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首页 ASTM F2411 – 04

ASTM F2411 – 04.pdf

ASTM F2411 – 04

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2013-12-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《ASTM F2411 – 04pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

Designation:F–StandardSpecificationforDesignandPerformanceofanAirborneSenseandAvoidSystemThisstandardisissuedunderthefixeddesignationFthenumberimmediatelyfollowingthedesignationindicatestheyearoforiginaladoptionor,inthecaseofrevision,theyearoflastrevisionAnumberinparenthesesindicatestheyearoflastreapprovalAsuperscriptepsilon(e)indicatesaneditorialchangesincethelastrevisionorreapprovalScopeThefollowingrequirementscoverthedesignandperformanceofairbornesenseandavoid(SA)systemsThisspecificationincludesrequirementstosupportdetectionof,andsafeseparationfrom,airborneobjectssuchasmannedorunmannedaircraftandairvehiclesThisspecificationappliestothemanufacturerofanapplianceseekingcivilaviationauthorityapproval,intheformofflightcertificates,flightpermits,orotherlikedocumentation,asprovidinganequivalentlevelofsafetytotheseeandavoidcapabilityofamannedaircraftThisspecificationisnotintendedtoapplytothedesignandperformanceofcooperativeSAsystemsExistingstandardsandguidanceshouldbereferencedforspecificationsdescribingthesetransponderorbroadcastbasedsystems(examplesofexistingguidanceandstandardsforcooperativeSAsystemsincludeFAAA,RTCADO,andTSOCB)ThisspecificationisnotintendedtoapplytomultipleairborneobjectsflyinginformationflightThisstandarddoesnotpurporttoaddressallofthesafetyconcerns,ifany,associatedwithitsuseItistheresponsibilityoftheuserofthisstandardtoestablishappropriatesafetyandhealthpracticesanddeterminetheapplicabilityofregulatorylimitationspriortouseReferencedDocumentsCodeofFederalRegulations(CFR):CFRGeneralOperatingandFlightRules–ApplicabilityCFRGeneralOperatingandFlightRules–RightofWayRules:ExceptWaterOperationsCFRGeneralOperatingandFlightRules–CompliancewithATCClearancesandInstructionsFederalAviationAdministration(FAA)Publications:FAAGeneralAviationOperationsInspector’sHandbookFAAPHowtoAvoidaMidairCollisionFAACAdvisoryCircular–Pilots’RoleinCollisionAvoidanceFAAAAdvisoryCircular–AirworthinessApprovalofTrafficAlertandCollisionAvoidanceSystems(TCASII)andModeSTranspondersTSOCBTrafficAlertandCollisionAvoidanceSystem(TCAS)AirborneEquipmentICAOPublications:ICAORulesoftheAir–AnnexRTCAPublications:DOMinimumAviationSystemPerformanceStandards(MASPS)forAircraftSurveillanceApplications(ASA)TerminologyDefinitions:airborneobject,nanyobjectthatisoperatingintheairspaceairspaceofoperations,nallclassesofairspaceinwhichasystemisintendedtooperateclosingvelocity,nrateofchangeofthedecreasingdistancebetweentwoobjectscollisionthreat,nhazardconsistingofamannedorunmannedaircraft,airvehicle,orotherairborneobjectcooperativeSAsystem,nsystemcapableofcommunicatingwithsystemsonboardotheraircraft,airvehicles,orairborneobjectsinordertofacilitatedetectionorcoordinateresolutionmaneuvers,orbothdetectiondistance,ndistanceatwhichanSAsystemcanperceiveapotentialcollisionthreatThisspecificationisunderthejurisdictionofASTMCommitteeFonUnmannedAirVehicleSystemsandisthedirectresponsibilityofSubcommitteeFonAirworthinessCurrenteditionapprovedJune,PublishedJuneAvailablefromUSGovernmentPrintingOfficeSuperintendentofDocuments,NCapitolSt,NW,MailStop:SDE,Washington,DCAvailablefromFederalAviationAdministration(FAA),IndependenceAve,SW,Washington,DCAvailablefromInternationalCivilAviationOrganization(ICAO),UniversitySt,Montreal,QuebecHCH,CanadaAvailablefromRTCA,Inc,LStreet,NW,Suite,Washington,DCCopyright©ASTMInternational,BarrHarborDrive,POBoxC,WestConshohocken,PA,UnitedStatesfieldofregard(FOR),nareacapableofbeingperceivedormonitoredbyasensor,orboth,specifiedintermsofazimuthandelevationfromthefixedbodyreferenceframeoftheSAplatformmissdistance,ndistancebetweentwoormoreaircraft,airvehicles,orairborneobjectsattheirclosestpointofapproachnoncooperativeSAsystem,nsystemthatiscapableofdetectingaircraft,airvehicles,orotherairborneobjectsthatdonothaveacooperativeSAsystemplatform,nmannedorunmannedaircraft,airvehicle,orotherairborneobjectonwhichtheSAsystemisintendedtooperateresolutionmaneuver,nintentionalchangeinanaircraft,airvehicle,orotherairborneobject’sflightpath,velocity,oraltitude,oracombinationthereof,toavoidacollisionthreatSAsysteminfrastructure,nsystemofsystemsconsistingoftheSAsystem,pilot(s),orrelatedsystems,oracombinationthereof,combinedwiththeairtrafficcontrolinfrastructureinplaceonthegroundandinorbit,thatisintendedtoprovidesafeseparationoftwoormoreairborneobjectsscanrate,ntimebetweensuccessivesurveysoftheentirefieldofregardforpotentialcollisionthreatssenseandavoid(SA),vprocessofdeterminingthepresenceofpotentialcollisionthreats,andmaneuveringclearofthemthemechanicalequivalenttothephrase“seeandavoid”forthepilotofamannedaircraftsenseandavoidsystem,nappliancewhichfulfillstherequirementsofCFRPerformanceRequirementsGeneralPerformanceAllperformancerequirementsapplyinandshallbecorrectedtoInternationalCivilAviationOrganization(ICAO)definedstandardatmosphereSpeedsshallbegivenintrueairspeed(TAS)innauticalmilesperhour(knots)Sensing:DetectionDistanceDetectionofthecollisionthreatshallbeatarangetoallowaresolutionmaneuverthatresultsinarequiredmissdistanceofftorgreater(seeFAA)FieldofRegard:AzimuthItshallbedemonstratedthattheSAsystemcansearchfrom°referencedfromtheSAplatform’sbodyframeofreferenceElevationItshallbedemonstratedthattheSAsystemcansearchfrom°referencedfromtheSAplatform’sbodyframeofreferenceLatencyItshallbedemonstratedthatthetimebetweendetectionofacollisionthreatandinitiationofaresolutionmaneuverdoesnotcompromisetherequiredmissdistancespecificationThistimelatencymayinclude,butisnotlimitedto:Communicationdelays,Scanrates,Pilotintheloopreactiontimes,Coordinationwithairtrafficcontrolauthorities,andOnboardorgroundbasedprocessingtimeforcollisionavoidanceorflightcontrolalgorithmsAvoidance:TraffıcResolutionmaneuversshallachievetherequiredmissdistancefromallaircraft,airvehicles,andotherairborneobjectsthatare:EquippedwithcooperativeSAsystems(acooperativeflightenvironment),andNotequippedwithcooperativeSAsystems(anoncooperativeflightenvironment)Resolutionmaneuversmayincludeoneormoreofthefollowingchangesinflightprofile:Altitude,Heading,andAirspeedIfanyresolutionmaneuverdeviatesfromanairtrafficcontrolclearanceorinstruction,airtrafficcontrolshallbenotifiedofthedeviationassoonaspossible(seeCFR)Whenthepotentialformultiplecollisionthreatsexists,theresolutionmaneuvertoavoidonecollisionthreatshallbeplannedandexecutedtoreducetheoccurrenceofsubsequentormorehazardousconditions,orbothManeuveringForstraightflightandturnsineitherdirectionduringclimb,cruise,anddescent,itshallbeshownthat:AllresolutionmaneuversarewithinthestructuralandaerodynamicperformancelimitationsoftheSAsystemandplatformatallflightconditionsandprofilesTheSAplatformissafelycontrollableandmaneuverableduringallphasesoftheresolutionmaneuverfrominitiationtoitsreturntoanoriginalornewlyassignedflightpathandaltitudeAllmaneuverstoreturntoanoriginalornewlyassignedflightpathandaltitudecomplywithcurrentrightofwayrulesforaircraft,airvehicles,andotherairborneobjectsinaccordancewithCFRThisappliestobothautonomousandpilotinitiatedmaneuversNonemergencymaneuversforcourseoraltitudechanges,orboth,donotcompromisetheperformanceoftheSAsystemProofofCompliance:Theserequirementsshallbemetatthemostcritical(forexample,highest)closingvelocitiesandmostunfavorable(forexample,climbing,descending)flightprofilesTotheextentthattheSAsystemmayoperateinallweatherconditions,itwillbeevaluatedintheleastfavorableflightconditionstoincludeminimumVisualMeteorologicalConditions(VMC)andInstrumentMeteorologicalConditions(IMC)FAAPsuggeststhatazimuthFORbe°offtheaircraftnoseICAOAnnexspecifies°offtheaircraftnoseFAAPsuggeststhatelevationFORbe°fromtheaircraft’sbodyframeofreferenceDepartmentofDefenseandNASAstudiesindicate°isanappropriatethresholdF–ThecharacteristicsoutlinedaremeanttoserveasasetofminimalperformancerequirementsforSAsystemsPerformancethatexceedsthesespecificationsareacceptable,butexceedingperformanceinoneareashallnotsubstituteforalackofperformanceinanotherProofofPerformance:ComplianceoftheSAsystemshallbedemonstratedthroughsimulatedcollisionsinvolvingtheSAplatformTheperformanceofanySAsystemonwhichoverallsafeflightisdependentshallbeprovenbydemonstrationMethodsofdemonstrationmayinclude:Flighttest,Analyticalmodelingandsimulation,andAnothermethodmutuallyagreeduponbetweenthecognizantcertificationauthoritiesandthemanufacturer(s)ofSAsystemDetectionandavoidancewiththerequiredmissdistanceshallbeshownforcombinationsofthefollowingflightprofilesandcollisiongeometries:ForcoaltitudecollisionthreatswithaperceivedpositionwithintherequiredFORof°,°,°,°,°,°,and°azimuthForclimbingdescendingcollisionthreatswithaperceivedpositionwithintherequiredFORof°,°,and°elevationForminimum,maximum,andtypicalcruisespeedsoftheSAplatformForcollisionthreatspeedsresultinginclosingvelocitiesthatarerepresentativeofallthoselikelytobeencounteredintheSAplatform’sairspaceofoperationsForcollisionthreatsizesthatarerepresentativeofallthoselikelytobeencounteredintheSAplatform’sairspaceofoperationsDesignandConstructionPowerSupply:PowerconsumptionoftheSAsystemshallbelowenoughtooperatefromprimaryplatformpowerorauxiliarypowerduring:Theentiremission(taxi,takeoff,inflight,landing)withoutcompromisingthesafeoperationofotherplatformsubsystems,andRegulargroundbasedtestinginsupportofverification,validation,andsystemdiagnosticsThepowersupplyforinflightoperationoftheSAsystemcanbefromasourceindependentoftheplatform’sprimarypowersubsystemCommunication:Itshallbedemonstratedthatintheeventofalossofdirectcommand,control,orcommunication,oracombinationthereof,withtheSAplatform,aresolutionmaneuverinaccordancewithwillstillbesafelyexecutedwhenrequiredThebandwidthrequirementforSAsystemsthatrequiredownlinkoruplinkcommandandcontroldatalinks,orboth,shallnotcompromisesafeoperationofotherplatformsubsystemsLoadsTheSAsystemshallwithstandthemaximumloadfactorgeneratedbytheplatformSubsystemIntegration:Althoughpresentedasindividualsubsystemsinthisspecification,thedetectionandavoidancehardwareandsoftwarecanbeintegratedintoasinglesubsystemforcostorperformanceenhancements,orbothTheSAsystemshallnotimpedetheoperationofanyplatformsubsystemcriticaltosafeoperationTheSAsystemdesignshouldeliminateprobablemalfunctionsorfailuresthatcouldpropagateintothesesystemsTheSAsystemoperationshallnotbeimpededbyplatformsubsystemsunrelatedtosenseandavoidSAsystemsretroactivelyaddedtoanairbornecapableobjectinordertoconformtothisspecificationshallnotadverselyaffectthefollowingproperties:Stabilityandcontrol(forexample,weightandbalance),andOverallplatformreliabilityDataOutputAllofthedataelementsnecessaryfortheinteroperabilityoftheSAsystemwiththeplatform,pilot(s),orairtrafficcontrol,oracombinationthereof,shallbeidentifiedandprovidedinacompatibleformfortheenduseoruserHumanSystemsInterface:OperationofanSAsystemshallnotincreasepilotworkloadsuchthat:Additionalflightcrewmembersarerequired,andPrimarymissionobjectivesarecompromisedduringtimesofnonemergencyAnaudibleorvisualalarmorothermethodofnotificationtothepilot(s)shallaccompanyanydetectionofacollisionthreatandsubsequentinitiationofaresolutionmaneuverTheSAsystemshallprovideaclearmethodtoalertitspilot(s)orgroundcrew,orboth,regardingitsoperationalstatustoindicate:Fullyfunctionalstatus,andDiagnosticinformationifthesystemisnotfullyfunctionalSensorConfiguration:TheSAsensorshallbelocatedonboardtheaircraft,airvehicle,orairborneobjectTherequiredFORmaybescannedbysingleormultiplesensorsProofofComplianceThemanufacturer(s)oftheSAsystemshallcoordinatewiththecognizantcertificationauthoritiestoobtainconcurrenceonanacceptablemeansofcompliancewiththesespecificationsCompliancemaybeprovenbyconservativeanalysis,test,oranothermutuallyagreeduponmethodReliabilityandMaintenanceAccessibilityTheSAsystemcomponentsshallbeaccessibleforroutineinspection,maintenance,repair,andreplacementasneededEnvironmentTheSAsystemshalldemonstratetheabilitytooperateinthesameconditionsasthoseintendedforitsplatformtoinclude:Weather,Altitude,Daytimenighttime,andF–Airspaceofoperations(forexample,congestion,airtrafficcontrolrequirements)OperatingLimitationsTheoperatinglimitationsandrelatedperformanceinformationoftheSAsystemshallbeestablishedandmadeavailabletothepilot(s)andairtrafficcontrolauthoritiesasrequiredtofacilitatesafeoperationFailureRate:Themanufacturer(s)oftheSAsystemshallberesponsibleforidentifyingandclassifyingthemajorfailuremodesthatcancompromisetheperformanceoftheSAsystemoritsplatformTheSAsysteminfrastructureshallhaveanoverallcriticalfailurerateofnomorethanpermillionflighthours,whichisequivalenttothelevelofsafetyofmannedgeneralaviationMethodsbywhichthisfailureratecanbeachievedinclude,butarenotlimitedto:HighcomponentreliabilityorperformanceoftheSAsystem,orboth,andRiskmitigatingoperatingproceduresorenvironmentsfortheSAplatform,orbothNOTEThecriticalfailurerateofthemannedSAsysteminfrastructureforgeneralaviationisknownitistherateofmidaircollisionsperyear(permillionflighthours)Thisvalueisbasedonthemidaircollisionstatisticsforgeneralaviationaircraft,whichhasthehighesthistoricalincidenceofmidaircollisions(thatis,highestfailurerateofallmannedSAsysteminfrastructures)TableprovidestheyearstatisticsusedtocalculatethisrateTheconsequenceofexceedingthisrateisthatthesenseandavoidsystemwouldthenbefailingmorefrequentlythanthemannedsystem,andwouldthereforenotbeequivalenttoitWhileitislikelythatveryfewoftheseSAsystemfailureswouldresultinmidaircollisions,neitherdoallfailuresofthemannedSAsysteminfrastructureInmannedaviation,forexample,therearebothreportedandunreportednearmidairs,aswellasmidairsthatareneverdetectedbyeitherpilotTheseoccurnotjustfromafailureofeyesight(thatis,thehumansensor),butalsofrominadequatescanning,inattentivepiloting,obscurationoftheFORbytheaircraftstructure,etcAsaresult,aslongastheSAsystemhasafailurerateequaltoorbetterthanpermillionflighthours(includingreliabilityandperformanceofthesystem),itshouldbedeemedequaltoorbetterthanamannedaircraft’slevelofsafetywithrespecttomidaircollisionsProofofComplianceThereliabilityandmaintenanceofanySAsystemdesignonwhichoverallplatformsafetyisdependentshallbeprovenbyconservativeanalysis,test,oracombinationofboth,anddoneincoordinationwiththecognizantcertificationauthoritiesKeywordsairworthinessavoidcollisionavoidancedetectseesensesensorunmannedairvehicleASTMInternationaltakesnopositionrespectingthevalidityofanypatentrightsassertedinconnectionwithanyitemmentionedinthisstandardUsersofthisstandardareexpresslyadvisedthatdeterminationofthevalidityofanysuchpatentrights,andtheriskofinfringementofsuchrights,areentirelytheirownresponsibilityThisstandardissubjecttorevisionatanytimebytheresponsibletechnicalcommitteeandmustbereviewedeveryfiveyearsandifnotrevised,eitherreapprovedorwithdrawnYourcommentsareinvitedeitherforrevisionofthisstandardorforadditionalstandardsandshouldbeaddressedtoASTMInternationalHeadquartersYourcommentswillreceivecarefulconsiderationatameetingoftheresponsibletechnicalcommittee,whichyoumayattendIfyoufeelthatyourcommentshavenotreceivedafairhearingyoushouldmakeyourviewsknowntotheASTMCommitteeonStandards,attheaddressshownbelowThisstandardiscopyrightedbyASTMInternational,BarrHarborDrive,POBoxC,WestConshohocken,PA,UnitedStatesIndividualreprints(singleormultiplecopies)ofthisstandardmaybeobtainedbycontactingASTMattheaboveaddressorat(phone),(fax),orserviceastmorg(email)orthroughtheASTMwebsite(wwwastmorg)TABLEGeneralAviationMidAirCollisionyearHistoryAYearMidAirCollisionsOperatingHours(millions)RateperOperatingHoursAverageAAvailablefromAircraftOwnersandPilotsAssociation(AOPA)AirSafetyFoundation,AviationWay,FrederickMDF–主营业务范围:ASTMASTMASTMASTM、NASNASNASNAS、NASMNASMNASMNASM、MILMILMILMIL、ISOISOISOISO、ENENENEN、

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