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jackson2011.pdf

jackson2011.pdf

上传者: iwoni 2013-12-28 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《jackson2011pdf》,可适用于游戏领域,主题内容包含PTJ•BSGasMethodology•PageCriticalHumanism:Theory,Methodology,andBattlestar符等。

PTJ•BSGasMethodology•PageCriticalHumanism:Theory,Methodology,andBattlestarGalacticaPatrickThaddeusJackson,AmericanUniversityItseemsrelativelyuncontroversialtoassertthatwhensocialscientistssetouttoconceptualizetheirobjectsofstudythesedays,oneoftheirfirststopswhenlookingformodelsandmetaphorsinvolvesthenaturalsciencesThusweget“punctuatedequilibrium,”“complexlearning,”andothernotionsderivedfromevolutionarytheorywegetnotionsof“balancing”thatclearlydisplaytheirmechanisticoriginsandwegetmodelsofindividualdecisionmakingthatrelyoncognitivepsychologyandevenneurologyOurconceptualstockseemstohavebeen,forthemostpart,seizedinraidsonthefertilefieldsofthenaturalsciencesIndeed,itisalmostasifweexpectthattheintellectualparentageofanaturalscientificnotionwillmagicallyimbueourtheorieswithexplanatorypowerOnewaytojustifythispracticeistoembracephysicalistreductionism:thenotionthatwhatisestablishedinamore“basic”sciencelikephysicsorbiologyorpsychologywillnecessarilyprovideagoodstartingpointforthoseofusoperatinginthe“special”scienceslikeIRUnlesswewanttogoallthewaywithphysicalistreductionism,howeverandfewofusseemtowanttodosothereispreciselynoreasonwhythefactthatanotionlike“punctuatedequilibrium”or“balancing”servesanexplanatoryTheuseoftheselatternotionsinIR,though,mightalsobewarrantedbyacriticalrealistmethodologyofusingalaboratorytoadducecausalpowersthatarethenpresumedtocontinuetooperateintheopensystemoftherealworldIfusedinthatsense,theissueisnotwhetherthenotiontransfersitsexplanatorypowersacrossdomainsitiswhetherthelaboratoryeffectivelydisclosesrealbutundetectabledispositionalpropertiesSeeJackson,ChapterSomeofWendt’smostrecentworkon“quantumconsciousness”does,infact,pursuethisreductionistline,andmaintainsthatconsciousnessandtherefore,thesocialrelationsbuiltontopofconsciousnessmustultimatelybeconsistentwithandreducedtophysicsPTJ•BSGasMethodology•PagefunctioninonedomainshouldhaveanyimplicationsforwhatthatnotiondoesinanotherdomainOurprivileginginIRandtheothersocialsciencesofmodelsandmetaphorsdrawnfromthenaturalsciencesseems,then,amereprejudice,perhapsfueledbythedreamofborrowingsomeprestigefromamoreculturallyesteemeddomainAfterall,wedothiswhenwearethinkingaboutresearchdesignandexecution,sowhynotdoitforsubstantivenotionstooSomanyofourpiecesofmethodologicaladvicearebased,moreorlessexplicitly,onparallelswithwhatsupposedlyhappensinthenaturalsciences,thataneutralobservermightbeeasilyforgivenfordiagnosingakindoffieldwideinferioritycomplexvisàvisphysicsandbiology,andevenvisàvispaleontology(asinVanBelle)ThemanifestevidencethattheseeffortstoobtainreflectedgloryfromthenaturalsciencesrelyonseriouslymisleadingaccountsofwhatnaturalscientistsactuallydowhenconductingresearchdoesnotservetoshaketheboundlessenthusiasmofthoseIRscholarsseekingtogroundtheirknowledgeproductioneffortsinoneoranotheruniversalistonemightevensayfundamentalistsetofcommitmentsthataresupposedtoensurethatfinally,thistime,we’regoingtogetitrightandbeabletoplaceIRonaproperintellectualfootingHereagain,theprestigeofthenaturalsciencesservesastheoftenimplicitjustificationforconductingresearchinonewayratherthananother:naturalscience,actualorimagined,isaprivilegeddomainfromwhichwesocialscientistsmoreorlesshavetoborrowinordertomakeanyrealprogressPTJ•BSGasMethodology•PageNeedlesstosay,IamnotpersuadedofthevalueofthesepracticesMyissueisnotthatmodelsofresearchpracticesandconceptualmetaphorsdrawnfromthenaturalsciencesmightnotprovefertilewhenappliedtothestudyofworldpoliticsindeed,theymight,butiftheydid,thatwouldhavepreciselynothingtodowiththeiroriginsinphysicsorbiologyorwhereverInstead,theywouldhavetoprovetheirexplanatoryworthinourfield,accordingtowhateverstandardswefindappropriateforcashingout“explanatoryworth”KarlPopperwasfamouslyindifferenttotheoriginofscientificnotions,andinthis(althoughinlittleelse)IwouldconsidermyselfsomethingofaPopperian:scholarsshouldusenotionsderivedfromreligion,frompoetry,orevenfromphysicsandbiology,butshouldsubjectthemalltostandardsofevaluationpropertothefieldintowhichtheyhavebeenimportedWhyrestrictourtheoreticalvocabularytothenaturalsciences,whentherearewidervistastobeexploredAnalyticalpracticeInfact,whenitcomestothestudyofsocialandpoliticalphenomena,IwouldsubmitthatnovelistsandothercreatorsoffictionalproductsmightevenbeabettersourceofmodelsandmetaphorsthanthenaturalsciencesareTheactofcreatingafictionalworldisacomplicatedbalancingact,inwhichtheaudiencehastobeinducedtosuspendtheirdisbeliefintheuntrueaspectsofthefictionalworldwhileclingingtoThefactthattherearemultiplesuchstandardsinIRthatthereisapluralityoflogicsofinquiry,eachofwhichisirreducibletotheotherscomplicatesthestorywithoutaffectingthecentralpointatissuePTJ•BSGasMethodology•PagethoseaspectsthatcommandacknowledgementorrecognitionThis“politicaleconomyofproductionandconsumption”(JacksonandNexon)appliesperhapsevenmorevigorouslytoserialfiction,becauseastheseriesgoeson,theaudiencemaybecomeevermorevigilantaboutpolicingtheinternalconsistencyofthefictionalworld,andtheywillhavemoreopportunitiestoevaluateemplottedeventsagainsttheirownexperiencesandsensibilitiesKeepingthesevariousaspectsoftheproductioninsyncisachallenge,anditstandstoreasonthatthosecreatorsandproducerswhosuccessfullycreatecompellingfictionalworldshavethekindofinsightintotheiraudiencesthatourmechanicalmodelsandadventuresinlargendataminingcanrarelyifeverachieveIndeed,thepositionofthecreatorofafictionalworldisnotunlikethepositionthatMaxWeberdescribedascharacteristicofthescientificinvestigatorScientists,Webermaintained,operatewithidealtypesratherthanwithpurelyfaithfulrepresentationsofanexternallyexistingworldAlthoughmostofushaveseenthisbefore,itisworthquotingatsomelengthWeber’sdefinitionofanidealtypeasgiveninhisessayestablishinganeditorialpolicyforthejournalheandtwocolleagueshadjustassumedcontrolover(Ringer,,)Ratherthan“a‘presuppositionless’copyof‘objective’facts,”idealtypesareformedthroughaonesidedaccentuationofoneormorepointsofviewandthroughbringingtogetheragreatmanydiffuseanddiscrete,moreorlesspresentandoccasionallyabsentconcreteindividualevents,whicharearrangedaccordingtotheseemphaticallyonesidedpointsofviewinordertoconstructaunifiedanalyticalconstructGedankenInitsconceptualpurity,thisThenextfewparagraphsremixmaterialfromJackson,ChaptersandPTJ•BSGasMethodology•PageanalyticalconstructGedankenbildisfoundnowhereinempiricalrealityitisautopia(Weber,)Webergoesontopointoutthat“whoeveracceptsthestandpointthatknowledgeofhistoricalrealityshouldorcouldbea‘presuppositionless’copyof‘objective’factswilldenyanyvaluetoidealtypes”(ibid,)Hehimselfclearlydoesnotacceptthenotionofapresuppositionlesscopy,insteadplacingthehuman“capacityandthewilltodeliberatelytakeupastancetowardstheworldandtolenditameaning”atthecenterofhisreflections(ibid,)“Thequalityofaprocessasa‘socioeconomic’eventisnotsomethingthatinheres‘objectively’intheprocessassuch,”Weberarguesthisisarathersurprisingstatementtomakeintheeditorialintroductionofajournaldevotedtowhatwewouldnowprobablycalltheanalysisofpoliticaleconomy“Itisfarmoreconditionedbythedirectionofourknowledgeinterestasitarisesfromthespecificculturalsignificancethatweattributepertainingtotheprocessinanindividualcase”(ibid,)Inthisway,thesocialsciencesareproductiveoftheworldoffacts,beholdennottosomeexternallyexistingsetofobjectsortheiressentialdispositionalpropertiesbutrathertotheculturalvaluesthatdefineandorienttheinvestigationfromtheoutsetIndeed,thewholeprocedureofidealtypicalanalysisisallaboutthetransmutationofculturalvaluesintousefulanalyticaltoolsWeber’soverallprocedurecanbesummarizedinthefollowingdiagram,inwhichthreedistinctintellectualmoveslinkfourelements:AIBIICIIIDSphereofValuesStandtakingValuecommitment(s)FormalizationAnalyticaldepictionApplicationFactsTheWeberianProcedureofIdealTypificationPTJ•BSGasMethodology•PageReadingfromlefttoright,theprocedurebeginsin(A)theconcretesphereofvaluesandpurposesinwhichtheresearcherisconcretelylocatedIdealtypificationbeginswiththatresearcher(I)takingavalueladenethicalstand,bywhichsheorhelocateshimorherselfwithrespecttothevaluesandnormsincirculationinherorhissocialcontextThe(B)valuecommitment(s)containedinthisstancearethen(II)formalizedandidealized,inpartbyblendingthemwithempiricalobservationsinordertocreatelimitingcaserepresentations,thusproducingananalyticaldepictionconsistingofoneorseveralidealtypes(C)Thenthatanalyticis(III)consistentlyappliedtospecificempiricalcasesinordertoproduce(D)facts:whatDavidEaston(,)referstoas“particularorderingsofrealityintermsofatheoreticalinterest”Thesefactsarebothdependentonanddistinctfromthevaluecommitmentsthatgroundtheidealtypicalanalyticinthefirstplace:“dependenton”becauseparticularfactualknowledgeclaimsaregeneratedbyaconceptualapparatuswithitsrootsinspecificvaluecommitments,but“distinctfrom”becauseitispossibletoscientificallyevaluateagivenpieceofresearchandthefactsitproducesbyfocusingourattentiononintellectualmovesIIandIII,andessentiallyignoringintellectualmoveIandthespecificcontentsofelementBSeveralthingsarenoteworthyinthisdescriptionoftheprocessFirst,idealtypesarenothinglikepictorialrepresentationsofobjectsorprocessestheyaremorelikedeliberatecaricaturesorpartialsketches,orperhapsspecializedconceptualfiltersthatfocusourscholarlyattentiononparticularaspectsofactuallyexistingthingstothedetrimentofotheraspectsofthosesamethings(Drysdale,Gunnell,)Thevaluecommitmentsatthecoreofanidealtypeensurethatanidealtype,PTJ•BSGasMethodology•Pagewhether“charismaticauthority”or“liberaldemocracy”oreven“publicopinion,”necessarilyfunctionsasawayofexpressingvaluesevenasitcallsattentiontospecificfeaturesoftheactualworldandgathersthemtogetherunderoneconceptualheadingSecond,thisdeliberateslantislessduetoanyputativelydispositionalcharacteristicsoftheobjectunderstudy,andmoretothe“emphaticpointsofview”whatIhavelabeled“valuecommitment(s)”(B)inthediagramabovewhich,inasense,directustofocusonparticularaspectsandnotothersFromthisitfollows,third,thatadifferentresearcher,formalizingdifferentvaluecommitmentsintoadifferentanalyticaldepictionoreventhesamevaluecommitmentsintoadifferentanalyticaldepictionmightwellfocusondifferentaspectsofthesameentityorobject,andtheywouldnotinanysimplesensebe“wrong”fordoingso(Weber,)Finally,sinceidealtypescannotbefalsifiedasonewouldfalsifyahypothesiscomparinganidealtypetotheactualexistenceoftheobjecttheidealtypewasderivedfromwouldinvariably“prove”thattheidealtypewasdescriptivelydeficientinsomerespecttheonlymeaningfulwaytoevaluatewhetheranidealtypeisagoodoneornotispragmatically:ie,toexaminewhether,onceapplied,theidealtypeisefficaciousinrevealingintriguingandusefulthingsabouttheobjectstowhichitisappliedThislastobservationmightbethoughtofastheWeberianequivalentofwhatJohnDeweycalled“thepragmaticrule”“inordertodiscovertheAlongtheselines,notethateverytheoristofbureaucracywhobeginstheiranalysiswitharitualisticpronouncementthatactualbureaucraciesdon’tfunctionlikeWeberianidealtypicalbureaucraciesis,quitebluntly,missingthepointOfcourserealbureaucraciesdon’tlookandfunctionpreciselyliketheiridealtypicalconceptuallimitsItwouldbequitesurprisingiftheydid,anditwouldmostlikelyalsomeanthatthesupposed“idealtype”wasinactualitynosuchthingPTJ•BSGasMethodology•Pagemeaningoftheideaaskforitsconsequences”(,)translatedintothesphereofscientificinquiryAgoodidealtypeisausefulidealtype,anappropriatemeanstotheanalyticalendthatanimatesthescholar’sscientificactivityHenceitisquiteliterallynonsensicaltospeakofanidealtypeitselfasbeing“valid”or“invalid,”becauseinthesphereofscientificanalysisthesetermscannotbeappliedtoanalyticalconstructsonlytoapplications,andthenonlyinatechnicalsenseInthisway,idealtypescanberegardedasprovisionalidealizationsofourvaluecommitmentstheyarenotsimplypuretypes,butremainalwaysandinextricablywrappedupwithculturalandmoralcommitments(Duvall)Butitdoesnotinevitablyfollowthatallresearchersinhabitingthesamecultureortraditionofscientificinquirywillgenerateorbecompelledtousethesamesetofidealtypicalinstrumentsouractualculturesandlivingtraditionsareambiguousandflexibleenoughtobeidealizedandformalizedindifferentways,unlessanduntilhomogeneityisimposedonthem,eitherfromwithinorfromwithout(Shottera,Joas,)Rather,itistheactofselectingandformalizingone’svaluecommitmentsintheprocessofforgingone’sidealtypicaltoolsthataffordstheconstructionofvalidscientificknowledge,whichmeansthatitisalwaysscientificallyappropriatebothtoinquireafterthevaluecommitmentsencodedintoanygivenidealtypeandtoquestionthewayinwhichascholarhasidealizedherdeclaredvaluecommitmentstoaskaboutthecontentofelementBandthedynamicsofmoveIIinthediagramaboveButitisnotscientificallyappropriatetoquestionthespecificvaluesthataresearcherholds,althoughitisofcourseethicallyandevenpoliticallyPTJ•BSGasMethodology•PageappropriatetodosoRecognizingandforegroundingvaluecommitments,andcritiquingthewaythattheyareidealizedintopiecesofconceptualequipment,arelogicallydistinctactivitiesfromtheenterpriseofcriticizingsomeone’svaluesSowhatdoesanyofthishavetodowithBattlestarGalacticaIwanttosuggestthatserialfictionoperatesinawaythatiseerilysimilartothewaythatWeberproposedthatsocialsciencebeconductedThisisparticularlytrueofserialsciencefiction,becauseofitspeculiarsuspensionbetweenactuality(itisarrangedaroundascientificcore,evenifthatcoreitselfcontainsunrealisticorevenbycurrentscienceimpossiblenotionslikefasterthanlighttravel)andunreality(itis,afterall,fiction)The“science”insciencefictionmeanssomethinglikewhatWeberreferredtoasthedisenchantmentoftheworld:wemaynotknowhowparticularmachinesoperate,butweknowthatwecouldfindoutprettyeasily,andthattheanswerwouldn’tinvolvemagicalincantationsor“mysterious,unpredictableforces”butwouldinsteadinvolvecomprehensibleandcalculableprocessesofcontrol(Weber,)Inthisway,sciencefictionTheprecisecharacterofthetransmutationofvaluecommitmentsintoidealtypicalanalyticaldepictionsalsounderpinsWeber’slogicalclaimthatsciencecannotpossiblyresolvevaluequestionsBecausetherecan’tbedefinitivelycorrectvaluesorvaluecommitments,theonlythingsthatsciencecansayaboutanygivenvaluecommitmentarethata)idealizingitinsomeparticularwayisflawedorweakorinternallyincoherent,andb)anidealtypestemmingfromthisvaluecommitmentisnotusefulforcomprehendingsomeparticularcaseorsetofcasesForWeber,theresimplyisnosuperexperientialstandardforeithertheconductorthescientificevaluationofscholarship,andassuchitissimplyinappropriatetoscientificallyrejectastudyonthegroundsthatonedoesnotagreewithitsoperativevaluessolongasthosevalueshavebeenproperlytransmutedintoidealtypes,sothatthestudydoesnotsimplydevolveintoanideologicalrestatementofitspremisesintheguiseofconclusionsOfcourse,onemightethicallyorpoliticallydisagreewithsuchastudy,butthatwouldtakeusoutsideofthepropersphereofscienceIsthisafifthuseofpopularcultureforIRscholarship,supplementingthefourfamouslydelineatedinNeumannandNexonI’mnotsureItmightbeafifthcategory,oritmightbeatwistontheir“mirror”categorythatwouldmoveawayfrompopularcultureasillustrationandtowardspopularcultureasexpressioninparticular,asanexpressionthatcouldbetreatedinparalleltotheexpressionsattheheartofotheridealtypicalmodelsThesuggestionhereisnotthatthepopularculturalproductitselfconstitutesculturalvalues,butthattheprocessofformalizingvaluecommitmentsandsystematicallyapplyingthemtospecificsituationsmightcontributetothe(re)constructionofthosevaluesPTJ•BSGasMethodology•Pagedemandsanparticularkindofinternalconsistency,becausethecraftofbuildingacompellingsciencefictionalworldinvolvesprovidinganonmysticalexplanationforeverythingandrelatingittoanoverarchingsystemofrationaldeductionsfrominitialpremisespreciselywhataWeberiansocialscientistdoeswhencraftingandapplyingidealtypicalconceptualinstrumentstoempiricalcasesDonewell,theresultineithergenreisanadmittedlymadeupworldthatstillfeelsplausible,inpartbecauseitdemandsnoleapsoffaithtoacceptFurther,inbothrealms,theauthorscholarcreatorstartsoffinasphereofculturalvalues,andarticulatessomekindofformalizedversionofasetofthosevaluesAlthoughinthediagramaboveIhavedepictedthisasaconstitutivelyseparatephase,andimpliedthatformalizedvaluecommitmentshavetoappearasanexplicitmodel(Clarke

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