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首页 E9明】机械复制时代的艺术作品(英文版).pdf

E9明】机械复制时代的艺术作品(英文版).pdf

E9明】机械复制时代的艺术作品(英文版).pdf

上传者: ming 2010-01-17 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《E9明】机械复制时代的艺术作品(英文版)pdf》,可适用于文学艺术领域,主题内容包含THEWORKOFARTINTHEAGEOFITSTEeHNLOGICALREPRODUCIBILITYANDOTHERWRITINGSONMEDI符等。

THEWORKOFARTINTHEAGEOFITSTEeHNLOGICALREPRODUCIBILITYANDOTHERWRITINGSONMEDIAwalterbenjaminwalterbenjaminTHEWORKOFARTINTHEAGEOFITSTECHNOLOGICALREPRODUCIBILITYANDOTHERWRITINGSONMEDIAEditedbyMichaelWJennings,BrigidDoherty,andThomasYLevin$TranslatedbyEdmundJephcott,RodneyLivingstone,HowardEiland,andOthersBenjamin'sfamous"WorkofArt"essaysetsouthisboldestthoughtsonmediaandoncultureingeneralintheirmosthighlydevelopedform,whileretaininganedgethatgetsundertheskinofeveryonewhoreadsitInthisessaythevisualartsofthemachineagemorphintoliteratureandtheory,andthenbackagaintoimages,gestures,andthoughtThisessay,however,isonlythebeginningofavastcollectionofwritingsthattheeditorshaveassembledtodemonstratewhatwasrevolutionaryaboutBenjamin'SexplorationsonmediaLongbeforeMarshallMcLuhan,BenjaminsawthatthewayabulletripsintoitsvictimisexactlythewayamovieorpopsonglodgesinthesoulThisbookcontainsthesecond,andmostdaring,ofthefourversionsofthe"WorkofArt"essaytheonethataddressestheutopiandevelopmentsofthemodernmediaThecollectiontracksBenjamin'sobservationsonthemediaastheyarerevealedinessaysontheproductionandreceptionofartonfilm,radio,andphotographyandonthemoderntransformationsofliteratureandpaintingThevolumecontainssomeofBenjamin'sbestknownworkalongsidefascinating,littleknownessayssomeappearingforthefirsttimeinEnglishInthecontextofhispassionateengagementwithquestionsofaesthetics,thescopeofBenjamin'SmediatheorycanbefullyappreciatedrheWorkofArtintheAgeofItsTechnologicalReproducibility,andOtherWritingsonMedia,heWorkofArtintheAgeofItsTechnologicalReproducibility,andOtherWritingsonMediaWALTERBENJAMINEDITEDBYMichaelWJennings,BrigidDoherty,andThomasYLevinTRANSLATEDBYEdmundephcott,RodneyLivingstone,HowardEiland,andOthersTHEBELKNAPPRESSOFHARVARDUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,MassachusettsLondon,EnglandCopyrightbythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaAdditionalcopyrightnoticesappearonpages,whichconstituteanextensionofthecopyrightpageBenjamin,Walter,KuostwerkimZeitalterseinertechnischeoReproduzierbarkeitEnglishTheworkofartintheageofitstechnologicalreproducibility,andotherwritingsonmediaWalterBenjamineditedbyMichaelWJennings,BrigidDoherty,andThomasYLevintranslatedbyEdmundJephcottetallstedpcmIncludesindexISBN:(pbk:alkpaper)ArtandsocietyPhotographyofartMassmediaPhilosophyArts,ModernthcenturyPhilosophyBenjamin,Walter,knowledgeMassmediaBenjamin,Walter,TranslationsintoEnglishIJennings,MichaelWilliamIIDoherty,BrigidIIILevin,ThomasYIVJephcott,EdmundVTitleNSBdcCONTENTSANoteontheTextsEditors'IntroductionITheProduction,Reproduction,andReceptionoftheWorkofArtTheWorkofArtintheAgeofItsTechnologicalReproducibility:SecondVersionTheoryofDistractionTothePlanetariumGarlandedEntranceTheRigorousStudyofArtImperialPanoramaTheTelephoneTheAuthorasProducerParis,theCapitaloftheNineteenthCenturyEduardFuchs,CollectorandHistorianReviewofSternberger'sPanoramaIIScript,Image,ScriptImageAttestedAuditorofBooksTheseSurfacesforRentTheAntinomiesofAllegoricalExegesisTheRuinDismembermentofLanguageGraphologyOldandNewIIIPaintingandGraphicsPaintingandtheGraphicArtsOnPainting,orSignandMarkAGlimpseintotheWorldofChildren'sBooksDreamKitschvIXviCONTENTSMoonlitNightsontheRueLaBoetieChambermaids'RomancesofthePastCenturyAntoineWiertz:ThoughtsandVisionsofaSeveredHeadSomeRemarksonFolkArtChinesePaintingsattheBibliothequeNationaleIVPhotographyNewsaboutFlowersLittleHistoryofPhotographyLetterfromParis():PaintingandPhotographyReviewofFreund'sPhotographieenFranceaudixneuviemes~deVFilmOnthePresentSituationofRussianFilmReplytoOscarAHSchmitzChaplinChaplininRetrospectMickeyMouseTheFormulainWhichtheDialecticalStructureofFilmFindsExpressionVIThePublishingIndustryandRadioJournalismACritiqueofthePublishingIndustryTheNewspaperKarlKrausReflectionsonRadioTheaterandRadioConversationwithErnstSchoenTwoTypesofPopularity:FundamentalReflectionsonaRadioPlayOntheMinuteIndexILLUSTRATIONSPaulKlee,AbstractWatercolorMaxErnst,frontispiecetoPaulEluard,RepetitionsWalterBenjamin,"AGlimpseintotheWorldofChildren'sBooks,"pageDieliterarischeWeltWalterBenjamin,"Chambermaids'RomancesofthePastCentury,"pageDasillustrierteBlattAntoineJosephWiertz,ThoughtsandVisionsofaSeveredIIeadWangYuanqi,LandscapeintheStylesofNiZanandHuangGongwangIllustrationfromAesop'sFables,secondeditionMoralsayingsfromthebookbyJesusSirachIllustrationfromJohannPeterLyser,TheBookofTalesforDaughtersandSonsoftheEducatedClassesCoverofTheMagicalRedUmbrellaIllustrationfrAdelmarvonPerlsteinFrontispiecetoLadyLucieGuilford,thePrincessofVengeance,KnownastheHyenaofParisIllustrationfromOGDerwicz,AntonettaCzernaIllustrationdepictingthenotoriousBlackKnightDavidOctaviusHill,NewhavenFishwife(photo)KarlDauthendey,KarlDauthendeywithHisFiancee(photo)Anonymous,ThePhilosopherSchelling(photo)DavidOctaviusHill,RobertBryson(photo)AugustSander,PastryCook(photo)AugustSander,ParliamentaryRepresentative(photo)GermaineKrull,DisplayWindow(photo)GermaineKrull,Storefront(photo)ANOTEONTHETEXTSThefollowingeditionsofworksbyWalterBenjaminaretothroughoutthisvolume:GesammelteSchriften,vols,withsupplements,edRolfTiedemann,HermannSchweppenhauser,eta(Frankfurt:Suhrkamp,)SelectedWritings>vols,edMichaelWJenningseta(Cambridge,Mass:HarvardUniversityPress,)TheArcadesProject,transHowardEilandandKevinMcLaughlin(Cambridge,Mass:HarvardUniversityPress,)ThetextsincludedinthisvolumeareforthemostpartdrawnfromthefourvolumesofBenjamin'sSelectedWritingswehavemodifiedafewofthetranslationspublishedthereinthecourseofourworkonthesectionintroductionsTheeditorsofthepresentvolumearegratefulnotjusttoBenjamin'saccomplishedtranslators,butinparticulartoHowardEilandfortheeditingworkthatwentintotheSelectedWritingsOurresearchassistantsAnnieBourneufandIngridChristianhavemadeinvaluablecontributionstothetextualapparatus,andCharlesButcoskandLisaLeeprovidedexperthelpwiththeacquisitionofmaterialsfortheillustrationsTheWorkofArtintheAgeofItsTechnologicalReproducibility,andOtherWritingsonMediaEDITORS'INTRODUCTIONAlthoughWalterBenjaminhadwrittenshorttextsonpaintingandthegraphicartsduringhisstudentyears,itwasnotuntilthesthathebecameintenselyengagedwithabroadrangeofmodernmediaThesein~eludednewtechnologiesthatproducedchangesin,andservedasvirtualoractualprosthesesfor,humanperceptioninstrumentsofmasscommunicationsuchasthenewspaperandtheradionewtechniquesofdisplayrelatedtourbancommoditycapitalismandartisticmediasuchaspainting,photography,andfilmBorninBerlinin,BenjaminhadgrownupinacitydeeplymarkedbytherampantgrowthofGermanindustryinthelastquarterofthenineteenthcenturyModerntechnologieswerepervasiveintheGermancapitalarguablymoresotherethaninanyotherEuropeanmetropolisoftheeraGermanyhadbeenunitedasanationonlyin,andtheperiodthatimmediatelyfollowed(knowninGermanastheGrunderjahre,orfoundationalyears)wascharacterizedbyaremarkableeconomicboomthatreshapedthefaceofBerlinTheearlyyearsofBenjamin'scareerasawriter)whichbeganwhilehewasstillinhighschool,weregivenovernottoanexplorationoftheexperienceofthemoderncity,buttoareevaluationofthephilosophyandliteratureofGermanRomanticismandtothedevelopmentofatheoryofcriticismrootedinthatveryRomanticismInstudiesofFriedrichSchlegel'scriticism,JohannWolfgangvonGoethe'sprose,andBaroquemourningplays,BenjamindevelopedahighlyoriginaltheoryofliteraturebasedonconceptsandpracticesderivedfromtheworksthemselvesTherhythmsofBenjamin'spracticeandtheoryofcriticismintheyearsinterweavetwomovementsOntheonehand,hiscriticismcallsforthedemolitionordemystificationoftheunified,autonomousworkofartInatypicallystrikingformulation,Benjamincallsthisprocessofdemolitionordemystificationthe"mortificationofthework"scholarstoday,usingatermfromaseminalspeechbytheGermansociologistMaxWeber,mightspeakofits"disenchantment"EDITORS'INTRODUCTIONBenjaminiancriticismattemptstoreducetheseeminglycoherent,integrallymeaningfulworktothestatusof"ruin,""torso)"or"mask)"tonamebutafewkeyfiguresofhiscriticismOntheotherhand,histheoryalsostrivesforaproductivemoment:theisolationandredemptionofshardsofan"immanentstateofperfection"thathadbeenshatteredanddenaturedmademeaninglessinthecourseofhistoryInanimportantessayonGoethe'snovelElectiveAf(ilitiesjBenjamindefinestheobjectofcriticismasthediscoveryofthe"truthcontent')oftheworkofartThedenseintertwiningofbrilliantimmanentcriticismandbroadgaugedculturaltheoryintheseworkshasensuredthemaspecialstatusinthehistoryofliterarytheoryInthecourseofthes,BenjaminturnedhisgazefromtheGermanliteraryandphilosophicaltraditiontoaseriesofproblemsincontemporarycultureAkeystageinthisprocesswashisinvolvementwithartistsoftheEuropeanandSovietavantgardeswhohadgatheredinBerlinintheearlypartofthedecadeCrucially,thisinvolvementwithavantgardeartists,architects,andfilmmakersoverlappedwithBenjamin)sbriefaffiliationwiththeuniversityinFrankfurtasheunsuccessfullyattemptedtohavehisstudyoftheBaroquemourningplayacceptedasaIIabilitationsschriftthatwouldqualifyhimforateachingpositioninaGermanuniversityAlsoduringthisperiod,inhewasformingfriendshipswiththearchitect,culturalcritic,andfilmtheoristSiegfriedKracauer(),thephilosopherTheodorAdorno(),andthechemistGretelKarplus(,laterGretelAdorno)andinhebeganalongrelationshipwiththeLatvianjournalistandtheaterdirectorAsjaLacis(),whoencouragedBenjamintoundertakeaseriousstudyofMarxismandtowhomhisepochalbookOneWayStreetwasdedicatedInlateandearlyanewgroupofinternationalavantgardeartistscametogetherinBerlinandlaunchedthepublicationofajournalcalledG:tanabbreviationoftheGermanwordGestaltung:tmeaning"formation"or"constructionTheartistsofthe"Ggroup"includedanumberoffigureswhowouldgoontoshapeimportantaspectsoftwentiethcenturyculture:thearchitectLudwigMiesvanderRohe(),thepainterandphotographerLaszlMoholyNagy(),theinternationalconstructivistELissitzky(),andtheformerDadaistsRaoulHausmann()andHansRichter(),thelatterthegroup'sdominantpersonalityandthedrivingforcebehindthejournalBenjamin,alongwithhiswife,thejournalistDoraSophiePollak(),andhisfriendErnstSchoen(),acomposerandmusictheoristEDITORS'INTRODUCTIONwhowouldgoontodirectoneofGermany'snationalradiostations,allbegantomoveatthefringesofthiscommunityThegroupasawholefocusedontbepossibilitiesthatnewtechnologiesandindustrialpracticeswereopeningupforculturalproduction,andBenjamintookpartinthedebatesthatwereregularlyheldinartists'ateliersacrossBerlinForBenjamin,MoholyNagy'stheorizationofthevariouslyreciprocalrelationshipsamongtechnologicalchange,theproductionofnewmediaforms,andthedevelopmentofthehumansensoriumwasparticularlyimportantManyofthewritingsincludedinthisvolume,foremostamongthemBenjamin'smagisterialessay"TheWorkofArtintheAgeofItsTechnologicalReproducibility,"constituteoftenradicalexplorationsandtheoreticalextensionsofthereconsiderationsofrelationshipsamongtechnology,media,andthehumansensoryapparatusexplorationsthatemergedascentraltothecontributionsoftheGgroupandindeedtoGermancultureatlarge,especiallyinthecontextoftheeconomicstabilizationthatbroughtanendtotheperiodofinflationandhyperinflationoftheearliersBynow,itshouldbeclearthatweareusingtheterms"media"and"medium"inabroadlyinclusivemannerAcentralaspectofBenjamin'sworkistheattempttorethinkthecomplexprocessesthroughwhichoursensoryandcognitiveapparatusesengagetheworldaroundusInhiswritingsonRomanticism,Benjaminhadalreadyofferedahighlyoriginalreconceptualizationofrelationshipsamongpersons,worksofart,andthelargerworldBenjamin'searlytheoreticalemphasis,developedlargelyinrelationtothehistoryofGermanliteratureandphilosophy,broadenedandintensifiedasheturnedtotheconsiderationofworksofartproducedbymeansofnewtechnologies,andindeedtothedevicesandappurtenancesofthosetechnologiesthemselvesVirtuallyeveryessayinthisvolumeexaminessomeaspectofthemannerinwhichindividualworks,genres,media,ortechnologicalapparatusesmediatethecomplexprocessesbywhichwepel'ceive,actupon,andfunctionwithinthatworldThisvolume,then,goesbeyondconsiderationsofmodernmediasuchasthenewspaperandradio,artisticmediasuchaspainting,photography,andfilm,andthetechniquesofdisplayandadvertisementthathavehadsuchaprofoundeffectonhumanconsciousnessandthenatureofhumanembodimentundertheconditionsofmodernityThetextsassembledherealsoexploreindividualdevicesandentitiessuchasthestillcameraandmoviecamera,thevariousformsofthepanorama,engineeringdiagrams,thetelephone,andsucharchitecturalformsasthetrainstation,undergroundsewersystems,and,crucially,thearcadeEDITORS'INTRODUCTIONBenjamin'sworkinthisfieldintheisastonishingforitsrangeanddepthWeshouldrememberthattherewasnogeneraltheoryofmediaonwhichBenjamincouldbuildonlytheoreticalmeditationsonolderindividualformssuchaspaintingandphotography,orlocalreflectionsonnewformssuchasradio,film,andtheillustratedpressPartlyasaprofessionalstrategy(hesoughtinthisperiodtoestablishhimselfasajournalistandindeedasaleadingcriticofculture),partlyasapracticalmatter(hesawinradioapotentiallylucrativeoutletforhiswritings),butmainlydrivenbynewaestheticandpoliticalcommitments,BenjaminaimedtoestablishhimselfasaprincipalcommentatoronnewliterarydirectionsandnewmediaformsthenemerginginGermany,France,andtheSovietUnionInthecourseofthes,then,BenjaminincreasinglycombinedcriticismofspecificmediaformswithanefforttoconstructamorecomprehensivetheoryofmediamuchashehaddoneinthecaseofliteratureandphilosophyupuntilYetifrepresentsawatershedyearinBenjamin>sintellectuallife,theyearmarksatraumaticruptureinhispersonallifeAlthoughthesignsofHitler'saccessiontopowerinGermanyhadbeenimpossibletoignoresince,theburningoftheReichstagonFebruary,,madeitcleartoeventhemoststubbornlyhopefulGermanintellectualsonthepoliticalleftthattheirnativelandwouldnolongertoleratethemortheirideasBenjamin,asaGermanJew,wasundernoillusionsregardingtheimplicationsnotjustforhiswork,butforhisverylifeAnumberofhisclosestfriendsandcolleagues,includingBertoltBrecht(),ErnstBloch(),andSiegfriedKracaueroptedimmediatelytogointoselfimposedexileBenjaminhimselfleftBerlinforParisinInidMarchHewouldspendtheremainderofthedecade,andindeedtherestofhislife,movingbetweenParisandaseriesoftemporaryrefugesthatincludedBrecht'shouseinSkovsbostrand,Denmark,hisformerwife'spensioneinSanRemo,Italy,and,afavoredplace,theSpanishislandofIbizaTheimpactofexileonBenjamin'SthoughtingeneralandonhiswritingsonmediainparticularwaspervasiveandfundamentaLThefamousremarksontherelationshipbetweenaestheticsandpoliticswithwhich"TheWorkofArtintheAgeofItsTechnologicalReproducibility"concludesmakeplainthepoliticalurgencyofBenjamin'sattempttodevelopsomethinglikea"mediatheory"intheIffascismcouldaestheticizepoliticsandevenwar,communism,Benjaminasserted,wasboundtorespondbypoliticizingartTellingly,however,thepoliticizedtheoryofmediaBenjamindevelEDITORS'INTRODUCTIONopedinthecourseofthesdidnotdevelopexclusivelyoutofanengagementwithcontelnporarymediaformsWithincreasingintensityBenjamin'sthoughtsturnedinsteadtohistory:totheperiodoftheemergenceofurban,andspecificallymetropolitan,commoditycapitalismForBenjamin,theconstructionofamassivesocioculturalhistoryofParisintheyearsafterwasnothinglessthanastudyoftheemergenceofmodernityassuchThisprojectboretheworkingtitle"ArcadesProject"and,hadBenjaminbeenabletocompleteit,mightfinallyhavebeencalled"Paris,CapitaloftheNineteenthCentury"Theprojecttookitsworkingtitlefromtheproliferationofmercantilegalleries,orarcades(inGerman,Passagen)inmidnineteenthcenturyParis"Thesearcades,anewinventionofindustrialluxury,areglassroofed,marblepaneledcorridorsextendingthroughwholeblocksofbuildings,whoseownershavejoinedtogetherforsuchenterprisesLiningbothsidesofthesecorridors,whichgettheirlightfromabove,arethemostelegantshops,sothatthepassageisacity,aworldinminiature"Benjaminfocllsesonthesestructuresastheorganizingmetaphorforhisstudyforanumberofreasons:theyare

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