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Physics_of_Space_Security.pdf

Physics_of_Space_Security.pdf

上传者: 墨三氵 2013-12-28 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Physics_of_Space_Securitypdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含ThePhysicsofSpaceSecurityareferencemanualDavidWright,LauraGrego,andLisbeth符等。

ThePhysicsofSpaceSecurityareferencemanualDavidWright,LauraGrego,andLisbethGronlundbyDavidWright,LauraGrego,andLisbethGronlundAllrightsreservedISBN#:TheviewsexpressedinthisvolumearethoseheldbyeachcontributorandarenotnecessarilythoseoftheOfficersandFellowsoftheAmericanAcademyofArtsandSciencesPleasedirectinquiriesto:AmericanAcademyofArtsandSciencesIrvingStreetCambridge,MATelephone:()Fax:()Email:aaasamacadorgVisitourwebsiteatwwwamacadorgContentsxiPREFACESECTIONIntroductionSECTIONPolicyRelevantImplicationsSECTIONTechnicalImplicationsandGeneralConclusionsSECTIONTheBasicsofSatelliteOrbitsSECTIONTypesofOrbits,orWhySatellitesAreWhereTheyAreSECTIONManeuveringinSpaceSECTIONImplicationsofManeuveringforSatelliteMassSECTIONGettingThingsintoSpace:RocketsandLaunchRequirementsSECTIONSpaceBasingSECTIONElementsofaSatelliteSystemSECTIONOverviewofInterferingwithSatelliteSystemsSECTIONTopicsinInterferingwithSatellitesCONTRIBUTORSContentsinDetailPrefacexiSectionINTRODUCTIONSectionPOLICYRELEVANTIMPLICATIONSSectionTECHNICALIMPLICATIONSANDGENERALCONCLUSIONSSectionTHEBASICSOFSATELLITEORBITSMotioninSpacevsMotionintheAtmosphereOrbitalBasicsOrbitalSpeedofSatellitesOrbitalPeriodofSatellitesOrientationofthePlaneoftheOrbitEllipticalOrbitsAPPENDIX:CIRCULARANDELLIPTICALORBITSCircularOrbitsEllipticalOrbitsSectionTYPESOFORBITS,ORWHYSATELLITESAREWHERETHEYARETheConstraintsofGeometryTheMotionofSatellitesRelativetotheSurfaceoftheEarthElevationAngleoftheSatelliteObservableGroundAreaTransmissionTimeEffectsoftheLocalEnvironmentInterferenceRadiationEnvironmentEffectsoftheAtmosphereMoreComplicatedEffectsofGravityCommonOrbitsLowEarthOrbitsCircularMediumEarthOrbitsMolniyaOrbitsTundraOrbitsGeostationaryOrbitsSunSynchronousOrbitsLagrangePointsAPPENDIX:DETAILSOFELEVATIONANGLEANDGROUNDAREAElevationAngleGroundAreaViewedbyaSatelliteSectionMANEUVERINGINSPACEBasicSatelliteManeuversManeuverswithintheOrbitalPlaneChangingtheShapeoftheOrbitChangingtheAltitudeofaSatelliteinaCircularOrbitChangingtheOrbitalPeriodChangingtheRelativeLocationofSatellitesintheSameOrbitManeuversthatChangetheOrbitalPlaneManeuverstoChangeInclinationRotatingtheOrbitalPlaneatConstantInclinationDeorbitingManeuversReentryHeatingStationkeepingAPPENDIX:TECHNICALDETAILSOFMANEUVERINGChangingtheShapeoftheOrbitManeuveringBetweenCircularOrbitsChangingthePeriodofaSatelliteChangingtheInclinationoftheOrbitRotatingtheOrbitalPlaneatConstantInclinationGeneralRotationsDeorbitingStationkeepingSectionIMPLICATIONSOFMANEUVERINGFORSATELLITEMASSSatelliteMassThePotentialImpactofNewTechnologiesConventionalThrustersElectricArcjetThrustersIonThrustersNuclearPropulsionAPPENDIX:THEROCKETEQUATIONDerivationoftheRocketEquationTheTimeRequiredforaManeuverSectionGettingThingsintoSpace:RocketsandLaunchRequirementsUsingMissilestoLaunchPayloadstoHighAltitudes:the“Rule”PuttingObjectsintoOrbitFactorsthatAffectLaunchCapabilityPlacingSatellitesinGeostationaryOrbitAirLaunchingLaunchCostsAppendixA:PotentialandKineticEnergyofSatellitesAppendixB:The“Rule”SectionSPACEBASINGSpaceBasedKineticGroundAttackWeaponsConstellationSizeComparisontoDeliverybyBallisticMissileSpaceBasedBoostPhaseMissileDefenseVulnerabilitiesofSBIConstellationSizeandLaunchRequirementsASATCapabilityofSBITheMilitarySpacePlaneAPPENDIX:COMPARISONOFTHEMILITARYSPACEPLANEVERSUSMULTIPLELAUNCHESDeployingMultipleSatellitesInspectorSatellitesSectionELEMENTSOFASATELLITESYSTEMSatelliteComponentsGroundStationsLinksSectionOVERVIEWOFINTERFERINGWITHSATELLITESYSTEMSElectronicInterference:JammingandSpoofingJammingorSpoofingtheDownlinkJammingorSpoofingtheUplinkLaserAttacksonSatelliteSensorsDazzlingPartialBlindingHighPoweredMicrowaveAttacksDestructionAttacksonGroundStationsLaserAttacksonSatellites:HeatingandStructuralDamageKineticEnergyAttacksElectromagneticPulsefromaHighAltitudeNuclearExplosionAPPENDIXA:LASERPOWERREQUIREDFORDAZZLINGAPPENDIXB:ANGULARSIZE,RESOLUTION,ANDBEAMDIVERGENCEAngularSizeandResolutionBeamDivergenceAPPENDIXC:FRAUNHOFERDIFFRACTIONPATTERNAPPENDIXD:POWERESTIMATEFORLASERBLINDINGSectionTOPICSININTERFERINGWITHSATELLITESSpaceBasedASATsandSpaceMinesCovertSpaceBasedASATsSpaceBasedASATsvsGroundBasedASATsSimpleGroundBasedPellet(NonHoming)ASATUncertaintyinSatellitePositionInaccuracyinPositioningthePelletCloudTimingErrorsResultsoftheCalculationConclusionsTheGlobalPositioningSystemandReconnaissanceSatellitesTheGlobalPositioningSystemReconnaissanceSatellitesAPPENDIX:CALCULATINGTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFAPELLETASATContributorsPREFACExiOverthepastdecadeorso,societiesaroundtheworldhavereliedincreasinglyonsatellitesforvitalcommunicationservices,environmentalmonitoring,navigation,weatherprediction,andscientificresearchThislargelybeneficialtrendisexpectedtointensify:morecountriesaredevelopingsatellitetechnologyandusingtheservicesderivedfromitThesametechnologieshavemadepossiblethedevelopmentofmilitarycapabilitiesinspacethatgofarbeyondthoseemployedduringtheColdWarforintelligencegatheringearlywarningSomeintheUnitedStatesseespaceasacriticalenablerforbringingdecisivemilitaryforcetobearanywhereonEarthwithlittleornowarningThisrapidstrikecapabilityisacentralelementofthepostnationalsecuritystrategy,whichseeksnotonlytodeterordefeatanypotentialaggressorbutalsotopreventtheacquisitionofthreateningcapabilitiesbyhostilestatesorterroristgroupsProtectingandenhancingUSmilitarycapabilityinspaceisemergingasanimportantfocusofmilitaryplanningRecentofficialdocumentshaveproposed,forexample,variousantisatelliteandspacebasedweaponstoprotectandaugmentUScapabilitiesinspaceThesenewmissionsarecontroversialintheviewofcloseUSalliesandarelikelytobecontestedbyothersifpursuedSeriouspublicdiscussionofmilitaryspaceplanshasnotyetoccurredintheUnitedStates,thoughimportantquestionsofpolicy,planningandbudgetingloom:WhatmissionsarebestcarriedoutfromspaceWhatarethelikelycostsandavailablealternativestovariousspaceweaponsproposalsHowsusceptiblearesatellitestointerferenceHoweasilycantheybedisabledordestroyedWhatmeasurescanbetakentoreducetheirvulnerabilityTheanswerstothesequestionsdependonphysicallawsandtechnicalfactsthatarenotwidelyunderstoodoutsideofarathernarrowsliceofthescienceandengineeringcommunityThepaperthatfollowsmakesaccessibletoageneralaudiencethenecessaryfactsuponwhichaninformedevaluationofspacepolicychoicescantakeplaceTheauthors,physicistsDavidWright,LauraGrego,andLisbethGronlund,describethemechanicsofsatelliteorbitsandexplainwhycertainoperationsaresuitedtoparticularorbitsTheydiscusstherequirementsforlaunchingsatellitesintospaceandmaneuveringthemonceinspaceTheyconsidertheconsequencesofthespaceenvironmentforbasingcertainmilitarymissionsthereFinally,theydescribetheelementsofasatellitesystemandassessthevulnerabilityofthesecomponentstovarioustypesofinterferenceordestructionTheyalsoincludeananalysisoftechnicalmeasuresforreducingsatellitevulnerabilityThepapermakesnoattempttoprovidepolicyrecommendationsAlthoughtheauthors’viewsonspaceweaponsandmissiledefensearewellknowntothosewhofollowtheseissues,theyarenotassertedhereInstead,PrefacetheintentistoprovideaneutralreferenceThoseengagedinthepolicyprocess,nomatterwhattheirviews,shouldfindthisworkusefulThispaperispartoftheAmericanAcademy’s“ReconsideringtheRulesofSpace”projectThestudyexaminestheimplicationsofUSpolicyinspacefromavarietyofperspectives,andconsiderstheinternationalrulesandprinciplesneededforprotectingalongtermbalanceofcommercial,military,andscientificactivitiesinspaceTheprojectisproducingaseriesofpapers,intendedtohelpinformpublicdiscussionoflegitimateusesofspace,andinduceafurtherexaminationofUSofficialplansandpoliciesinspaceForthcomingpaperswillconsidertheinteractionofmilitary,scientific,andcommercialactivitiesinspaceChineseandRussianperspectivesonUSspaceplansandthepossibleelementsofamorecomprehensivespacesecuritysystemTheauthorspresentedpartsofthepaperataworkshopconvenedbytheAmericanAcademyanditsCommitteeonInternationalSecurityStudiesinDecemberParticipatingwereBruceBlair,SteveFetter,NancyGallagher,RichardGarwin,SubrataGhoshroy,JoanJohnsonFreese,CarlKaysen,GeorgeLewis,MartinMalin,JonathanMcDowell,NormanNeureiter,PavelPodvig,TheodorePostol,JohnRhinelander,JohnSteinbruner,EugeneSkolnikoff,LarrySWalker,andHuiZhangWethanktheparticipantsfortheirinsightsattheworkshopWealsothankRichardGarwin,GeorgeLewis,andtwoanonymousreviewersfortheircommentsonthepaperWejointheauthorsinthankingSteveFetter,RichardGarwin,GeorgeLewis,PavelPodvig,andWangTingforprovidingadditionalcommentsAndwejointheminacknowledgingHelenCurry,PhyllisBendell,AndreaGrego,andAnitaSpiessfortheireffortsinproducingthisreportWearegratefultotheauthorsfortheirworkonthepaperandtotheUnionofConcernedScientistsforprovidingtheauthorswiththetimeandspacetocarryouttheirworkTheRulesofSpaceprojectattheAmericanAcademyissupportedbyagenerousgrantfromtheCarnegieCorporationofNewYorkWethanktheCarnegieCorporationforitssupportandPatriciaNicholasforherassistanceJohnSteinbrunerCarlKaysenMartinMalinUniversityofMarylandMassachusettsAmericanAcademyofInstituteofTechnologyArtsandSciencesxiiTHEPHYSICSOFSPACESECURITYINTRODUCTIONInthenearlyfiftyyearssincetheSovietUnionlaunchedSputnik,therehasbeenasteadygrowthinthenumberofcountriesthathavelaunchedsatellitesintoorbitGrowingevenfasteristhenumberofcountriesthathavedeployedsatelliteslaunchedbyothersCurrently,satellitesserveamultitudeofcivilianandmilitaryfunctions,fromfacilitatingcommunicationsandweatherforecastingtoprovidinghighlyaccuratenavigationalinformation,andmanynationsenvisionmakingfutureinvestmentsinsatellitesforsuchusesIntheUSmilitarythereisalsoagrowinginterestinbasingweaponsinspaceaswellasindevelopingmeanstoattackthesatellitesofothernationsandtoprotectUSsatellitesfromattackWhilespacehaslongbeenhometomilitarysystemsforobservation,communication,andnavigation,thesenewmissionswouldbeadeparturefromlongheldnormsTherearecurrentlynoknownweaponsstationedinspacethatareexplicitlydesignedtoapplyforceNorarethereanyknowndeployedsystemsdesignedexplicitlytodestroysatellites,eitherfromthegroundorfromspaceThisshiftinUSmilitarythinkingisevidentfromplanningdocumentsreleasedinrecentyearsthatenvisionarestructuringofmilitarycommandsandthedevelopmentanddeploymentofantisatelliteweaponsandspacebasedweaponsThesenewsystemsaremeanttofulfillfourgeneralmissions:•defendingUSsatellitesandensuringUSfreedomtooperateinspace•denyingadversariestheabilitytousespaceassets•interceptingballisticmissilesusingspacebasedinterceptors•attackingtargetsonthegroundorintheairusingspacebasedweaponsThefirsttwomissionsreflectthemilitaryimportanceofcurrentUSspacebasedsystemsThisutilityhasledtoadesiretoprotectthesesystemsandtodenysimilarcapabilitiestopotentialadversariesThethirdmission,anongoinginterestofmanymissiledefenseproponents,isleadingtowardthedeploymentofprototypeweaponsaspartofaspacebased“testbed”Thefourthmission,whichhasattractedconsiderablepublicattentionandconcern,currentlyappearstobeoflessinteresttotheUSmilitarythantheothermissionsSection:IntroductionSee,forexample,ReportoftheCommissiontoAssessUnitedStatesNationalSecurity,SpaceManagementandOrganization,January,,http:wwwfasorgsppmilitarycommissionreporthtm,accessedFebruary,,andAirForceSpaceCommand,“StrategicMasterPlan:FYandBeyond,”October,,http:wwwpetersonafmilhqafspcnewsimagesFYBeyondStrategicMasterPlanpdf,accessedFebruary,USinterestinnewtypesofweaponshasspawnedanemerginginternationaldebateKeytopicsincludewhetherthedeploymentofspacebasedweaponsandantisatelliteweaponsisinevitable,whatmilitaryutilitysuchweaponswouldhave,howtheirdeploymentwouldaffectthesecurityoftheownernationandthewiderinternationalcommunity,whethertheirdeploymentandusewouldinterferewithothermilitaryandcivilianusesofspace,andwhatnormativeandlegalconstraintsontheuseofspacecouldbeagreeduponandenforcedAddressingtheseissuesrequiresassessingawiderangeofpolitical,diplomatic,military,andtechnicalissuesThisreportislimitedtoadiscussionandanalysisofthetechnicalandmilitaryissuesandfocusesonanumberofkeyquestions:WhatcapabilitiescouldantisatelliteweaponsandweaponsinspacerealisticallyprovideWouldthesecapabilitiesbeuniqueHowdotheycomparewithalternativesWhatwouldtheycostWhatoptionswouldbeavailabletonationsseekingtocounterthesecapabilitiesTheanswersdependontechnicalrealitiesthatmustbeconsideredinanypolicyanalysisofspaceweaponsandantisatelliteweaponsUnlessdebateabouttheseissuesisgroundedinanaccurateunderstandingofthetechnicalfactsunderlyingspaceoperations,thediscussionandpolicyprescriptionswillbeirrelevantor,worse,counterproductiveInevaluatingproposedmilitarysystems,itisimportanttodistinguishbetweenconstraintsimposedbyfinancialcost,bytechnology,andbyphysicsThecostofoperatinginspaceisoftenhighrelativetothecostofoperatingintheairoronthegroundWhilecostwillbeimportantinconsideringdevelopmentanddeployment,itmaynotbedecisiveifthesystemcouldprovideauniquecapabilitythatisdeemedimportantAvailabletechnologyplacesimportantlimitsonwhatsystemsarecurrentlyfeasibleforagivencountry,butthoselimitscanchangeovertimeanddonotrepresentfundamentallimitationsThespacebasedlaser,forexample,hassofarachievedpowerlevelswellbelowwhatisrequiredforausableweapon,buttheredonotappeartobefundamentallimitstoincreasingitspowerovertimePhysics,ontheotherhand,placesfundamentallimitsonspaceoperationsthatwillnotchangewithtimeAnexampleofafundamentallimitposedbyphysicsisthefactthatsatellitesinloworbitscannotremainstationaryoveragivenlocationonEarth,somultiplesatellitesarerequiredtoensurethatoneisalwaysnearthatlocationThisreportprovidesinformationonarangeoftechnicalissuesrelatedtospacesystemsthatareimportantforanyoneinvolvedinthedebateoverspacesecuritytounderstandItdiscussesissuesofcostandtechnology,whereTHEPHYSICSOFSPACESECURITYOtherbooksandarticlesthataddresstechnicalissuesrelatedtospacesecurityincludeAshtonBCarter,“SatellitesandAntiSatellites:TheLimitsofthePossible,”InternationalSecurity(Spring):RichardLGarwin,“SpaceTechnology:MythandPromise,”,http:wwwfasorgrlgmythsofspacehtm,accessedFebruary,MichaelJMuoloetal,SpaceHandbook,Volume:AWarFighter’sGuidetoSpace,(MaxwellAirForceBase,AL:AirUniversityPress,December),http:wwwauafmilauawcawcgateauauhtm,accessedFebruary,MichaelJMuoloetal,SpaceHandbook,Volume:AnAnalyst’sGuide,(MaxwellAirForceBase,AL:AirUniversityPress,December)OfficeofTechnologyAssessment,AntiSatelliteWeapons,Countermeasures,andArmsControlappropriate,andattemptstoseparatethesefromthefundamentalissuesofphysicsItiswrittenforalayaudiencebutincludesappendicesthatgivemoredetailedtechnicalinformationforspecialistsThereportisalsointendedtofamiliarizereaderswiththeimportanttechnicalterminologyandconceptsrelatedtosatellitesandoperatinginspaceForexample,thebehaviorofobjectstravelingatveryhighspeedsinspaceismuchdifferentthanthebehaviorofobjectsinmotiononthegroundorintheatmosphereandislargelyoutsidedaytodayhumanexperienceAsaresult,mostpeoplehavenotdevelopedintuitionaboutthebehaviorofsatellites,sothatattemptingtoapplylessonsfromcommonexperiencecanleadtomistakesandmisconceptionsInaddition,thereportshowsthatafewbasiclawsofphysicshaveimportantimplicationsforthewaysatellites,spacebasedweapons,andantisatelliteweaponscanbedesignedandoperatedItexplainstheseunderlyingphysicalprinciplesanddiscussestheirimplicationsThereportaddressestechnicalissuesthatarerelevanttospacepolicy,butdoesnotaddresspolicyissuesperseormakepolicyrecommendationsThereportisnotintendedtobecomprehensivetheomissionofatopicshouldnotbeconstruedtomeanthetopicisnotimportantSectionsandlayoutthemainpointsofthepaperSectionpresentsthereport’sfindingsandconclusionsthathaveimplicationsforspacepolicyanddirectsthereadertothesectionsfromwhichtheseconclusionsarederivedSectionsummarizesthemaintechnicalpointsmadeinthesubsequentsectionsSectionsthroughdiscussbasicconceptsandimplicationsoforbitaldynamicsSectioncoversthebasicsofsatelliteorbitsSectioninventoriesthetypesoforbitsandthecriteriaforchoosingaparticularorbitSectiondiscussesthephysicsofmaneuveringinspaceSectionassessestheimplicationsofthismaneuveringforsatellitemassandSectiondiscussesthephysicsandtechnologyoflaunchingmassintospaceandplacingsatellitesinorbitSectionexaminestheimplicationsofthesetechnicalassessmentsforseveralspecificspacebasedsystemsinparticular,spacebasedconstellationsofgroundattackweapons,spacebasedmissiledefenseinterceptors,andthemilitaryspaceplane

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