehistoriesofAustraliaandNewGuineaChHowChinabecameChinese:ThehistoryofEastAsiaChSpeedboattoPolynesia:ThehistoryoftheAustronesianexpansionChHemispheresColliding:ThehistoriesofEurasiaandtheAmericascomparedChHowAfricabecameBlack:ThehistoryofAfricaEpilogue:TheFutureofHumanHistoryasaScienceAcknowledgmentsFurtherReadingsCreditsIndexPREFACEWHYIsWORLDHISTORYLIKEANONIONTHISBOOKATTEMPTSTOPROVIDEASHORTHISTORYOFEVERYbodyforthelast,yearsThequestionmotivatingthebookis:WhydidhistoryunfolddifferentlyondifferentcontinentsIncasethisquestionimmediatelymakesyoushudderatthethoughtthatyouareabouttoreadaracisttreatise,youaren'tasyouwillsee,theanswerstothequestiondon'tinvolvehumanracialdifferencesatallThebook'semphasisisonthesearchforultimateexplanations,andonpushingbackthechainofhistoricalcausationasfaraspossibleMostbooksthatsetouttorecountworldhistoryconcentrateonhistoriesofliterateEurasiaandNorthAfricansocietiesNativesocietiesofotherpartsoftheworldsubSaharanAfrica,theAmericas,IslandSoutheastAsia,Australia,NewGuinea,thePacificIslandsreceiveonlybrieftreatment,mainlyasconcernswhathappenedtothemverylateintheirhistory,aftertheywerediscoveredandsubjugatedbywesternEuropeansEvenwithinEurasia,muchmorespacegetsdevotedtothehistoryofwesternEurasiathanofChina,India,Japan,tropicalSoutheastAsia,andothereasternEurasiansocietiesHistorybeforetheemergenceofwritingaround,BCalsoreceivesbrieftreatment,althoughitconstitutesofthefivemillionyearhistoryofthehumanspecies•PREFACESuchnarrowlyfocusedaccountsofworldhistorysufferfromthreedisadvantagesFirst,increasingnumbersofpeopletodayare,quiteunderstandably,interestedinothersocietiesbesidesthoseofwesternEurasiaAfterall,those"other"societiesencompassmostoftheworld'spopulationandthevastmajorityoftheworld'sethnic,cultural,andliguisticgroupsSomeofthemalreadyare,andothersarebecoming,amongtheworld'smostpowerfuleconomiesandpoliticalforcesSecond,evenforpeoplespecificallyinterestedintheshapingofthemodernworld,ahistorylimitedtodevelopmentssincetheemergenceofwritingcannotprovidedeepunderstandingItisnotthecasethatsocietiesonthedifferentcontinentswerecomparabletoeachotheruntil,BC,whereuponwesternEurasiansocietiessuddenlydevelopedwritingandbeganforthefirsttimetopullaheadinotherrespectsaswellInstead,alreadyby,BC,therewereEurasianandNorthAfricansocietiesnotonlywithincipientwritingbutalsowithcentralizedstategovernments,cities,widespreaduseofmetaltoolsandweapons,useofdomesticatedanimalsfortransportandtractionandmechanicalpower,andrelianceonagricultureanddomesticanimalsforfoodThroughoutmostorallpartsofothercontinents,noneofthosethingsexistedatthattimesomebutnotallofthememergedlaterinpartsoftheNativeAmericasandsubSaharanAfrica,butonlyoverthecourseofthenextfivemilleniaandnoneofthememergedinAboriginalAustraliaThatshouldalreadywarnusthattherootsofwesternEurasiandominanceinthemodernworldlieinthepreliteratepastbefore,BC(BywesternEurasiandominance,ImeanthedominanceofwesternEurasiansocietiesthemselvesandofthesocietiesthattheyspawnedonothercontinents)Third,ahistoryfocusedonwesternEurasiansocietiescompletelybypassestheobviousbigquestionWhywerethosesocietiestheonesthatbecamedisproportionatelypowerfulandinnovativeTheusualanswerstothatquestioninvokeproximateforces,suchastheriseofcapitalism,mercantilism,scientificinquiry,technology,andnastygermsthatkilledpeoplesofothercontinentswhentheycameintocontactwithwesternEurasiansButwhydidthoseingredientsofconquestariseinwesternEurasia,andariseelsewhereonlytoalesserdegreeornotatallAllthoseingredientsarejustproximatefactors,notultimateexplanationsWhydidn'tcapitalismflourishinNativeMexico,mercantilWHYISWORLDHISTORYLIKEANONION•IIisminsubSaharanAfrica,scientificinquiryinChina,advancedtechnologyinNativeNorthAmerica,andnastygermsinAboriginalAustraliaIfonerespondsbyinvokingidiosyncraticculturalfactorseg,scientificinquirysupposedlystifledinChinabyConfucianismbutstimulatedinwesternEurasiabyGreekofJudaeoChristiantraditionsthenoneiscontinuingtoignoretheneedforultimateexplanations:whydidn'ttraditionslikeConfucianismandtheJudaeoChristianethicinsteaddevelopinwesternEurasiaandChinarespectivelyInaddition,oneisignoringthefactthatConfucianChinawastechnologicallymoreadvancedthatwesternEurasiauntilaboutADItisimpossibletounderstandevenjustwesternEurasiansocietiesthemselves,ifonefocusesonthemTheinterestingquestionsconcernthedistinctionsbetweenthemandothersocietiesAnsweringthosequestionsrequiresustounderstandallthoseothersocietiesaswell,sothatwesternEurasiansocietiescanbefittedintothebroadercontextSomereadersmayfeelthatIamgoingtotheoppositeextremefromconventionalhistories,bydevotingtoolittlespacetowesternEurasiaattheexpenseofotherpartsoftheworldIwouldanswerthatsomeotherpartsoftheworldareveryinstructive,becausetheyencompasssomanysocietiesandsuchdiveresesocietieswithinasmallgeographicalareaOtherreadersmayfindthemselvesagreeingwithonereviewerofthisbookWithmildlycriticaltongueincheek,thereviewerwrotethatIseemtoviewworldhistoryasanonion,ofwhichthemodernworldconstitutesonlythesurface,andwhoselayersaretobepeeledbackinthesearchforhistoricalunderstandingYes,worldhistoryisindeedsuchanonion!Butthatpeelingbackoftheonion'slayersisfascinating,challengingandofoverwhelmingimportancetoustoday,asweseektograspourpast'slessonsforourfutureChapterOne:UpToTheStartingLineAsuitablestartingpointfromwhichtocomparehistoricaldevelopmentsonthedifferentcontinentsisaround,BC(*)Thisdatecorrespondsapproximatelytothebeginningsofvillagelifeinafewpartsoftheworld,thefirstundisputedpeoplingoftheAmericas,theendofthePleistoceneEraandlastIceAge,andthestartofwhatgeologiststermtheRecentEraPlantandanimaldomesticationbeganinatleastonepartoftheworldwithinafewthousandyearsofthatdateAsofthen,didthepeopleofsomecontinentsalreadyhaveaheadstartoraclearadvantageoverpeoplesofothercontinentsIfso,perhapsthatheadstart,amplifiedoverthelast,years,providestheanswertoYali'squestionHencethischapterwillofferawhirlwindtourofhumanhistoryonallthecontinents,formillionsofyears,fromouroriginsasaspeciesuntil,yearsagoAllthatwillnowbesummarizedinlessthanpagesNaturally,IshallglossoverdetailsandmentiononlywhatseemtomethetrendsmostrelevanttothisbookOurclosestlivingrelativesarethreesurvivingspeciesofgreatape:thegorilla,thecommonchimpanzee,andthepygmychimpanzee(alsoknownasbonobo)TheirconfinementtoAfrica,alongwithabundantfossilevidence,indicatesthattheearlieststagesofhumanevolutionwerealsoplayedoutinAfricaHumanhistory,assomethingseparatefromthehistoryofanimals,beganthereaboutmillionyearsago(estimatesrangefromtomillionyearsago)Aroundthattime,apopulationofAfricanapesbrokeupintoseveralpopulations,ofwhichoneproceededtoevolveintomoderngorillas,asecondintothetwomodernchimps,andthethirdintohumansThegorillalineapparentlysplitoffslightlybeforethesplitbetweenthechimpandthehumanlinesFossilsindicatethattheevolutionarylineleadingtoushadachievedasubstantiallyuprightposturebyaroundmillionyearsago,thenbegantoincreaseinbodysizeandinrelativebrainsizearoundmillionyearsagoThoseprotohumansaregenerallyknownasAustralopithecusafricanus,Homohabilis,andHomoerectus,whichapparentlyevolvedintoeachotherinthatsequenceAlthoughHomoerectus,thestagereachedaroundmillionyearsago,wasclosetousmodernhumansinbodysize,itsbrainsizewasstillbarelyhalfofoursStonetoolsbecamecommonaroundmillionyearsago,buttheyweremerelythecrudestofflakedorbatteredstonesInzoologicalsignificanceanddistinctiveness,Homoerectuswasmorethananape,butstillmuchlessthanamodernhumanAllofthathumanhistory,forthefirstormillionyearsafterouroriginsaboutmillionyearsago,remainedconfinedtoAfricaThefirsthumanancestortospreadbeyondAfricawasHomoerectus,asisattestedbyfossilsdiscoveredontheSoutheastAsianislandofJavaandconventionallyknownasJavaman(seeFigure)TheoldestJava"man"fossilsofcourse,theymayactuallyhavebelongedtoaJavawomanhaveusuallybeenassumedtodatefromaboutamillionyearsagoHowever,ithasrecentlybeenarguedthattheyactuallydatefrommillionyearsago(Strictlyspeaking,thenameHomoerectusbelongstotheseJavanfossils,andtheAfricanfossilsclassifiedasHomoerectusmaywarrantadifferentname)Atpresent,theearliestunquestionedevidenceforhumansinEuropestemsfromaroundhalfamillionyearsago,butthereareclaimsofanearlierpresenceOnewouldcertainlyassumethatthecolonizationofAsiaalsopermittedthesimultaneouscolonizationofEurope,sinceEurasiaisasinglelandmassnotbisectedbymajorbarriersThatillustratesanissuethatwillrecurthroughoutthisbookWheneversomescientistclaimstohavediscovered"theearliestX"whetherXistheearliesthumanfossilinEurope,theearliestevidenceofdomesticatedcorninMexico,ortheearliestanythinganywherethatannouncementchallengesotherscientiststobeattheclaimbyfindingsomethingstillearlierInreality,theremustbesometruly"earliestX,"withallclaimsofearlierX'sbeingfalseHowever,asweshallsee,forvirtuallyanyX,everyyearbringsforthnewdiscoveriesandclaimsofapurportedstillearlierX,alongwithrefutationsofsomeorallofpreviousyears'claimsofearlierXItoftentakesdecadesofsearchingbeforearchaeologistsreachaconsensusonsuchquestionsByabouthalfamillionyearsago,humanfossilshaddivergedfromolderHomoerectusskeletonsintheirenlarged,rounder,andlessangularskullsAfricanandEuropeanskullsofhalfamillionyearsagoweresufficientlysimilartoskullsofusmodernsthattheyareclassifiedinourspecies,Homosapiens,insteadofinHomoerectusThisdistinctionisnecessarilyarbitrary,sinceHomoerectusevolvedintoHomosapiensHowever,theseearlyHomosapiensstilldifferedfromusinskeletaldetails,hadbrainssignificantlysmallerthanours,andweregrosslydifferentfromusintheirartifactsandbehaviorModernstonetoolmakingpeoples,suchasYali'sgreatgrandparents,wouldhavescornedthestonetoolsofhalfamillionyearsagoasverycrudeTheonlyothersignificantadditiontoourancestors'culturalrepertoirethatcanbedocumentedwithconfidencearoundthattimewastheuseoffireNoart,bonetool,oranythingelsehascomedowntousfromearlyHomosapiensexceptfortheirskeletalremains,plusthosecrudestonetoolsTherewerestillnohumansinAustralia,fortheobviousreasonthatitwouldhavetakenboatstogettherefromSoutheastAsiaTherewerealsonohumansanywhereintheAmericas,becausethatwouldhaverequiredtheoccupationofthenearestpartoftheEurasiancontinent(Siberia),andpossiblyboatbuildingskillsaswell(Thepresent,shallowBeringStrait,separatingSiberiafromAlaska,alternatedbetweenastraitandabroadintercontinentalbridgeofdryland,assealevelrepeatedlyroseandfellduringtheIceAges)However,boatbuildingandsurvivalincoldSiberiawerebothstillfarbeyondthecapabilitiesofearlyHomosapiensAfterhalfamillionyearsago,thehumanpopulationsofAfricaandwesternEurasiaproceededtodivergefromeachotherandfromEastAsianpopulationsinskeletaldetailsThepopulationofEuropeandwesternAsiabetween,and,yearsagoisrepresentedbyespeciallymanyskeletons,knownasNeanderthalsandsometimesclassifiedasaseparatespecies,HomoneanderthalensisDespitebeingdepictedininnumerablecartoonsasapelikebruteslivingincaves,NeanderthalshadbrainsslightlylargerthanourownTheywerealsothefirsthumanstoleavebehindstrongevidenceofburyingtheirdeadandcaringfortheirsickYettheirstonetoolswerestillcrudebycomparisonwithmodernNewGuineans'polishedstoneaxesandwereusuallynotyetmadeinstandardizeddiverseshapes,eachwithaclearlyrecognizablefunctionThefewpreservedAfricanskeletalfragmentscontemporarywiththeNeanderthalsaremoresimilartoourmodernskeletonsthantoNeanderthalskeletonsEvenfewerpreservedEastAsianskeletalfragmentsareknown,buttheyappeardifferentagainfrombothAfricansandNeanderthalsAsforthelifestyleatthattime,thebestpreservedevidencecomesfromstoneartifactsandpreybonesaccumulatedatsouthernAfricansitesAlthoughthoseAfricansof,yearsagohadmoremodernskeletonsthandidtheirNeanderthalcontemporaries,theymadeessentiallythesamecrudestonetoolsasNeanderthals,stilllackingstandardizedshapesTheyhadnopreservedartTojudgefromtheboneevidenceoftheanimalspeciesonwhichtheypreyed,theirhuntingskillswereunimpressiveandmainlydirectedateasytokill,notatalldangerousanimalsTheywerenotyetinthebusinessofslaughteringbuffalo,pigs,andotherdangerouspreyTheycouldn'tevencatchfish:theirsitesimmediatelyontheseacoastlackfishbonesandfishhooksTheyandtheirNeanderthalcontemporariesstillrankaslessthanfullyhumanHumanhistoryatlasttookoffaround,yearsago,atthetimeofwhatIhavetermedourGreatLeapForwardTheearliestdefinitesignsofthatleapcomefromEastAfricansiteswithstandardizedstonetoolsandthefirstpreservedjewelry(ostrichshellbeads)SimilardevelopmentssoonappearintheNearEastandinsoutheasternEurope,then(some,yearsago)insouthwesternEurope,whereabundantartifactsareassociatedwithfullymodernskeletonsofpeopletermedCroMagnonsThereafter,thegarbagepreservedatarchaeologicalsitesrapidlybecomesmoreandmoreinterestingandleavesnodoubtthatwearedealingwithbiologicallyandbehaviorallymodernhumansCroMagnongarbageheapsyieldnotonlystonetoolsbutalsotoolsofbone,whosesuitabilityforshaping(forinstance,intofishhooks)hadapparentlygoneunrecognizedbyprevioushumansToolswereproducedindiverseanddistinctiveshapessomodernthattheirfunctionsasneedles,awls,engravingtools,andsoonareobvioustousInsteadofonlysinglepiecetoolssuchashandheldscrapers,multipiecetoolsmadetheirappearanceRecognizablemultipieceweaponsatCroMagnonsitesincludeharpoons,spearthrowers,andeventuallybowsandarrows,theprecursorsofriflesandothermultipiecemodernweaponsThoseefficientmeansofkillingatasafedistancepermittedthehuntingofsuchdangerouspreyasrhinosandelephants,whiletheinventionofropefornets,lines,andsnaresallowedtheadditionoffishandbirdstoourdietRemainsofhousesandsewnclothingtestifytoagreatlyimprovedabilitytosurviveincoldclimates,andremainsofjewelryandcarefullyburiedskeletonsindicaterevolutionaryaestheticandspiritualdevelopmentsOftheCroMagnons'productsthathavebeenpreserved,thebestknownaretheirartworks:theirmagnificentcavepaintings,statues,andmusicalinstruments,whichwestillappreciateasarttodayAnyonewhohasexperiencedfirsthandtheoverwhelmingpowerofthelifesizedpaintedbullsandhorsesintheLascauxCaveofsouthwesternFrancewillunderstandatoncethattheircreatorsmusthavebeenasmodernintheirmindsastheywereintheirskeletonsObviously,somemomentouschangetookplaceinourancestors'capabilitiesbetweenabout,and,yearsagoThatGreatLeapForwardposestwomajorunresolvedquestions,regardingitstriggeringcauseanditsgeographiclocationAsforitscause,IarguedinmybookTheThirdChimpanzeefortheperfectionofthevoiceboxandhencefortheanatomicalbasisofmodernlanguage,onwhichtheexerciseofhumancreativityissodependentOthershavesuggestedinsteadthatachangeinbrainorganizationaroundthattime,without

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枪炮,细菌与钢铁英文版 - Guns, Germs and Steel

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