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首页 ASTM F2270 – 04

ASTM F2270 – 04.pdf

ASTM F2270 – 04

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简介:本文档为《ASTM F2270 – 04pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

Designation:F–AnAmericanNationalStandardStandardGuideforConstructionandMaintenanceofWarningTrackAreasonSportsFieldsThisstandardisissuedunderthefixeddesignationFthenumberimmediatelyfollowingthedesignationindicatestheyearoforiginaladoptionor,inthecaseofrevision,theyearoflastrevisionAnumberinparenthesesindicatestheyearoflastreapprovalAsuperscriptepsilon(e)indicatesaneditorialchangesincethelastrevisionorreapprovalScopeThisguidecoverstechniquesthatareappropriatefortheconstructionandmaintenanceofwarningtrackareasonsportsfieldsThisguideprovidesguidancefortheselectionofmaterials,suchassoilandsandforuseinconstructingorreconditioningwarningtrackareasandforselectionofmanagementpracticesthatwillmaintainasafeandfunctioningwarningtrackAlthoughthisguidehasapplicationstoallsportswhereawarningtracksurfacemayberequiredordesired,ithasspecificapplicationstobaseballsoftballThisguidedoesnotaddresssyntheticwarningtrackssuchasrubberizedsurfaces,artificialturf,orpavedsurfacesDecisionsinselectingconstructionandmaintenancetechniquesareinfluencedbylocalsoiltypes,climaticfactors,levelofplay,budget,andtrainingabilityofmanagementpersonnelThevaluesstatedinSIunitsaretoberegardedasthestandardThevaluesinparenthesesareforinformationonlyThisstandardmayinvolvehazardousmaterials,operations,andequipmentThisstandarddoesnotpurporttoaddressallofthesafetyconcerns,ifany,associatedwithitsuseItistheresponsibilityoftheuserofthisstandardtoestablishappropriatesafetyandhealthpracticesanddeterminetheapplicabilityofregulatoryrequirementspriortouseReferencedDocumentsASTMStandards:DTestMethodforParticleSizeAnalysisofSoilsDTerminologyRelatingtoSoil,Rock,andContainedFluidsDTestMethodsforLiquidLimit,PlasticLimit,andPlasticityIndexofSoilsESpecificationforWireClothandSievesforTestingPurposesFSpecificationforCorrugatedPolyethylene(PE)TubingandFittingsFTestMethodforSaturatedHydraulicConductivity,WaterRetention,Porosity,ParticleDensity,andBulkDensityofPuttingGreenandSportsTurfRootZonesFGuideforConstructionandMaintenanceofSkinnedAreasonSportsFieldsTerminologyDefinitionsExceptasnoted,soilrelateddefinitionsareinaccordancewithTerminologyDDefinitionsofTermsSpecifictoThisStandard:aggregatematerialasoillikeorearthymaterialwithoutappreciablesoilstructuralpropertiessuchthatanaggregatematerialisessentiallygranularorsinglegrainedinnatureclay()Asoilseparateconsistingofparticles<mminequivalentdiameterSeealsosoilseparates()AtexturalclassSeealsosoiltexture()Inreferencetoclaymineralogy,anaturallyoccurringmaterialcomposedprimarilyoffinegrainedminerals,whichisgenerallyplasticatappropriatewatercontentsandwillhardenwhendriedorfiredAlthoughclayusuallycontainsphyllosilicates,itmaycontainothermaterialsthatimpartplasticityandhardenwhendriedorfiredAssociatedphasesinclaymayincludematerialsthatdonotimpartplasticityandorganicmatter(,,,,)DiscussionIdeally,clayshouldbeappropriatelydefinedwhenusedtodescribesoilsortopmixesforwarningtrackareasAsandclaymixturecouldimplyeithersandclayeysoilorothertexturesthatcontainenoughclay(<mm)toexhibitplasticityorsand(tomm)clay(<mm)claymineralaphyllosilicatemineraloramineralthatimpartsplasticitytoclayandwhichhardensupondryingorfiring(,,)clayey()Texturegroupconsistingofsandyclay,siltyclay,andclaysoiltexturesSeealsosoiltexture()Familyparticlesizeclassforsoilswithormoreclayand<rockfragmentsinuppersubsoilhorizons(,,,)ThisguideisunderthejurisdictionofASTMCommitteeFonSportsEquipmentandFacilitiesandisthedirectresponsibilityofSubcommitteeFonNaturalPlayingSurfacesCurrenteditionapprovedJan,PublishedJanuaryForreferencedASTMstandards,visittheASTMwebsite,wwwastmorg,orcontactASTMCustomerServiceatserviceastmorgForAnnualBookofASTMStandardsvolumeinformation,refertothestandard’sDocumentSummarypageontheASTMwebsiteTheboldfacenumbersinparenthesesrefertothelistofreferencesattheendofthisstandardCopyright©ASTMInternational,BarrHarborDrive,POBoxC,WestConshohocken,PA,UnitedStatesfinetexture()Abroadgroupoftexturesconsistingoforcontaininglargequantitiesofthefinefractions,particularlyofsiltandclay(Includesallsandyclay,siltyclay,andclaytexturalclasses)()WhenusedinreferencetofamilyparticlesizeclassesinUSsoiltaxonomy,isspecificallydefinedashavingtoclaySeealsosoiltexture(,,,)gravelcommonlyusedtodenotespherical,cubelike,orequiaxialaggregatematerialswithanequivalentdiameter>mmand<mmMorecorrectlyused,thisclassificationrefersto“rockfragments”classedaspebblesintheGlossaryofSoilScienceTerms()heavysoil(colloquial)asoilwithahighcontentofthefineseparates,particularlyclay,oronewithahighdrawbarpullandhencedifficulttocultivate,especiallywhenwetSeealsofinetextureloamy()Texturegroupconsistingofcoarsesandyloam,sandyloam,finesandyloam,veryfinesandyloam,loam,siltloam,silt,clayloam,sandyclayloam,andsiltyclayloamsoiltexturesSeealsosoiltexture()Familyparticlesizeclassforsoilswithtexturesfinerthanveryfinesandyloambut<clayand<rockfragmentsinuppersubsoilhorizons(,,,)moderatelyfinetexturedtexturegroupconsistingofclayloam,sandyclayloam,andsiltyclayloamtexturesSeealsosoiltextureplasticitythecharacteristicsofasoilmaterialtodeformwithoutruptureorcrackingandwithoutappreciablevolumechangePlasticityisnormallyimpartedtosoilsbytheproportionofphyllosilicateclaymineralsskinnedareaareaonsportsfieldsthat,bydesign,isdevoidofturfgrassesorothervegetationmaybeentirefieldoraportionofthefield(forexample,skinnedinfieldinbaseballorsoftballskinnedbasepathsinotherwiseturfedinfield)Fsilt()AsoilseparateSeealsosoilseparates()AsoiltexturalclassSeealsosoiltexture(,,,)soilsedimentsorotherunconsolidatedaccumulationsofsolidparticlesproducedbythephysicalandchemicaldisintegrationofrocks,andwhichmayormaynotcontainorganicmattersoilprofileverticalsectionofasoil,showingthenatureandsequenceofthevariouslayers,asdevelopedbydepositionorweatheringorbothorasdevelopedbyconstructionprocedures(,,)soilseparatesmineralparticles,<mminequivalentdiameter,rangingbetweenspecifiedsizelimitsThenamesandsizelimitsofseparatesrecognizedintheUSare:verycoarsesand(priortothisseparatewascalled“finegravel”nowfinegravelincludesparticlesbetweenmmandaboutmmindiameter),tommcoarsesand,tommmediumsand,tommfinesand,tommveryfinesand,tommsilt,tommandclay(Priorto,“clay”includedparticles<mmindiameter,and“silt,”thoseparticlesfromtomm)<mm(,,)DiscussionParticlesizerangesforsand,silt,andclayaslistedabovevarysomewhatfromrangesgiveninTestMethodDandTerminologyDsoiltexturetherelativeproportionsofthevarioussoilseparatesinasoilasdescribedbytheclassesofsoiltextureThesand,loamysand,andsandyloamarefurthersubdividedonthebasisoftheproportionsofthevarioussandseparatespresentThelimitsofthevariousclassesandsubclassesareasfollows:claysoilmaterialthatcontainsormoreclay,<sand,and<siltclayloamsoilmaterialthatcontainstoclayandtosandloamsoilmaterialthatcontainstoclay,tosilt,and<sandloamysandsoilmaterialthatcontainsbetweenandsandandthepercentageofsiltplustimesthepercentageofclayisormoreandthepercentageofsiltplustwicethepercentageofclayislessthansandsoilmaterialthatcontainsormoreofsandpercentageofsiltplustimesthepercentageofclayshallnotexceedsandyclaysoilmaterialthatcontainsormoreclayandormoresandsandyclayloamsoilmaterialthatcontainstoclay,<silt,and>sandsandyloamsoilmaterialthatcontainstoclay,morethansand,andthepercentageofsiltplustwicethepercentageofclayisormoreorlessthanclay,lessthansilt,andmorethansandsiltsoilmaterialthatcontainsormoresiltand<claysiltyclaysoilmaterialthatcontainsormoreclayandormoresiltsiltyclayloamsoilmaterialthatcontainstoclayand<sandsiltloamsoilmaterialthatcontainsormoresiltandtoclay(or)tosiltand<clay(,,)warningtrackasectionofasportsfieldareatypicallydevoidofvegetation,thatprovidesachangeinsurfacetexturesuchthatanathletecansensewithoutlookingtheproximitytoahazardsuchasafence,post,orwallSignificanceandUseWarningtracksareplayingsurfaceslocatedonthemarginsoftheplayingareaforthepurposeofprovidingawarningtotheplayerthatheorsheisapproachingahazard(commonlyafence)oroutofboundsareaInordertoprovideforaneffectivewarningtracksurface,thewarningtrackmustbeconstructedandmaintainedinsuchamannersothattheplayercansensethechangeintexturefromtheregularplayingsurfaceandthewarningtrackwithouthavingtolookThisfeatureisveryimportantinthattheplayerisoftenvisuallyfocusedontheballduringplayandwouldnotbelookingatthegroundasheisrunningtowardthewarningtrackThewarningtrackmustalsobeconstructedandmaintainedinsuchamannerthatthewarningtrackitselforthesurfacetransitiondoesnotposeahazardtotheplayersF–ThewarningtrackareasofsportsfieldsshouldprovideauniformsurfacewithgoodfootingThechangeinsurfacetextureofthewarningtrackfromthesurroundingplayingsurfacemustbeofenoughcontrastsuchthattheplayercansensethechangewithoutlookingMostoften,warningtracksurfacesaredevoidofturforothervegetationHowever,turfedwarningtrackareasmaybeusedininstanceswheresuchpurposeisto“warn”theplayerofanimpendinghazardwheretheprimaryplayingsurfaceisaskinnedareaThismaybethecaseinsoftballwheretheentireinfieldplayingsurfaceisaskinnedareaandaturfedwarningtrackisusedalongthefirstbaseandthirdbasefencelinesUndulations,roughsurface,hardorsoftsurface,weeds,stones,debris,wetsspots,etcdetractfromagood,safewarningtrackThesafetyandeffectivenessofthewarningtrackislargelyaffectedbyconstructionandmaintenanceproceduresandthisguideaddressesthoseproceduresDuringconstruction,considerationshouldbegiventofactorssuchasthephysicalandchemicalpropertiesofmaterialsusedinthearea,freedomfromstones,sticks,andotherdebris,andsurfacedrainageandinternaldrainageConsiderationshouldalsobegiventothesurfaceelevationsuchthatadrasticchangeisnotproducedbythetransitionfromtheplayingsurfacetothewarningtrackareawhichmaycreateatrippingorfallinghazardMaintenancepracticesthatinfluencetheplayabilityofthesurfaceincludeedging,dragging,rolling,watering,vegetationcontrol,andremovalofstonesanddebristhatmayadverselyaffectplayandsafetyThoseresponsibleforthedesign,construction,ormaintenance,oracombinationthereof,ofbaseballandsoftballfieldsorplayareaswheretheneedforawarningtrackareahasbeenidentifiedwillbenefitfromthisguideDesignCompositionMostwarningtrackconstructionswillbeanareadevoidofvegetationasatransitionfromaturfed(naturalorartificial)playingsurfaceWhileareasdevoidofvegetationaretechnically“skinned”areas,forthepurposeofthisguidetheterm“warningtrack”isutilizedtodifferentiatetheareasoftheplayingsurfacethatarenotpartoftheskinnedinfieldareaWarningtrackscanbeconstructedofvariousmaterialsandstillmeettheobjectivesofaneffectivewarningtracksurfaceVarioussoilcomponentsandamendmentsmaybespecifiedTheconceptofawarningtracksurfacewithfirmfootingisthattheparticlesizesofthematerialsusedorblendedfortheconstructionareofawideenoughrangesoastoprovideasubstratethatbindstogetherorhasgoodinterlockofthecomponentsClaysoilmaterialsmaybeusedinsuchconstructionsinthattheywillbindtogetherHowevertheplasticnatureofclaymaterialswhenwetcouldprecludehighclaywarningtracksinthattheywouldnotprovidesafeandeffectivefootingunderconditionsofhighmoistureThemosteffectivewarningtracksshouldbecomposedlargelyofgranularoraggregatematerials(finegravelandsand)ofawideenoughparticlesizerangesuchthattheparticlesinterlockAngulargrainsofaggregate(asopposedtoroundedgrains)providemoreinterlockduetotheincreasedinternalfrictiontheyprovidewithinthesoilprofileSmalladditionsofclayorclayeymaterialmaybeappropriatetoprovidesomecharacteristicsofcohesivenessandcolorItisoftendesiredforthecolorofthewarningtracktomatchascloselyaspossiblethecoloroftheskinnedareasofthefieldIntheseinstances,theclaymaterialusedintheskinnedinfieldconstructionsmaybeincludedinsmallerproportionsinthematerialmixedforthewarningtrackareasDimensionsTypically,warningtrackdimensionsarenotincludedinrulebooksandtherecommendedwidthsaretypicallybaseduponsuchfactorsastheage,size,andabilityoftheplayersForwarningtrackareasadjacenttothebackstopfenceandextensions,thedistanceusedforawarningtrackistypically⁄ofthedistancefromhomeplatetothebackstopForexample,wheretherulebookspecifiesahomeplatetobackstopdistanceofm(ft),theappropriatedimensionforthewarningtrackinthisinstancewouldbem(ft)ThewarningtrackdimensionthereforewouldtellthecatcherandinfieldersthattheyhavecoveredtwothirdsofthedistancetothebackstopfenceOthercriteriaforwarningtrackdimensionsincludetheruleofthumbforadistanceequivalenttothreefullstridesofarunningplayerTheconcepthereisthattheplayerhasadistanceequivalenttothreestridesinordertoadjusthispositionspeedtoprotecthimselffromtheimpendingobstructionAdistanceofthreefullstridesofarunningplayercanvaryfromaboutm(ft)foryouthplayersuptom(ft)forcollegiateorprofessionallevelathletesItshouldbenotedthatwarningtrackdimensionsthataretoogreatmaylosetheireffectivenessinthatadimensionthatistoovast(toomuchplayingareacontainedwithinthewarningtrackarea)willfailtoprovideeffective“warning”oftheimpendingobstructionAwarningtrackconstructionshouldbedesignedtoallowforsurfacedrainageAsurfaceslopebetweenandshouldbeincorporatedasadesignelementinthewarningtrackPerformanceAwarningtrackcouldbeconstructedbyblendinganaggregateamendmentintotheonsiteorexistingsoilorcouldbeconstructedofentirelyimportedmaterialsAggregateTheaggregatematerialusedforawarningtrackblendedmaterial(whetherblendedwithonsitematerialsorimportedmaterials)shouldmeetthefollowingcriteria:ParticleSizeCriteriaforAggregateComponentofWarningTrackMaterial:()Lessthanmaterialgreaterthanmm(in)()RelativelyuniformorhomogeneousinsizefractionsbetweenandmmSievesizesusedforcharacterizingtheaggregatematerialshallinclude:mm,mm,mm,mm,mm,mm,andmm()Lessthanoftheparticlesinthe<mmfractionscombined()Lessthansiltandclaysizeparticles(<mm)SoilIfonsitesoilmaterialsareusedinawarningtrackblend,thefinalmixtureshouldcontainnomorethanofthesoilmaterialinthefinalblendLesseramountsofsoilmaterialadditionsmayberequiredfortheresultingblendtomeettherecommendedphysicalcriteriainIfaF–finertexturedimportsoilmaterialisblendedwithanaggregatematerial,thesoilmaterialshouldmeetthefollowingcriteria:Soilshallconsistofaclayeysoilmaterial(>claysizeparticles)Soilmaterialshallhave<organicmatterbymassSoilmaterialshallhaveasilttoclayratioof<Soilmaterialshallhave<particlesgreaterthanmmResultingBlendItisanticipatedthataresultingblendofwarningtrackmaterialsshallhave<soilmaterialsinablendwiththespecifiedaggregatematerialTheproportionofcomponentsintheresultingblendshouldbedeterminedbaseduponlaboratoryanalysistomeetthefollowingcriteria:Permeabilitydeterminedassaturatedhydraulicconductivity,>cmh(inh)whencompactedtoabulkdensityofkgmandusinghydraulicconductivitytestingproceduresasdescribedinTestMethodFAmaterialthatcaneasilybepackedorcompactedbyhandorwiththeuseofalightweightmissiletoabulkdensityofkgmorhigherinthelaboratoryTotalporosity<whencompactedtoabulkdensityofkgmColorDifferentcolorsofsoil,calcinedamendmentsorothermaterialsmaybeincludedtoimpartcolordesiredforaestheticsaslongastheydonotadverselyaffecttheperformanceofthewarningtrackConstructionThewarningtrackmaterialthatmeetsappropriatespecificationsshouldbeinstalledtoaminimumdepthofcm(in)oversubgradeThesubgradeshouldbeevenlyslopedbetweenandtomatchtheslopeofthefinishgradeofthewarningtrackInstallationsofsubsurfacedrainsmaybeusedunderwarningtrackareasFornewconstructions,theextensionofsubsurfacedrainsservicingtheplayingsurfaceintothewarningtrackareamaybeappropriateGeotextilefabricsmaybeusedbetweenthesubgradeandwarningtrackprofiletopreventweedgrowthIfageotextilefabricisused,thefabricshouldnotcoverdrainagelinesunlessithasbeenspecificallymanufacturedforthispurposeOncetheareaofthewarningtrackhasbeenexcavated,thesubgradeshouldbethoroughlycompacted(>compaction)toavoiddifferentialsettlingofthesubgradematerialsOncecompacted,theslopeofthesubgradeshouldbereche

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