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首页 Impacts_of_Shale_Gas_Development_on_Bats.pdf

Impacts_of_Shale_Gas_Development_on_Bats.pdf

Impacts_of_Shale_Gas_Developmen…

上传者: 136*****463@sina.cn 2013-12-28 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Impacts_of_Shale_Gas_Development_on_Batspdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含ImpactsofShaleGasDevelopmentonBatPopulationsintheNortheasternUnitedStatesI符等。

ImpactsofShaleGasDevelopmentonBatPopulationsintheNortheasternUnitedStatesIndianabat(Myotissodalis)Photocredit:BatConservationInternationalAreportsubmittedtoTheDelawareRiverkeeperNetworkBristol,PAbyBatConservationInternationalAustin,TXJuneReportCitationHein,CDPotentialimpactsofshalegasdevelopmentonbatpopulationsinthenortheasternUnitedStatesAnunpublishedreportsubmittedtotheDelawareRiverkeeperNetwork,Bristol,PennsylvaniabyBatConservationInternational,Austin,TexasPhotoaccessedFebruaryfromhttp:towneforcongresscomeconomysolutionswithhydraulicfracturingACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThankstoMayaKvanRossum(DelawareRiverkeeperNetwork)andMollieMatteson(CenterforBiologicalDiversity)forprovidingbackgroundinformation,andrelevantreportsandotherdocumentationusefulincreatingthisreportSpecialthankstoJaneDavenportandTracyCarluccio(DelawareRiverkeeperNetwork),EdArnett(TheodoreRooseveltConservationPartnership),KatieGillies(BatConservationInternational)forprovidinginsightfulreviewsofthisreportBACKGROUNDNaturalgasdevelopmentfromshaleisrapidlyexpandingacrosstheUS(GroundWaterProtectionCouncilGWPCandALLConsulting)Shalegasreservoirs,orplays,aredistributedacrossthecountry(Fig)andcanbefoundatdepthsrangingfrom–,meters(m)ThemostproductiveplaysincludetheBarnett,Haynesville,Fayetteville,WoodfordandMarcellusShales(Zobacketal)InthenortheasternUS,theDevonian,Marcellus,andUticashalesextendacrossseveralstatesandarelocatedwithintheAppalachianBasinProvince(Colemanetal)FigureLocationandsizeofshalegasreservoirs,orplays,intheUnitedStatesSource:USEnergyInformationAdministration(USEIA)basedonpublisheddataTheprocessofproducingnaturalgasfromshaleandotherunconventionalreservoirs(ie,formationswithlowpermeabilityandporosity)requiresfracturingtherockformationInhighvolumehydraulicfracturing(HVHF)operations,highlypressurizedfluid,consistingofwaterandvariouschemicals,isusedtocreatethesefracturesSuspendedinthefluidisaproppingagent,typicallysand,whichmaintainstheopeningsandallowsgastomigratetothewell(Carteretal,Entrekinetal)Toincreasethevolumeofrockaccessedbyasingleverticalwell,operatorsrotatethedrillandborehorizontallythroughtheshalebedUptofifteenseparateHVHFoperationsarepossibleperwell(Kargboetal)OBJECTIVESConcernsregardingthepotentialimpactstohumansandtheenvironmenthavegrowninconjunctionwiththerapidexpansionofshalegasdevelopmentIssuesregardingwaterwithdrawal,watercontamination,habitatlossanddegradation,impactstoterrestrialandaquaticecosystems,andgreenhousegas(GHG)emissionssurroundHVHFoperationsMoreover,nodataexistonthepossibleadverseinfluencetheseoperationshaveonbatpopulationsBecauseofrecentconcernsregardingrapidlydecliningbatpopulationsinthenortheasternUS,thereisincreasingconcernabouttheadditiveeffectsHVHFoperationscouldhaveonalreadyimperiledbatspeciesThisreportwillfocusontheenvironmentaleffectsassociatedwithshalegasdevelopmentandthepotentialimpactstobatpopulationsintheregionENVIRONMENTALIMPACTSWaterwithdrawalTheHVHFprocessrequireslargevolumesofwaterperwelltofractureshaleformationsEstimatesrangingfromtomilliongallonsofwaterareusedperoperation,dependingonconditionsofthesite(NYDEC,SusquehannaRiverBasinCommissionSRBC,USEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyUSEPA)In,theestimated,fracturedwellsacrosstheUSusedbetween–billiongallonsofwater,equivalenttothetotalamountwithdrawnfromdrinkingresourceseachyearby–citieswithpopulationsof,people,or–citiesofmillionpeople(Halliburton,USEPA)Sourcewatercomesfromeithersurface(eg,streamsorlakes)orgroundwater(eg,aquifers)Watercanbewithdrawnfromanearbysourceortransportedbytrucksorapipeline,andstoredonsitebylargetanksorimpoundments(GWPCandALLConsulting)Becausegroundandsurfacewaterarehydraulicallyconnected,changesinthequantityandqualitytoonelikelyinfluencetheother(Winteretal)InthenortheasternUS,shaleformations(eg,Devonian,Marcellus,andUtica)underlieanumberofsensitivewatersheds,suchastheupperDelawareRiver,adesignatedWildandScenicRiverthatsuppliesdrinkingwaterto>millionpeopleStakeholderconcernsincludethehighrateofwaterremovalfromsmallstreamsattheheadwatersofthesewatersheds(Maclinetal,Myers)WithdrawalsoflargequantitiesofwaterattheselocationscansignificantlyaffectthehydrologyandhydrodynamicsofsurfacewaterresourcesChangesinwaterdepthcanaltertheflowregime,velocity,andtemperatureofsprings,streamsandlakes,affectinginsitufloraandfauna(Zornetal)Additionally,removalofsignificantvolumesofwatercanreducethedilutioneffectandincreasetheconcentrationofcontaminantsinsurfacewater(PennsylvaniaStateUniversity)Groundwaterresources(eg,aquifers)alsoaretappedforHVHFoperationsRapidwithdrawalfromaquiferscanlowerthewatertablelevels,changingwaterqualitybyexposingnaturallyoccurringmineralstoanoxygenrichenvironment,potentiallycausingchemicalchangesthataltermineralsolubilityandmobility,leadingtosalinationofwaterandotherchemicalcontaminationsLowerwatertablesalsomaycauseupwellingoflowerqualitywaterandothersubstances(eg,methane)fromdeeperwithinanaquiferandcouldleadtosubsidenceordestabilizationofthelocalgeology(USEPA)WatercontaminationandtoxicexposuresInadditiontowater,HVHFfluidstypicallyincludeacombinationofadditivesthatserveasfrictionreducers,crosslinkers,breakers,surfactants,biocides,pHadjusters,scaleinhibitors,andgellingagents(NewYorkStateDepartmentofEnvironmentalConservationNYSDEC)Thegoalistoachieveanidealviscositythatencouragesfracturingoftheshaleandimprovesgasflow,whilediscouragingmicrobialgrowthandcorrosionwhichcaninhibitrecoveryefficiency(USDepartmentofEnergyUSDOE)ThepercentageofchemicaladditivesinatypicalHVHFoperationis<byvolumebutcanreachashighasbyvolume(SoederandKappel,NYSDEC)Thus,anHVHFoperationusingmilliongallonsofwatercanuse,to,gallonsofchemicaladditivesThetypesandconcentrationsofchemicaladditiveandproppantsvarydependingonconditionsofthespecificwellbeingfractured,andcompaniestypicallycreatefracturingfluidtailoredtothespecificsoftheformationandneedsoftheproject(USEPA)TheNewYorkStateDepartmentofConservation()listschemicalsproposedforuseinthestatebyshalegasdevelopers,includingproductsinhydraulicfracturingfluids,containinguniquechemicalsandatleastadditionalcompoundsIn,theUSHouseofRepresentativesCommitteeonEnergyandCommercelaunchedaninvestigationexaminingHVHFpracticesTheCommitteefoundthat“betweenand,oilandgasservicecompaniesusedmorethan,additives,containingchemicalsandothercomponents”,including“chemicalsthatare:()knownorpossiblehumancarcinogens()regulatedundertheSafeDrinkingWaterActfortheirriskstohumanhealthor()listedashazardousairpollutantsundertheCleanAirAct”(Waxman)TheCommitteerevealedthatovertheyearperiodtheseadditivesincludedlead,ethyleneglycol,benzene,toluene,andxylenecompoundsMoreover,theinvestigationreportedthatovermilliongallonsofdieselfuel,oneoftheonlyadditivesregulatedbytheSafeDrinkingWaterAct,wereinjectedacrossnineteenstatesWastewaterisgeneratedduringtheHVHFprocessintheformofflowback(ie,fluidreturnedtothesurfaceafterHVHFhasoccurred,butbeforethewellisplacedintoproduction)andproducedwater(ie,thefluidreturnedafterthewellisplacedintoproduction)(USEPA)Duringinjection,HVHFfluidscomeincontactwiththebedrock,oftenaffectingthemobilityofnaturallyoccurringsubstancesinthesubsurface,particularlyinthehydrocarboncontainingformationThesesubstancesincludeformationfluids(eg,brineorsodiumchloridePiggotandElsworth),gases(eg,methane,ethane,carbondioxide,hydrogensulfideZobacketal),traceelements(eg,mercury,lead,arsenicHarper,LeventhalandHosterman,Tuttleetal,Vejahatietal),naturallyoccurringradioactivematerial(eg,radium,thorium,uranium:LeventhalandHosterman,Harper,Tuttleetal,Vejahatietal)andorganicmaterial(eg,acids,polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons,benzene,toluene,xyleneURSCorporation,NYSDEC)Someofthesesubstancesmaybeliberatedfromtheformationviacomplexbiogeochemicalreactionswiththechemicaladditivesfoundinhydraulicfracturingfluid(LongandAngino,Falketal)NewYorktestedflowbackfromMarcellusShalegasproductioninPennsylvaniaandWestVirginiaandfoundchemicals,manyofwhicharehealthhazardsandareregulatedviaprimaryandsecondarydrinkingwaterstandards(NYSDEC)AlistofchemicalsidentifiedinflowbackandproducewaterispresentedinUSEPA(TableE)EstimatesforrecoveryoffracturingfluidinflowbackfortheMarcellusShalerangefrom–(Arthuretal)Thephysicalandchemicalpropertiesofwastewatervarywithfracturingfluid,geographiclocation,geologyandtime(Veiletal,ZielinskiandBudahn,Zobacketal,Rowanetal)Duringorpriortotreatment,flowbackandproducedwateroftenareretainedonsiteinstoragetanks,openairimpoundmentsorevaporationponds(GWPCandALLCorporation)Later,thesefluidsaretransportedtotreatmentfacilities,injectedunderground,ordischargedtowaterwaysandtheenvironmentUndergroundinjectionistheprimarymethodofwastewaterdisposalfromallmajorplays,exceptfortheMarcellusShale(Horn,Veil,)Forsomeoperations,fluidsaretransportedtowastewatertreatmentatpubliclyownedtreatmentworksorcommercialwastewatertreatmentfacilitiesHowever,fewfacilitiesarecapableoftreatingfluidscontainingdangerouscontaminants(eg,radioactivematerials),brine(highsalinityfluids),anduniquecompounds,whichoftenareexpensivetoremove,generatedbyHVHFoperations(Veil,USGeneralAccountingOfficeUSGAO)ContaminationfromwastewatercanoccuratanytimeduringoperationsLargeHVHFoperationsrequireextensivequantitiesofsupplies,equipment,andvehicles,whichmayincreasetherisksofaccidentalreleases,suchasspillsorleaksSurfacespillsorreleasescanoccurasaresultoftankruptures,impoundmentfailures,overfills,vandalism,accidents,orimproperoperationsReleasedfluidsalsomayflowintonearbysurfacewaterbodiesorinfiltrateintothesoilandnearsurfacegroundwater(NYSDEC)Entrekinetal()reportedthatofMarcellusShalegaswellsarelocatedwithinmofriparianareasandarewithinmRegulatingtherapidexpansionofHVHFoperationsisproblematicandviolationsarecommon(Entrekinetal)Forexample,betweenJanuaryandDecemberatotalof,violationsofenvironmentallawsbydifferentMarcellusShalegasdrillingcompanieswerereportedbythePennsylvaniaDepartmentofEnvironmentalProtectionOfthese,,violationsofthesethatlikelyposedadirectthreattoourenvironmentandwerenotreportingorpaperworkviolations(Staaf)Theabilityofnaturallyoccurringbuttoxicsubstancesorfracturingfluidstoreachgroundorsurfacewatersispossibleiffracturesextendbeyondthetargetformationandreachaquifers,orthecasingorcementaroundwellsfailscausingcontaminantstomigrateintodrinkingwater(USEPA)Contaminationalsocanoccurthroughmismanagementandimproperoperatingprocedures,inadequatewastetreatmentpractices,improperstorage,orinadequatelyconstructedimpoundmentsorwellcasingsOccurrencesofimproperwellconstructionandoperation,allowingsubsurfacepathwaysforcontaminantmigrationresultinginwaterpollutionhavebeenreported(StateofColoradoOilandGasConservationCommissiona,b,c,PADEP,USAEPA,McMahonetal)AstudyintheMarcellusShaleregionconcludedthatmethanegaswasseventeentimeshigherinwaterwellsclosertonaturalgaswells(Osborneetal)TheconcentrationofmethaneinthesewellsfellwithinthedefinedactionlevelforhazardmitigationrecommendedbytheUSOfficeoftheInterior(Eltschlageretal)Sublethalimpactsofshalegasdevelopmentalsomayadverselyinfluenceaquaticenvironmentsandinterferewithecologicalinteractions,suchaswholestreammetabolism,decompositionoforganicmatterandaccrualofmacroinvertebratebiomass(EvansWhiteandLamerti)Landclearingduringwellpadandinfrastructure(eg,roadsandpipelines)development,andincreasedroadtrafficthroughoutoperationscanincreasesedimentrunoffintoadjacentstreams,lakesandwetlands(Williamsetal,Entrekinetal)Excessivesedimentinaquatichabitatsresultsinhigherlevelsofsuspendedandbenthicparticles,whichmayreducestreamflow,alterlight,temperature,dissolvedoxygen,andpHlevels,anddegradespawninghabitatformacroinvertebrateinsects(WoodandArmitage,Williamsetal)Reductionsinfeedingefficienciesortheavailabilityandabundanceofpreycanleadtonegativeeffectsonreproductionandgrowthofhighertrophiclevelanimals(Peckarsky,SandheinrichandAtchison,BurkheadandJelks)Moreovertheintroductionofchemicalsassociatedwithshalegasdevelopment(ie,HVHFfluidsandwastewater)canleadtoadeclineinproductionbyeliminatingsensitivetaxarepresentingamajorityofcommunitygrowthandorbiomass(WoodcockandHuryn)HabitatlossanddegradationHabitatlossordegradationiscommonlyassociatedwithanthropogenicactivities,includingthoseoftheoilandgasindustryHistorically,withverticaldrilling,onewellpadequaledonewell,buthorizontaldrillingallowsformultiplewellsperwellpad(GWPCandALLConsulting)However,withtherapidexpansionofthisenergysector,hundredsofthousandsofwellsitesareprojectedoverthenexttwentyyears,manyofwhichareslatedforforesthabitatForMarcellusShaleoperationsinPennsylvania,anaverage,acres(hectaresha)ofhabitatarerequiredforeachwellpadandassociatedinfrastructure(eg,storageareas,roadsandpipelinecorridors)(Johnson)ThecumulativeimpactofalloperationsinaregioncanresultinlandscapelevelchangesinhabitatForexample,theprojectednumberofwellsbyinPennsylvaniaalonerangesfrom,to,(Johnson)Giventhatnearlytwothirdsofthesewellsareexpectedtooccuronforestlands,thepotentialareaofforesttobeclearedvariesfrom,acres(,ha)to,acres(,ha)Additionalhabitatlossislikelyasotherformations,suchastheUticaShale,aredevelopedDamagetoforesthabitatcanoccurfrommechanicalclearingduringsitedevelopmentandfrommismanagementofwastewaterAttheUSForestServiceFernowExperimentalForest,damagetoovertwodozentreesandgroundvegetationadjacenttoawellpadoccurredwhenHFfluidescapedthewellboreduringdrilling(Adamsetal)ThereleaseoffluiddriftedovertheimmediateareacausingbrowningoffoliageandlossofleavesandgroundvegetationAmajorcomponentoftheHFfluid,andlikelycauseofdamage,atthissitewashydrochloricacid(byvolume)Subsequenttothisaccident,fluidswereexperimentallyappliedtoforestpatchesTemporalandspatialdevelopmentoftheapplicationssuggestedthatdirectcontactanduptakefromthesoilbytherootsresultedindetrimentaleffectsAtotaloftrees(species)wereaffectedTheapplicationresultedinamuchmoreopencanopythaneithercontrolorrecentlyburnedplots,resultinginsignificantlymorelightpenetrationRemovalofforesthabitat,regardlessofmethod,createsanassociatededgeeffectrangingfrom–mintotheinteriorforeststandIncreasinglightandwindexposure,andchangingtemperaturecanaltervegetationdynamics,causingavoidancebymanybirds,mammals,reptilesandamphibians(Gibbs,Flashpohleretal,MarshandBeckman)Disturbedareasalsoaremorevulnerabletoinvasiveplants(MeekingandMcCarthy,Harperetal)Furthermore,thedistributionofclearingswillincreaseforestfragmentation,resultinginspeciesisolationandlossofgeneticdiversity(Leeetal)InPennsylvania,Johnson()estimatedanadditionalacres(ha)ofinteriorforesthabitatwouldbeaffectedforeveryacres(ha)ofclearedforestforMarcellusShaledevelopmentThus,atotalofdirectandindirectimpactstoforesthabitatcouldequalacres(ha)perwellpad,resultingin,to,acres(,–,ha)offoresthabitatlossordegradation(Johnson)Drohanetal()indicatedthislevelofimpactwasenoughtosubstantiallyalterthePennsylvanialandscapeGreenhousegasemissionsDuringcombustion,naturalgasemitslesscarbondioxide(agreenhousegasGHG),nitrogenoxideandsulfuroxide(twocontaminantscontributingtoacidrain)thancoal(Entrekinetal)However,duringextraction,shalegasdevelopmentproducesconsiderableamountsofmethane,amajorcomponentofnaturalgasandapowerfulGHG(Howarthetal)TheamountoffugitiveemissionsofmethaneintotheatmosphereduringHVHFoperationscomparedtoconventionaloperationsmaycontributemoretoglobalwarmingthanotherfossilfueldevelopment(USEPA)Howarthetal()calculatethatduringthelifecycleofanaverageshalegaswell,–ofthetotalproductionofthewellisemittedtotheatmosphereasmethane,whichisatleasttoasgreatasestimatedforaconventionalwellMethanedominatestheGHGfootprintforshalegasonayrtimehorizon,contributing–timesmorethandoescarbondioxideemission,resultinginaGHGfootprintforshalegasat–greaterthanthatforconventionalgasPOTENTIALIMPACTSTOBATSBatsofthenortheasternUSareinsectivorousandaretheprimaryconsumersofnocturnalarthropods,includingmanyagriculturalandforestpestsGiventherelativelylargevolumesofinsectsconsumed(uptoofbatsbodymassnightKurtaetal)andextensiveforaginghomeran

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