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首页 ASTM F2291 – 04

ASTM F2291 – 04.pdf

ASTM F2291 – 04

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2013-12-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《ASTM F2291 – 04pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

Designation:F–StandardPracticeforDesignofAmusementRidesandDevicesThisstandardisissuedunderthefixeddesignationFthenumberimmediatelyfollowingthedesignationindicatestheyearoforiginaladoptionor,inthecaseofrevision,theyearoflastrevisionAnumberinparenthesesindicatestheyearoflastreapprovalAsuperscriptepsilon(e)indicatesaneditorialchangesincethelastrevisionorreapprovalScopeThispracticeestablishescriteriaforthedesignofamusementrides,devicesandmajormodificationstoamusementridesanddevicesmanufacturedaftertheeffectivedateofpublicationexceptasnotedinThispracticeshallnotapplyto:Patrondirectedamusementridesordevices(forexample,gokarts,bumpercars,bumperboats),Artificialclimbingwalls,Airsupportedstructures,dryslides,coinoperatedrides,Amusementridesordevicesthatinvolvethepurposefulimmersionofthepatron’sbodypartiallyortotallyinthewaterandinvolvesmorethanincidentalpatronwatercontact(forexample,pools,waterslides,lazyrivers,interactiveaquaticplaydevices),AmusementridesanddeviceswhosedesigncriteriaarespecificallyaddressedinanotherASTMstandard,Portionsofanamusementrideordeviceunaffectedbyamajormodification,Upgradestoelectricalwiring,electricalmotorsandelectricalcomponentsofamusementridesanddevicesprovidedtheoriginaldesignandsafetycriteriaaremaintainedorenhanced,andPreexistingdesignsmanufacturedaftertheeffectivedateofpublicationofthispracticeifthedesignisserviceprovenorpreviouslycompliantandthemanufacturerprovides:Ahistoricalsummaryoftheamusementride,deviceormajormodification,andAstatementthatthedesignisserviceprovenorpreviouslycompliantasspecifiedbySectionAmusementridesanddevices,andmajormodificationstoamusementridesanddevicesmayqualifyas“previouslycompliant”forfiveyearsfollowingthedateofpublicationofthispracticeThereafter,amusementridesanddevices,andmajormodificationstoamusementridesanddevicesmustqualifyas“serviceproven”ormeettherequirementsofthispracticeThispracticeincludesanannex(mandatory),whichprovidesadditionalinformation(forexample,rationale,background,interpretations,drawings,commentary,andsoforth)toimprovetheuser’sunderstandingandapplicationofthecriteriapresentedinthispracticeTheannexinformationshallbeinterpretedasmandatorydesigncriteriaThispracticeincludesanappendix(nonmandatory),whichprovidesadditionalinformation(forexample,rationale,background,interpretations,drawings,commentary,andsoforth)toimprovetheuser’sunderstandingandapplicationofthecriteriapresentedinthispracticeTheappendixinformationshallnotbeinterpretedasmandatorydesigncriteriaThisstandarddoesnotpurporttoaddressallofthesafetyconcerns,ifany,associatedwithitsuseItistheresponsibilityoftheuserofthisstandardtoestablishappropriatesafetyandhealthpracticesanddeterminetheapplicabilityofregulatorylimitationspriortouseReferencedDocumentsASTMStandards:FSpecificationforPhysicalInformationtobeProvidedforAmusementRidesandDevicesFTerminologyRelatingtoAmusementRidesandDevicesFPracticeforOperationProceduresforAmusementRidesandDevicesFGuideforTestingPerformanceofAmusementRidesandDevicesFPracticeforMaintenanceProceduresforAmusementRidesandDevicesFGuideforInspectionofAmusementRidesandDevicesFPracticeforDesignandManufactureofPatronDirected,ArtificialClimbingWalls,DrySlide,CoinOperatedandPurposefulWaterImmersionAmusementRidesThispracticeisunderthejurisdictionofASTMCommitteeFonAmusementRidesandDevicesandisthedirectresponsibilityofSubcommitteeFonDesignandManufactureCurrenteditionapprovedApril,PublishedAprilOriginallyapprovedinLastpreviouseditionapprovedinasF–aForreferencedASTMstandards,visittheASTMwebsite,wwwastmorg,orcontactASTMCustomerServiceatserviceastmorgForAnnualBookofASTMStandardsvolumeinformation,refertothestandard’sDocumentSummarypageontheASTMwebsiteCopyright©ASTMInternational,BarrHarborDrive,POBoxC,WestConshohocken,PA,UnitedStatesandDevicesandAirSupportedStructuresFPracticeforMeasuringtheDynamicCharacteristicsofAmusementRidesandDevicesASTMTechnicalPublications:MILTheCompositeMaterialsHandbookMILCSystemSafetyProgramRequirementsSTPCompositeMaterials:FatigueandFracture,thVolumeACI(AmericanConcreteInstitute):ACISpecificationsforStructuralConcreteACIBuildingCodeRequirementsforStructuralConcrete(ACI)andCommentary(R)AFPA(AmericanForestPaperAssociation),AmericanWoodCouncilPublications:NDS(NationalDesignStandard)forASDDesignAISC(AmericanInstituteofSteelConstruction):AISCManualonSteelConstruction,AllowableStressDesign(ASD)AISCMManualonSteelConstruction,LoadResistanceFactorDesign(LRFD)ANSI(AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute):ANSIBMPneumaticFluidPowerSystemsStandardforIndustrialMachineryANSIBTRRiskAssessmentandRiskReductionAGuidetoEstimate,Evaluate,andReduceRisksAssociatedwithMachineToolsANSIBPassengerRopewaysAerialTramways,AerialLifts,SurfaceLifts,TowsandConveyorsSafetyRequirementsASCE(AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers):ASCEMinimumDesignLoadsforBuildingsandOtherStructuresASCEStandardforLoadandResistanceFactorDesign(LRFD)forEngineeredWoodConstructionASMI(AmericanSocietyofMetalsInternational):ASMAtlasofFatigueCurvesASMHandbookVolume:FatigueandFractureASME(AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers):ASMEBSafetyStandardsforMechanicalPowerTransmissionApparatusASMEASafetyCodeforElevatorsandEscalatorsAWS(AmericanWeldingSociety):ANSIAWSDDMStructuralWeldingCodeSteelANSIAWSDSpecificationforWeldedJointsinMachineryandEquipmentBritishStandardsInstitute:BSSteel,ConcreteandCompositeBridgesCodeofPracticeforFatigueBSCodeofPracticeforFatigueDesignandAssessmentofSteelStructuresCDC(CenterforDiseaseControl)GrowthCharts:CDCBasicBodyMeasurementsCISC(CanadianInstituteofSteelConstruction):HallowStructuralSectionConnectionandTrussesADesignGuide,JAParkerandJEHendersonDIN(GermanInstituteForStandardization):DIN,CranesSteelStructuresVerificationandAnalysesDataEN(EuropeanCommitteeforStandardization):ENMobileElevatingWorkPlatformsDesignCalculations,StabilityCriteria,Construction,Safety,Examinations,andTestsENSafetyofMachinerySafetyRelatedPartsofControlSystemsGeneralPrinciplesforDesignENSafetyofMachineryPrinciplesforRiskAssessmentEN,EurocodeDesignofSteelStructuresPartFatigueStrengthofSteelStructuresEN,EurocodeDesignofSteelStructuresPartCraneSupportingStructuresFatigueStrengthENLowVoltageSwitchgearandControlgearIEC(CableAssembliesInterfaceEquipment):IECSafetyofMachineryElectricalEquipmentofMachinesPart:GeneralRequirementsIECSafetyofMachineryElectrosensitiveProtectiveEquipmentGeneralRequirementsandTestsIECFunctionalSafetyofElectricalElectronicProgrammableElectronicSafetyRelatedSystemsGeneralRequirementsIECFunctionalSafety:SafetyInstrumentedSystemsfortheProcessIndustrySectorIECSafetyofMachineryFunctionalSafetyElectrical,Electronic,andProgrammableElectronicControlSystemsFederalDocuments:USDA(USDeptofAgriculture)TheWoodHandbookWoodAsAnEngineeringMaterial,ForestService,ForestProductsLaboratoryISO(InternationalStandardsOrganization):ISOPneumaticFluidPowerGeneralRulesRelatingtoSystemsNEMA(NationalElectricalManufacturersAssociation):NEMAEnclosuresforElectricalEquipmentAvailablefromASTMInternationalHeadquarters,BarrHarborDrive,POBoxC,WestConshohocken,PAAvailablefromAmericanForestandPaperAssociation(AFPA),thSt,NW,Suite,Washington,DCAvailablefromAmericanInstituteofSteelConstruction(AISC),OneEWackerDr,Suite,Chicago,ILAvailablefromAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute(ANSI),WrdSt,thFloor,NewYork,NYAvailablefromTheAmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers(ASCE),AlexanderBellDr,Reston,VAAvailablefromAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers(ASME),ASMEInternationalHeadquarters,ThreeParkAve,NewYork,NYAvailablefromTheAmericanWeldingSociety(AWS),NWLeJeuneRd,Miami,FLAvailablefromBritishStandardsInstitute(BSI),ChiswickHighRd,LondonWAL,UKAvailablefromCentersforDiseaseControlPrevention(CDC),CliftonRd,Atlanta,GA,website:http:wwwcdcgovSearch:anthropometricsAvailablefromBeuthVerlagGmbH(DINDINDeutschesInstitutfurNormungeV),Burggrafenstrasse,,Berlin,GermanyAvailablefromInternationalOrganizationforStandardization(ISO),ruedeVarembé,Casepostale,CH,Geneva,SwitzerlandAvailablefromNationalElectricalManufacturersAssociation(NEMA),NthSt,Suite,Rosslyn,VAF–NFPA(NationalFireProtectionAgency):NFPAElectricalStandardforIndustrialMachineryNFPANationalElectricCode(NEC)NFPALifeSafetyCodeNationalFluidPowerAssociation,IncNFPAJICTMPneumaticFluidPowerSystemsStandardforIndustrialMachineryOIPEEC(InternationalOrganizationfortheStudyofEnduranceofWireRope)SAE(SocietyofAutomotiveEngineers):SAEJInstrumentationforImpactTestElectronicInstrumentationSAEJHumanPhysicalDimensionsSAEHSFastenerStandardsUL(Underwriter’sLaboratory):ULIndustrialControlEquipmentULAIndustrialControlPanelsTerminologyDefinitionsofTermsSpecifictoThisStandard:acceleration,impactthoseaccelerationswithdurationoflessthanmsacceleration,sustainedthoseaccelerationswithdurationgreaterthanorequaltomsautomaticmodetheability,afterinitialization,oftheamusementrideordevicetostart,operate,move,etcwithlimitedornooperatorinterventionclosedwhenpertainingtorestraintdevices,thepositioninwhichtherestraintisintendedtoremainduringtheoperationoftherideordeviceinordertorestrainthepatron(s)designerengineertheparty(s)thatestablishesanddescribestheconfigurationoftheamusementrideordevice,establishesstrengthandfatiguelife,designsanddevelopselectricalelectroniccontrolsystems,anddefinesinspectioncriteriaelectrical(E)electronic(E)programmableelectronicsystems(PES)(EEPES)whenusedinthiscontext,electricalreferstologicfunctionsperformedbyelectromechanicaltechniques,(forexample,electromechanicalrelay,motordriventimers,etc),Electronicreferstologicfunctionsperformedbyelectronictechniques,(forexample,solidstatelogic,solidstaterelay,etc),andProgrammableElectronicSystemreferstologicperformedbyprogrammableorconfigurabledevices(forexample,ProgrammableLogicController(PLC))FielddevicesarenotincludedinEEPESelectrosensitiveprotectiveequipment(ESPE)anassemblyofdevicesorcomponents,orboth,workingtogetherforprotectivetrippingorpresencesensingpurposesemergencystop(EStop)ashutdownsequence(s),otherthananormalstop,thatbringstheamusementrideordevicetoastopAnEStopmaybemoredynamicthananormalstopfailsafeacharacteristicofanamusementrideordevice,orcomponentthereof,thatisdesignedsuchthatthenormalandexpectedfailuremoderesultsinasafeconditionfenceatypeofbarrierconsistingof,butnotlimitedto,posts,boards,wire,stakes,orrailsthatisusedtoinhibitpatronsfromcomingintoundesirablecontactwiththemovingportionorrestrictedportionofanamusementrideordevicefiltercornerfrequency(Fc)withreferencetoalowpassfilter,Fcisthefrequency(specifiedinHz)wherethefrequencyresponsecurveofthefilterhasmagnitudeof–dBforcelimitingwhenpertainingtorestraintdevices,acharacteristicthat,regardlessoftheamountofforceavailablefromthesystemactuators,limitstheamountofforceappliedtothepatron(s)gatesasectionoffencingthatmaybeopenedguardrailsystemofbuildingcomponentslocatedneartheopensidesofelevatedwalkingsurfacesforthepurposeofminimizingthepossibilityofanaccidentalfallfromthewalkingsurfacetothelowerlevelhandmodetheabilityoftheamusementrideordevicetostart,operate,move,etconlywithoperatorinterventionhandrailrailingprovidedforgraspingwiththehandforsupportlatchingwhenpertainingtorestraintdevices,heldsecureagainstopeningexceptbyintentionalactionofthepatron,operator,orothermeansThiscanincluderestraints(forexample,dropbars)heldinplacebygravity,detentsorothermeanslockingwhenpertainingtorestraintdevices,heldsecurelyagainstopeningexceptbyintentionalactionoftheoperatororothermeansnotaccessiblebythepatronmanualreleasewhenpertainingtorestraintdevices,ahandorfootoperatedmechanismthatallowsforopeningthepatronrestraintmanufacturerthepartyproducingtheamusementrideordevice,performingmajormodificationsandcanincludethedesignerengineerpatroncontainmentthefeaturesinanamusementrideordevicethataccommodatethepatronforthepurposeofridingtherideordeviceThismayincludebutisnotlimitedtotheseats,sidewalls,walls,orbulkheadsaheadofthepatron(s),floors,objectswithinthevicinityofthepatron(s),restraintsystems,andcagespreviouslycompliantanamusementrideordevice,ormajormodificationtoanamusementrideordevice,ofwhichthedesignmeetstheASTMStandardinplaceatthetimeofitsdesignprimarycirculationareaareasleadingdirectlytotheentranceandexitofaridethatarenormallytraveledbypatronsTheseareaswouldnotincludeemergencyexitroutes,maintenanceareas,orotherareasnotnormallyontherouteofthepatronAvailablefromNationalFireProtectionAssociation(NFPA),BatterymarchPark,Quincy,MAAvailablefromNationalFluidPowerAssociation,Inc,NMayfairRd,Milwaukee,WI–AvailablefromGrünenthalerStrassed,Aachen,GermanyAvailablefromSocietyofAutomotiveEngineers(SAE),CommonwealthDr,Warrendale,PAAvailablefromUnderwritersLaboratories(UL),CorporateProgress,PfingstenRd,Northbrook,ILF–restraintthesystem,device,orcharacteristicthatisintendedtoinhibitorrestrictthemovementofthepatron(s)whileontheamusementrideordevicesafetyrelatedcontrolsystemthehardwareandsoftwarethatcontrolsthesafetyfunctionsandcomponentsoftheamusementrideordeviceasdefinedbytheRideAnalysisserviceprovenAnamusementride,device,ormajormodificationtoanamusementrideordeviceofwhich()unit(s)havebeeninservicetothepublicforaminimumoffiveyears,and()unit(s)thathavebeeninservicehavedonesowithoutanysignificantdesignrelatedfailuresorsignificantdesignrelatedsafetyissuesthathavenotbeenmitigatedSignificanceandUseThepurposeofthispracticeistoprovidedesigners,engineers,manufacturers,owners,andoperatorswithcriteriaandreferencesforuseindesigningamusementridesanddevicesoramajormodificationforamusementridesordevicesGeneralDesignCriteriaRideAnalysis:Themanufacturershallperformarideanalysisthatshallincludethefollowing:PatronRestraintandContainmentAnalysisApatronrestraintandcontainmentanalysisshallbeperformedinaccordancewithSectionPatronClearanceEnvelopeAnalysisApatronclearanceenvelopeanalysisshallbeperformedinaccordancewithSectionFailureAnalysisAfailureanalysisshallbeperformedonthesafetyrelatedsystemsoftheamusementrideordeviceThefailureanalysisshallincludeeitheraFaultTreeAnalysis,aFailureModeandEffectsAnalysis(FMEA),orotheracceptedengineeringpracticesTherideanalysisshallspecificallyincludeanassessmentofthesuitabilityofthedesignoftheamusementrideordevicefortheintendedpatrons,includinganthropomorphicfactorsthatrelateageandphysicalsizeTherideanalysisshallidentifythemostsignificantfactorsthatmayaffectpatronsafetyandshallincludemitigationforeachfactorTherideanalysisshallbedocumentedlistingthesafetyissuesthatwereidentifiedandthemeansusedtomitigateeachissueDesignandCalculations:ThedesignerengineershallperformcalculationsshowingcompliancewiththedesigncriteriaofthispracticeCalculationsandassessmentsofthefollowingtypesarerequiredCalculationsverifyingtheadequacyofstructural,mechanical,andelectricalcomponentsCalculationsofsignificantandpredictableaccelerationthatisgeneratedbytherideordevicewhenoperatedasreflectedinthemanufacturer’sprovidedoperatingandmaintenancemanualsorwritteninstructionsPerformanceandfunctionalcharacteristicsofcontrolsystemsCalculationsshallbeperformedusingcoordinateaxisandloadpathsasdefinedbyPracticeFortheENequivalentUnits:UnitsofmeasurementshallbeclearlyspecifiedinalldocumentationThecoordinatesystemshowninFigshallbeusedasthestandardreferenceforaccelerationdirections,includingtheapplicationofthedifferentmeansofrestraintinaccordancewiththecriteriaoftherestraintdiagramshowninFigDrawingsandRecords:Thedesignerengineerormanufacturershallproduceandretainasbuiltdrawings,calculations,andcontrolsoftwarethatdepicttheamusementride,device,ormajormodificationdetailsThesedrawingsandcalculationsshallberetainedforaminimumofyearsfromthedateoflastmanufactureInthecaseofamajormodification,onlytherecordsassociatedwiththatmajormodification,andnottheentirerideordevice,mustberetainedforaminimumofyearsDocumentsdeemedproprietaryandconfidentialbythemanufacturershallincludeastatementofsuchoneachdocumentUseofthemanufacturer’sdocumentationandrecordsshouldbelimited,wherepossible,totheinstallation,maintenance,inspectio

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