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首页 论肢体语言在中学英语教学中的应用.doc

论肢体语言在中学英语教学中的应用.doc

论肢体语言在中学英语教学中的应用.doc

上传者: 医生 2013-12-24 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《论肢体语言在中学英语教学中的应用doc》,可适用于高中教育领域,主题内容包含TheUseofBodyLanguageinMiddleSchoolEnglishTeaching论肢体语言在中学英语教学中的应用【Thesis】:符等。

TheUseofBodyLanguageinMiddleSchoolEnglishTeaching论肢体语言在中学英语教学中的应用【Thesis】:Withthecontinualreformoflanguageteachingandlearningmethods,teachersareingreatdemandtoorganizetheclassesinEnglishandcreateEnglishlearningcircumstancesHowever,withthelimitationofstudents'vocabulary,teachershavetosimplifytheirteachinglanguagewiththehelpoffacialexpressionsandbodymovementsInthisarticle,thepossibilityandtheeffectofusingbodylanguageinlistening,speaking,readingandwritingwillbefurtherdiscussed【摘要】:随着英语语言教学和学习方法的改革的持续发展教师需采用英语来进行课堂授课并营造一个英语学习环境。然而受限于学生词汇量的限制教师不得不在面部表情和肢体动作的帮助下来简化课堂授课语言。在本论文中将对在听力、口语、阅读和写作方面的教学中使用肢体语言的可能性和效果进行进一步的讨论。【Keywords】:Englishteachinginmiddleschools,bodylanguage【关键词】:中学英语教学肢体语言IIntroductionI简介Aseveryoneknows,theclassroomteachingisoneofthemostimportantwaysthatthestudentslearnEnglishAsfarastheEnglishteachinginthemiddleschoolsisconcerned,teachershavetoarousethestudents'interestsothattheymaylearnbetterTherearemanywaystoarousethestudents'interestandhelpthemtolearnbetter,bodylanguageusedinEnglishteachingisoneofthem众所周知课堂教学是学生学习英语方法中最重要的一种。随着对中学英语教学的日渐重视教师不得不激起学生的学习兴趣使他们学的更好。在激发学生的学习兴趣并提高学生的学习效果方面有很多种方法在课堂教学总使用肢体语言就是其中的一种。BodylanguageisanimportantmediathroughwhichpeoplecommunicatewitheachotherItreferstothepatternsoffacialexpressionsandgesturesthatpeopleusetoexpresstheirfeelingsincommunicationThespecialistonbodylanguageresearch,FenLafleAngles,oncesaid:"Onceitwaslost,ababycouldn'thavegrownintoanormalperson"It'salsotruetothejuvenilesInschooleducation,bodylanguageplaysapositiveroleincultivatingthestudents'charactersFor,teachersareusuallyrespected,andfactually,whatorhowtheteacherssayanddowillbepossiblyimitatedbythestudents(sometimessubconsciously)Inaword,teachers'gracefulbodylanguagehelpstoimprovethestudents'artisticappreciationandmoralcharacterIfthestudentsdevelopawonderfulbodylanguage,whichwillpossiblyleadsthemtoformanoptimisticandactivefeelings,theywillsurelyhaveamoresmoothinterpersonalrelation肢体语言是人与人之间进行沟通的的一种重要的媒介它是指人们在相互沟通时使用面部表情和手势的方式来表达彼此间相互感情的一种方式。肢体语言研究专家FenLafleAngles曾经说过:“如果没有肢体语言一个干涸的躯体无法称之为一个正常的人”。这句话也同样适用于青少年。在中学教育中肢体语言在培养学生正常的人格方面起到了积极的作用。例如教师通常是受尊敬的并且在实际中教师的一言一行都有可能被学生模仿(有时是下意识的)。简而言之在教学中教师完美的肢体语言有助于提高学生的审美观和道德观。如果学生也能够发展出得体的肢体语言这将帮助他形成恰当合适的情感表达方式并将帮助他拥有更加和谐的人际关系。Theaffectionofteachers'bodylanguageonthestudentsisreflectednotonlybyestablishingagoodexample,butalsoshorteningtheteacherstudentestrangementbywhichamoreharmoniousstudyingatmosphereiscreatedAsamatteroffact,teachers'friendlyappearancecangreatlyencouragethestudents'studyingenthusiasmFurthermore,thecharacteristicsoftheoreticandabstractionofknowledgealsorequiresthevivid,dramaticandanaccessiblegesturestomakeitspecificandfigurativeAsaresult,thestudents'interestismotivatedandtheeffectofteachingisgreatlyimproved教师肢体语言对学生的影响不仅仅是通过举一个好的例子而是通过建立一个更加幽默轻松的学习环境来缩短教师与学生之间的距离来实现的。实际上教师具有亲和力友善的外表能极大的提高学生的学习热情。而且知识的理论性和抽象性也需要清晰的、生动化的和可接受的手势使之具体化和形象化。结果就是学生的学习兴趣得到了激发教学效果得到了极大的巩固。IIThenecessityandimportanceofusingbodylanguageinEnglishteachingII肢体语言在英语教学中的必要性和重要性EnglishteachingisakeypartoftheschooleducationWiththeEnglishteachingmethodsreform,moreandmoreEnglishteachersorganizetheteachingprocessinEnglishsothattheymayrealizetheCommunicatedEnglishTheCommunicatedEnglishmeansthatteachersinstructthestudentsandexplainquestionsbasicallyinEnglish,andthestudentsarealsorequiredtouseEnglishinclassContemporarily,however,thestudentsinthemiddleschoolcan'tspeakverywellneithercantheyunderstandwhytheyshouldusedifferenttonesindifferenttimeorsituationtheirvocabularyandexpressiveabilityarelimitedtoo英语教育是学校教育的一个关键点。随着英语教学方法的改革越来越多的教师在课堂上采用英语来组织教学以实现在课堂上采用英语来进行沟通。采用英语沟通是指教师指导学生基本上采用英语回答问题并且要求学生在课堂上使用英语。然而中学生英语说的不是很好有时也无法理解为什么在不同的情况和不同时间时采用不同的语调同时他们的词汇量和相应的表达能力也有很大的限制。TheselimitationsmadeitdifficulttorealizetheCommunicatedEnglishintheclassesAccordingtothestudents'presentlevelandpracticalsituation,bodylanguageisrequiredForexample,whenateachergivesaninstruction:"Youtwo,pleasecometotheblackboard"Thestudentscaneasilyunderstanditiftheteacherlooksat(orpointsto)sometwostudentsThen,theteacherpointstotheblackboardThestudentswillcarryouttheorderwithoutobstacleeveniftheydon'thearthekeywords"blackboard"clearly这些限制使得在课堂上实现采用英语进行沟通有些困难。基于学生的表达水平和练习情况需要采用相应的肢体语言。例如当老师说:"Youtwo,pleasecometotheblackboard"此时如果教师看着(或指着)这两个学生后然后再指向黑板学生就会准确无误的理解老师的意思即使他们没有完全听懂"blackboard"这个单词。Furthermore,teachersusuallyhavetoexplainsomelanguagepoints,andatthistime,theyhavetodifferentiatetheclassroomexpressionsandtheexamplesTakeitforexample,weoughttousetheform'havedone'suchas'Haveyoufinishedthatjobjet'"Tomakethestudentsunderstandclearly,ateacherhaslotsofwaysTodoitbyspeed,heusesacommonspeedwhenreading"weoughttousetheform'havedone'",andreadsslowlywhengivingexampleshecanalsogettheeffectbyrepeatingtheexample'Haveyoufinishedthatjobjet'amorefrequentwayistousegesturestolayemphasisonthekeypointswhenhesaid'Haveyoufinishedthatjobjet'(emphasizingitinvoiceatthesametime),hereachesouthisindexfinger,pausesintheair,andthengivesouttheexampleThisactionwillusuallygivethestudentsadeepimpressionFromtheabovewecanlearn,theuseofbodylanguageinEnglishteachingisnecessaryandpracticalIntheEnglishteachinginmiddleschools,bodylanguageisfrequentlyusedtoimprovetheteachingeffectandthestudents'ability况且在课堂上教师需要经常讲解一些语言点此时教师就不得不在课堂上举例来说明课堂表达方式和举例子的区别。例如:我们可以将'havedone'的意思用'Haveyoufinishedthatjobjet'来表达这样让学生就可以明白无误理解老师的意思。对于教师来说类似的方法还有很多。例如也可以通过对语速的控制来实现教师可以在读"weoughttousetheform'havedone'"这个句子时用正常的语速而在举例子时采用慢语速。也可以通过其他的方式来取得同样的效果如:在读'Haveyoufinishedthatjobjet'这个句子时一个常用的方法是在读到'Haveyoufinishedthatjobjet'采用手势去强调这个句子的关键点(同时也采用提高语调的方式来对此进行强调):此时教师食指伸出在空气中停顿同时举出所需的例子。这种动作通常能给学生以很深的印象。从上述可得出肢体语言在英语教学中是必不可少的和非常实用的。在中学英语教学中肢体语言常常用于提高教学效果和提高学生的能力。IIITheconcreteapplicationofthebodylanguageinlistening,speaking,readingandwritingIII肢体语言在听、说、读、写中的具体应用Bodylanguagehelpstoimprovelistening肢体语言的应用有助于听力的提高TheGreekphilosopherEpictetuseverwittilysaid:"Naturehasgivenmanonetongueandtwoearsthathemayheartwiceasmuchashespeaks"FromthesayingwecanlearnhowimportantthelisteningisinourdailylifeTounderstandothersisabasicpurposeinEnglishteaching,andteachersoftentrainthestudents'listeningaccordinglyInthisprocess,ifthebodylanguageisused,theeffectwillbebetterWhenbeginninganewlesson,theteachernarratesthestoryoutlineinEnglishThebodylanguagemayhelpForexample,ateachercanstretchhisarmsslowlywhenhesays"Sheisinaverybigroom"hecanopenhiseyeswidelywithmouthopenedwhenhesays"Sheissobeautifulalady"Asaresult,thestudentswillhavesuchanimpression:Sheisverybeautifulindeedateacherwhoimitatesthecryingorthemovementoftheanimalsunderthepremiseofteachingorderwillsurelyachieveabettereffect古希腊哲学家Epictetus曾经说过:“大自然所给予人类的一个舌头和两只耳朵使我们可以获得两倍于我们所说的信息”。从这个谚语中我们可以知道听在我们日常生活中是多么的重要。理解其他人是英语听力教学中一个基本目的教师通常对学生进行有针对性的训练。在这个过程中如果教师能够运用肢体语言其效果无疑会更好。在进行一个新课程的教学时教师用英语给学生讲解故事的大概此时肢体语言就可以帮助教师进行讲述。例如:教师在讲解"Sheisinaverybigroom"时他可以慢慢的伸出双臂在讲到"Sheissobeautifulalady"时睁大眼睛并张开嘴巴。结果学生就对此就会有很深的印象:她真的很漂亮。教师如果能够在教学中模仿动物的叫声和动作无疑会取得更好的效果。Bodylanguagehelpstoimprovespeaking肢体语言有助于提高口语Thespokenlanguageisoneoftheimportantwaystocommunicate,soweshouldtrytodevelopthestudents'abilityofspeakingFactuallytheyarehelpedtoreachtheaiminacertaindegreebytheirteacher'sbodylanguage口语是相互沟通中非常重要的方式之一因此我们应该尽力提高学生的口语水平。教师的肢体语言可以帮助他们的口语水平能够达到某一水平这一目标。ThecontemporaryemphasisisgraduallylaidonspokenEnglishteachingThefirstlessonofeveryunitinSeniorEnglishbeginswithdialogueTheteachingprogramsrequiretheteacherstoorganizetheclasstopracticeEnglishaccordingtothecharacteristicsofdialogueGenerallyspeaking,thebodylanguagecanarouseandsustainthestudents'interestoflearningandusingEnglishIntheEnglishclass,theteachersshouldnotonlyusebodylanguagesthemselves,butalsoaskthestudentstousethemaccordingtothedifferentsituation在课堂上进行同步强调与口语教学是相互依存的。所有高级英语课程的第一课都是从对话开始的这要求教师在课堂上采用英语根据对话的特点来组织教学。一般来说教师的肢体语言可以提升和保持学生学习和使用英语的兴趣。在英语课堂上应该不仅教师自己使用肢体语言也要要求学生根据不同的实际情况来使用他们自己的肢体语言。Takeitforexample,thefirstlessoninUnitone,Bookoneisaboutthetimewhenthenewstudentsfirstmeet,andtheydon'tknoweachotherSoateachercanintroducehimselffirst,suchas:"Hello,everyone,nicetomeetyouhereNowI'llintroducemyselftoyouMynameisArthurIlikeplayingbasketball,for,itmakesmemuchstrongerIlikeplayingchess,for,itmakesmemorecleverandIlikereadingbooks,for,'readingmakesoneperfect'"Duringtheintroduction,theteachershouldusethenewvocabulariesandsentencestructurestogetherwithavividexpressionandmatinggesturesaspossiblyashecanHesmileswhenhesayshellototheclassheshakeshandswithsomestudentssaying"Nicetomeetyou"hewritesnamedownontheblackboardheimitatestheactionofdribblingandshootingatthebasketball,playingchessandturningpagestoexplainhishobby以第一册的第一课为例讲述的是新生入学第一次同学之间互不相识的情景。因此教师的第一次自我介绍可以是这样:"Hello,everyone,nicetomeetyouhereNowI'llintroducemyselftoyouMynameisArthurIlikeplayingbasketball,for,itmakesmemuchstrongerIlikeplayingchess,for,itmakesmemorecleverandIlikereadingbooks,for,'readingmakesoneperfect'"。在此时教师应该在丰富的面部表情和手势的配合下尽可能的使用新的词汇和句型。他可以在说“Hello”是脸部面带微笑在说"Nicetomeetyou"时向学生挥手致意并将自己的名字写在黑板上模仿运球、投篮下象棋和翻书等动作来说明自己的业余爱好。Afterhisintroduction,theteachercancreateacircumstanceforthestudentstopractice:"MaryandJackarenewclassmatesTheyarewalkingtogetherinthestreet,andtheymeetoneofJack'soldfriends,YangpeiThenYangpeiandMaryareintroducedtoeachotherbyJack"Afterthestudents'practicethedialogueisintroducednaturallyfromitUsually,theapplicationofbodylanguageindifferentsituationswillresultinanattractingandsuccessfullesson在这样进行自我介绍之后教师可以建立一个让学生进行练习的环境:"Mary和Jack是新同学他们一起走在大街上他们碰到了Jack的一个朋友Yangpei。Jack将Yangpei和Mary相互介绍给对方”。在学生的练习结束后就可以自然而然的切入到课文中对话内容中去。Bodylanguagehelpstoimprovereading肢体语言在提高阅读能力中的应用ThepurposeofSeniorEnglishteachingistotrainthestudents'preliminaryabilityofusingspokenandwrittenEnglishIntheseniorschool,welayemphasisonethereadingabilitythatservesthestudents'furtherstudyHerewemainlymentionthehelpfulnessforreadingaloud(朗读)Readingaloudhelpsthestudentstogetacorrectpronunciationandintonationandtodevelopthecombinationofvocabularies'pronunciation,spellingandmeaningFurthermoreitalsohelpsthestudentstofindoutthearticle'sinternalfeelingsandappreciatethebeautyofthelanguageAlinguisteversaid:"Apoemisnotapoemuntilitisread"Readingaloudisbasicinthemiddleschool,andtheteachersshouldmakefulluseofbodylanguagetodevelopthestudents'abilityofreadingaloud英语高级教学的目的是训练学生英语说和写的基本能力。在高级中学中我们常把重点放在阅读能力的训练上以利于学生进一步学习的开展。在本文中将主要讨论肢体语言在朗读中的应用。朗读有助于学生学习词汇的正确的发音并有助于学生将词汇的发音、拼写和含义结合在一起。进而朗读也有助于学生找到文章的内部涵义有助于学生欣赏到语言之美。一个诗人曾经说过:“不曾被阅读的诗无法称之为诗”。朗读是中学语言教育中一个基本的要求教师应该尽可能的采用肢体语言来帮助学生提高学生的朗读能力。Whenreadingthesentences,attentionshouldbepaidtowheretospeaksoftly,emphasize,andraiseorlowerourtoneTomakeitclear,wecanimitatethestrongorsoftpatsthatareusedinmusicteaching,whichmeanstousethearcstorepresentdifferenttonesGenerallyspeaking,weusefallingtonesindeclarativeandspecialinterrogativesentence,firstrisingtonesandthenfallingtonesinthechoosinginterrogativesentenceThestudentsinthemiddleschoolarenotoftenaccustomedtoandalwaysconfusethem,however,withthehelpofbodylanguage,theycansolvetheproblemmuchmoreeasilyForexample,theyusegesturesAstheyreadthechoosinginterrogativesentence,theyraisetheirhandsinrisingtonesandlowerinfallingtonesAftertrainingforsometimes,assoonastheyreadthesentences,theywillremindthemselvesofthegesturesAsaresult,therewillbenoproblemsinrightlyreadingthesentencesatall当在朗读句子时注意力应该集中在出现柔和或强调时需要降低或提高声调的地方。为了表达清楚我们可以模仿在音乐教学中所用的高音符和低音符也就是采用圆弧来表示不同的声调。一般来讲在祈使句和特殊疑问句中采用降调在选择疑问句中采用先升调后降调的语气。中学生在学习英语时一般不会注意到语调问题并且对升降调的问题也比较困惑然而在教师肢体语言的帮助下他们可以很快的解决此问题。例如教师可以用手势来帮助学生进行学习。当学生在朗读选择疑问句时教师可以升调时将手抬高在降调时讲授压低。经过几次的训练当学生在朗读选择疑问句时他们会注意到教师提醒他们的手势。结果他们就会以正确的语调来朗读句子了。Inaword,thevividgesturetogetherwiththefluentEnglishcancreateagoodcircumstanceoflearning,whichwillsurelyplayanactivepartinimprovingthestudents'readingability简而言之流利的英语配合鲜明的手势可以帮助教师建立起一个良好的英语学习环境这将在提高学生的阅读能力方面起到一个积极的作用。Bodylanguagehelpstoimprovewriting肢体语言有助于写作能力的提高Writingisoneofthefourbasicskillsoflearninglanguage,anditissoimportantaskillthatwecanevensaywithoutit,peoplecan'tcommunicatewithothersNotonlyshouldthestudentsgetsomeEnglishknowledgeandvocabularies,butalsotheabilitytocommunicateinspokenandwrittenEnglishaswhatismentionedintheteachingprogramsTosomeextent,writingismuchmoreimportantthanspeaking,foritcanspreadwithoutthelimitationofspaceandtimeSincethestudentslearnEnglishasamediaforcommunication,theyshouldhavetheabilityofwriting写作是学习语言中四个基本能力之一。写作非常重要以至于没有写作我们相互之间无法沟通。学生不仅需要学习英语相关知识和词汇而且也要学习以口语和书面英语进行沟通的能力这是在教学过程中所必须注意和涉及到的。在某种意义上写作比口语更重要因为写作的沟通范围不受时间和空间的限制。既然学生学习英语作为一个相互沟通的媒介他们就应该具备写作的能力。Togetridofthestudents'feelingsofbeingdullandtiring,anEnglishteacherhastouseeverypossiblemethodThisisthesametothewritingTeachersusedifferentmethodinordertoimprovethestudents'abilityofwriting,amongwhich,theapplicationofbodylanguagecandeepentheobjectimpression,suchismagnificentindevelopingthestudents'writingability英语教师必须采用一切可能的措施来消除学生在课堂上的厌倦感和劳累感。在学习写作的时候也是这样。教师应用不同的方法和方式来提高学生的写作能力同时运用肢体语言可以加深写作对象的印象这样可以显著的提高学生的写作能力。ThelinguistFranklineversaid,"Tellme,I'llforgetteachme,I'llrememberinvolvemeandI'lllearn"Ifweaskedthestudentstowriteanunfamiliarcomposition,theywouldprobablybeunabletoandfeeldiscouragedHowever,thestudentscanwriteexcellentarticlesiftheyhavetheexperienceInandoutofclass,weshouldaskthestudentstoparticipatesomeEnglishrelatedactivities,andthenaskthemtowriteitdownTake"TheFirstSnowinWinter"forexample,havingenjoyedthemselvesinthebeautifulsnowingandbeengivensomehints,thestudentscanwritemuchbetteracompositionForcontrasttotheircompleteimagination,thestudentsaredeeplyimpressedbythebodymovementoftheteachersandthemselves,whichsurelyleadstoabetterarticle语言学家富兰克林曾经说过“告诉我我会忘记教我我会记住激发我我会去学习”。如果要求学生写一个他不熟悉的文章他可能写不出来或者感到很气馁。然而如果学生有相关的经验他们则可以写出优秀的文章。无论在课内还是在课外我们都应该要求学生多参与英语相关的活动并且要求他们用英语记录下来。以“冬季里的第一场雪”为例学生在享受一个优美的雪景并给予一些提示后他们就可以写出一篇好的多的作文。与纯想象相比学生会被自己和教师的肢体动作深深打动这都会引导他们写出一篇很好的文章。IVConclusionIV结论LearningEnglishneedspracticeTheminutesinclassisverypreciousandshouldbecherished,duringwhichthestudentsshouldpracticeasmuchaspossibleToexertthelimitedtime,teachersarerequiredtoadoptsomeeffectivemethodsTheuseofbodylanguagecannotonlyattractthestudents'attention,butalsodeepentheirimpressionandimaginationTheuseofbodylanguageiscompletelyuptothestandardofaudiovisualteachingprinciple,soteachersshouldtrytoteachinEnglishfromthebeginningtotheend,togetherwiththecorrespondingbodylanguageIntheend,thestudents'abilityofEnglishwillbecertainlyandgreatlyimproved学习英语需要练习。课堂上的分钟十分珍贵更应该予以珍惜学生应该尽可能的进行练习。因为受课堂授课时间的限制这要求教师必须采用一些行之有效的方法。肢体语音不仅可以吸引学生的注意力而且加深他们的记忆和想象。肢体语言的应用完全符合视听教学的标准因此教师应该将肢体语言的应用贯穿于整个英语教学中。最终学生的英语能力必定得到极大的提高。Bibliography:参考文献HeGuangkeng,TheBasisofEnglishTeachingandLearningMethods,JiNanUniversityPress,ShenMinxian,TheUseoftheBodyLanguageinElementarySchool,ShanghaiEducationVol,GuXueliang,TheBasicTechnicalTraininginEnglishTeaching,HangzhouUniversityPress,HuChundiao,TheEnglishTeachingandLearningMethods,HigherEducationPress,LiuYongfa,LiuXuan'en,ThePracticalBodyLanguage,HuaWenPress,WuZongjie,ReadingsforAppliedLinguisticsandLanguageTeaching,ZhejiangTeachers'University,

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