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首页 SI经典名著之二+红宝书——高速数字系统设计

SI经典名著之二+红宝书——高速数字系统设计.pdf

SI经典名著之二+红宝书——高速数字系统设计

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简介:本文档为《SI经典名著之二+红宝书——高速数字系统设计pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

HighSpeedDigitalSystemDesignAHandbookofInterconnectTheoryandDesignPracticesStephenHHallGarrettWHallJamesAMcCallAWileyIntersciencePublicationJOHNWILEYSONS,INCNewYork•Chichester•Weinheim•Brisbane•Singapore•TorontoCopyright©byJohnWileySons,IncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,scanningorotherwise,exceptaspermittedunderSectionsoroftheUnitedStatesCopyrightAct,withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthePublisher,orauthorizationthroughpaymentoftheappropriatepercopyfeetotheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA,(),fax()RequeststothePublisherforpermissionshouldbeaddressedtothePermissionsDepartment,JohnWileySons,Inc,ThirdAvenue,NewYork,NY,(),fax(),EMail:PERMREQWILEYCOMFororderingandcustomerservice,callCALLWILEYLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData:Hall,StephenHHighspeeddigitalsystemdesign:ahandbookofinterconnecttheoryanddesignpracticesStephenHHall,GarrettWHall,JamesAMcCallpcmISBN(cloth)ElectronicdigitalcomputersDesignandconstructionVeryhighspeedintegratedcircuitsDesignandconstructionMicrocomputersBusesComputerinterfacesIHall,GarrettWIIMcCall,JamesAIIITitleTKH'dcPrefaceOverviewThisbookcoversthepracticalandtheoreticalaspectsnecessarytodesignmodernhighspeeddigitalsystemsattheplatformlevelThebookwalksthereaderthrougheveryrequiredconcept,frombasictransmissionlinetheorytodigitaltiminganalysis,highspeedmeasurementtechniques,aswellasmanyothertopicsIndoingso,auniquebalancebetweentheoryandpracticalapplicationsisachievedthatwillallowthereadernotonlytounderstandthenatureoftheproblem,butalsoprovidepracticalguidancetothesolutionTheleveloftheoreticalunderstandingissuchthatthereaderwillbeequippedtoseebeyondtheimmediatepracticalapplicationandsolveproblemsnotcontainedwithinthesepagesMuchoftheinformationinthisbookhasnotbeenneededinpastdigitaldesignsbutisabsolutelynecessarytodayMostoftheinformationcoveredhereisnotcoveredinstandardcollegecurricula,atleastnotinitsfocusondigitaldesign,whichisarguablyoneofthemostsignificantindustriesinelectricalengineeringThefocusofthisbookisonthedesignofrobusthighvolume,highspeeddigitalproductssuchascomputersystems,withparticularattentionpaidtocomputerbussesHowever,thetheorypresentedisapplicabletoanyhighspeeddigitalsystemAllofthetechniquescoveredinthisbookhavebeenappliedinindustrytoactualdigitalproductsthathavebeensuccessfullyproducedandsoldinhighvolumePracticingengineersandgraduateandundergraduatestudentswhohavecompletedbasicelectromagneticormicrowavedesignclassesareequippedtofullycomprehendthetheorypresentedinthisbookAtapracticallevel,however,basiccircuittheoryisallthebackgroundrequiredtoapplytheformulasinthisbookChapterdescribeswhyitisimportanttocomprehendthelessonstaughtinthisbook(AuthoredbyGarrettHall)ChapterintroducesbasictransmissionlinetheoryandterminologywithspecificdigitalfocusThischapterformsthebasisofmuchofthematerialthatfollow(AuthoredbyStephenHall)Chaptersandintroducecrosstalkeffects,explaintheirrelevancetodigitaltimings,andexplorenonidealtransmissionlineeffects(AuthoredbyStephenHall)Chapterexplainstheimpactofchippackages,vias,connectors,andmanyotheraspectsthataffecttheperformanceofadigitalsystem(AuthoredbyStephenHall)Chapterexplainselusiveeffectssuchassimultaneousswitchingnoiseandnonidealcurrentreturnpathdistortionsthatcandevastateadigitaldesignifnotproperlyaccountedfor(AuthoredbyStephenHall)Chapterdiscussesdifferentmethodsthatcanbeusedtomodeltheoutputbuffersthatareusedtodrivedigitalsignalsontoabus(AuthoredbyGarrettHall)ChapterexplainsindetailseveralmethodsofsystemleveldigitaltimingItdescribesthetheorybehinddifferenttimingschemesandrelatesthemtothehighspeeddigitaleffectsdescribedthroughoutthebook(AuthoredbyStephenHall)Chapteraddressesoneofthemostfarreachingchallengesthatislikelytobeencountered:handlingtheverylargenumberofvariablesaffectingasystemandreducingthemtoamanageablemethodologyThischapterexplainshowtomakeanintractableproblemtractableItintroducesaspecificdesignmethodologythathasbeenusedtoproduceveryhighperformancedigitalproducts(AuthoredbyStephenHall)Chaptercoversthesubjectofradiatedemissions,whichcausesgreatfearintheheartsofsystemdesignersbecauseradiatedemissionproblemsusuallycannotbeaddresseduntilaprototypehasbeenbuilt,atwhichtimechangescanbeverycostlyandtimeconstrained(AuthoredbyGarrettHall)Chaptercoversthepracticalaspectsofmakingprecisionmeasurementsinhighspeeddigitalsystems(AuthoredbyJamesMcCall)AcknowledgmentsManypeoplehavecontributeddirectlyorindirectlytothisbookWehavebeenfortunatetokeepthecompanyofexcellentengineersandfinepeersAmongthedirect,knowingcontributorstothisbookare:ƒDrMaynardFalconer,IntelCorporationƒMikeDegerstrom,MayoFoundation,SpecialPurposeProcessorDevelopmentGroupƒDrJasonMix,IntelCorporationƒDorothyHall,PHIIncorporatedWewouldalsoliketorecognizethefollowingpeoplefortheircontinuingcollaborationovertheyears,whichhaveundoubtedlyaffectedtheoutcomeofthisbookTheyhaveourthanksƒHowardHeck,IntelCorporationOregonGraduateInstituteƒMichaelLeddige,IntelCorporationƒDrTimSchreyer,IntelCorporationƒHarrySkinner,IntelCorporationƒAlexLevin,IntelCorporationƒRichMelitz,IntelCorporationƒWayneWalters,MayoFoundation,SpecialPurposeProcessorDevelopmentGroupƒPatZabinski,MayoFoundation,SpecialPurposeProcessorDevelopmentGroupƒDrBarryGilbert,MayoFoundation,SpecialPurposeProcessorDevelopmentGroupƒDrMelindaPicketMay,ColoradoStateUniversitySpecialthanksarealsogiventoJodiHall,Stephen'swife,withoutwhosepatienceandsupportthisbookwouldnothavebeenpossibleChapter:TheImportanceofInterconnectDesignOVERVIEWThespeedoflightisjusttooslowCommonplace,modern,volumemanufactureddigitaldesignsrequirecontroloftimingsdowntothepicosecondrangeTheamountoftimeittakeslightfromyournosetoreachyoureyeisaboutpicoseconds(inps,lighttravelsaboutin)Thisleveloftimingmustnotonlybemaintainedatthesiliconlevel,butalsoatthephysicallymuchlargerlevelofthesystemboard,suchasacomputermotherboardThesesystemsoperateathighfrequenciesatwhichconductorsnolongerbehaveassimplewires,butinsteadexhibithighfrequencyeffectsandbehaveastransmissionlinesthatareusedtotransmitorreceiveelectricalsignalstoorfromneighboringcomponentsIfthesetransmissionlinesarenothandledproperly,theycanunintentionallyruinsystemtimingDigitaldesignhasacquiredthecomplexityoftheanalogworldandmoreHowever,ithasnotalwaysbeenthiswayDigitaltechnologyisaremarkablestoryoftechnologicalevolutionItisacontinuingstoryofparadigmshifts,industrialrevolution,andrapidchangethatisunparalleledIndeed,itisacommoncreedinmarketingdepartmentsoftechnologycompaniesthat"bythetimeamarketsurveytellsyouthepublicwantssomething,itisalreadytoolate"ThisrapidprogresshascreatedaroadblocktotechnologicalprogressthatthisbookwillhelpsolveTheproblemisthatmoderndigitaldesignsrequireknowledgethathasformerlynotbeenneededBecauseofthis,manycurrentlyemployeddigitalsystemdesignersdonothavetheknowledgerequiredformodernhighspeeddesignsThisfactleadstoasurprisinglylargeamountofmisinformationtopropagatethroughengineeringcirclesOften,theconceptsofhighspeeddesignareperceivedwithasortofmysticismHowever,thisproblemhasnotcomeaboutbecausetherequiredknowledgeisunapproachableInfact,manyofthesameconceptshavebeenusedforseveraldecadesinotherdisciplinesofelectricalengineering,suchasradiofrequencydesignandmicrowavedesignTheproblemisthatmostreferencesonthenecessarysubjectsareeithertooabstracttobeimmediatelyapplicabletothedigitaldesigner,ortheyaretoopracticalinnaturetocontainenoughtheorytofullyunderstandthesubjectThisbookwillfocusdirectlyontheareaofdigitaldesignandwillexplainthenecessaryconceptstounderstandandsolvecontemporaryandfutureproblemsinamannerdirectlyapplicablebypracticingengineersandorstudentsItisworthnotingthateverythinginthisbookhasbeenappliedtoasuccessfulmoderndesignTHEBASICSAsthereaderundoubtedlyknows,thebasicideaindigitaldesignistocommunicateinformationwithsignalsrepresentingsorsTypicallythisinvolvessendingandreceivingaseriesoftrapezoidalshapedvoltagesignalssuchasshowninFigureinwhichahighvoltageisaandalowvoltageisaTheconductivepathscarryingthedigitalsignalsareknownasinterconnectsTheinterconnectincludestheentireelectricalpathwayfromthechipsendingasignaltothechipreceivingthesignalThisincludesthechippackages,connectors,sockets,aswellasamyriadofadditionalstructuresAgroupofinterconnectsisreferredtoasabusTheregionofvoltagewhereadigitalreceiverdistinguishesbetweenahighandalowvoltageisknownasthethresholdregionWithinthisregion,thereceiverwilleitherswitchhighorswitchlowOnthesilicon,theactualswitchingvoltagesvarywithtemperature,supplyvoltage,siliconprocess,andothervariablesFromthesystemdesignerspointofview,thereareusuallyhighandlowvoltagethresholds,knownasVihandVil,associatedwiththereceivingsilicon,abovewhichandbelowwhichahighorlowvaluecanbeguaranteedtobereceivedunderallconditionsThusthedesignermustguaranteethatthesystemcan,underallconditions,deliverhighvoltagesthatdonot,evenbriefly,fallbelowVih,andlowvoltagesthatremainbelowVil,inordertoensuretheintegrityofthedataFigure:DigitalwaveformInordertomaximizethespeedofoperationofadigitalsystem,thetiminguncertaintyofatransitionthroughthethresholdregionmustbeminimizedThismeansthattheriseorfalltimeofthedigitalsignalmustbeasfastaspossibleIdeally,aninfinitelyfastedgeratewouldbeused,althoughtherearemanypracticalproblemsthatpreventthisRealistically,edgeratesofafewhundredpicosecondscanbeencounteredThereadercanverifywithFourieranalysisthatthequickertheedgerate,thehigherthefrequenciesthatwillbefoundinthespectrumofthesignalHereinliesacluetothedifficultyEveryconductorhasacapacitance,inductance,andfrequencydependentresistanceAtahighenoughfrequency,noneofthesethingsisnegligibleThusawireisnolongerawirebutadistributedparasiticelementthatwillhavedelayandatransientimpedanceprofilethatcancausedistortionsandglitchestomanifestthemselvesonthewaveformpropagatingfromthedrivingchiptothereceivingchipThewireisnowanelementthatiscoupledtoeverythingaroundit,includingpowerandgroundstructuresandothertracesThesignalisnotcontainedentirelyintheconductoritselfbutisacombinationofallthelocalelectricandmagneticfieldsaroundtheconductorThesignalsononeinterconnectwillaffectandbeaffectedbythesignalsonanotherFurthermore,athighfrequencies,complexinteractionsoccurbetweenthedifferentpartsofthesameinterconnect,suchasthepackages,connectors,vias,andbendsAllthesehighspeedeffectstendtoproducestrange,distortedwaveformsthatwillindeedgivethedesigneracompletelydifferentviewofhighspeedlogicsignalsThephysicalandelectricalattributesofeverystructureinthevicinityoftheinterconnecthasavitalroleinthesimpletaskofguaranteeingpropersignalingtransitionsthroughVihandVilwiththeappropriatetimingsThesethingsalsodeterminehowmuchenergythesystemwillradiateintospace,whichwillleadtodeterminingwhetherthesystemcomplieswithgovernmentalemissionrequirementsWewillseeinlaterchaptershowtoaccountforallthesethingsWhenaconductormustbeconsideredasadistributedseriesofinductorsandcapacitors,itisknownasatransmissionlineIngeneral,thismustbedonewhenthephysicalsizeofthecircuitunderconsiderationapproachesthewavelengthofthehighestfrequencyofinterestinthesignalInthedigitalrealm,sinceedgerateprettymuchdeterminesthemaximumfrequencycontent,onecancompareriseandfalltimestothesizeofthecircuitinstead,asshowninFigureOnatypicalcircuitboard,asignaltravelsabouthalfthespeedoflight(exactformulaswillbeinlaterchapters)ThusapsedgerateoccupiesaboutininlengthonacircuittraceGenerally,anycircuitlengthatleastthoftheedgeratemustbeconsideredasatransmissionlineFigure:RisetimeandcircuitlengthOneofthemostdifficultaspectsofhighspeeddesignisthefactthattherearealargenumbercodependentvariablesthataffecttheoutcomeofadigitaldesignSomeofthevariablesarecontrollableandsomeforcethedesignertolivewiththerandomvariationOneofthedifficultiesinhighspeeddesignishowtohandlethemanyvariables,whethertheyarecontrollableoruncontrollableOftensimplificationscanbemadebyneglectingorassumingvaluesforvariables,butthiscanleadtounknownfailuresdowntheroadthatwillbeimpossibleto"rootcause"afterthefactAstimingbecomesmoreconstrained,thesimplificationsofthepastarerapidlydwindlinginutilitytothemoderndesignerThisbookwillalsoshowhowtoincorporatealargenumberofvariablesthatwouldotherwisemaketheproblemintractableWithoutamethodologyforhandlingthelargeamountofvariables,adesignultimatelyresortstoguessworknomatterhowmuchthedesignerphysicallyunderstandsthesystemThefinalstepofhandlingallthevariablesisoftenthemostdifficultpartandtheonemostreadilyignoredbyadesignerAdesignercrippledbyaninabilitytohandlelargeamountsofvariableswillultimatelyresorttoprovingafew"pointsolutions"insteadandhopethattheyplausiblyrepresentallknownconditionsWhilesometimessuchmethodsareunavoidable,thiscanbeadangerousguessinggameOfcourse,acertainamountofguessworkisalwayspresentinadesign,butthegoalofthesystemdesignershouldbetominimizeuncertaintyTHEPASTANDTHEFUTUREGordonMoore,cofounderofIntelCorporation,predictedthattheperformanceofcomputerswilldoubleeverymonthsHistoryconfirmedthisinsightfulpredictionRemarkably,computerperformancehasdoubledapproximatelyeveryyears,alongwithsubstantialdecreasesintheirpriceOnemeasureofrelativeprocessorperformanceisinternalclockratesFigureshowsseveralprocessorsthroughhistoryandtheirassociatedinternalclockratesBythetimethisisinprint,eventhefastestprocessorsonthischartwilllikelybeconsideredunimpressiveThepointisthatcomputerspeedsareincreasingexponentiallyAscorefrequencyincreases,fasterdatarateswillbedemandedfromthebusesthatfeedinformationtotheprocessor,asshowninFigure,leadingtoaninterconnecttimingbudgetthatisdecreasingexponentiallyDecreasedtimingbudgetsmeanthatitisevermoreimportanttoproperlyaccountforanyphenomenonthatmayincreasethetiminguncertaintyofthedigitalwaveformasitarrivesatthereceiverThisistherootcauseoftwoinescapableobstaclesthatwillcontinuetomakedigitalsystemdesigndifficultThefirstobstacleissimplythatthesheeramountofvariablesthatmustbeaccountedforinadigitaldesignisincreasingAsfrequenciesincrease,neweffects,whichmayhavebeennegligibleatslowerspeeds,starttobecomesignificantGenerallyspeaking,thecomplexityofadesignincreasesexponentiallywithincreasingvariablecountThesecondobstacleisthattheneweffects,whichcouldbeignoredindesignsofthepast,mustbemodeledtoaveryhighprecisionOftenthesenewmodelsarerequiredtobethreedimensionalinnature,orrequirespecializedanalogtechniquesthatfalloutsidetherealmsofthedigitaldesigner'sdisciplineTheobstaclesareperhapsmoreprofoundonthesubsystemssurroundingtheprocessorsincetheyevolveatamuchslowerrate,butstillmustsupporttheincreasingdemandsoftheprocessorFigure:Moore'slawinactionFigure:TheinterconnectbudgetshrinksastheperformanceandfrequencyofthesystemincreasesAllofthisleadstothepresentsituation:TherearenewproblemstosolveEngineerswhocansolvetheseproblemswilldefinethefutureThisbookwillequipthereaderwiththenecessarypracticalunderstandingtocontendwithmodernhighspeeddigitaldesignandwithenoughtheorytoseebeyondthisbookandsolveproblemsthattheauthorshavenotyetencounteredReadonChapter:IdealTransmissionLineFundamentalsIntoday'shighspeeddigitalsystems,itisnecessarytotreattheprintedcircuitboard(PCB)ormultichipmodule(MCM)tracesastransmissionlinesItisnolongerpossibletomodelinterconnectsaslumpedcapacitorsorsimpledelaylines,ascouldbedoneonslowerdesignsThisisbecausethetimingissuesassociatedwiththetransmissionlinesarebecomingasignificantpercentageofthetotaltimingmarginGreatattentionmustbegiventotheconstructionofthePCBsothattheelectricalcharacteristicsofthetransmissionlinesarecontrolledandpredictableInthischapterweintroducethebasictransmissionlinestructurestypicallyusedindigitalsystemsandpresentbasictransmissionlinetheoryfortheidealcaseThematerialpresentedinthischapterprovidesthenecessaryknowledgebaseneededtocomprehendallsubsequentchaptersTRANSMISSIONLINESTRUCTURESONAPCBORMCMTransmissionlinestructuresseenonatypicalPCBorMCMconsistofconductivetracesburiedinorattachedtoadielectricorinsulatingmaterialwithoneormorereferenceplanesThemetalinatypicalPCBisusuallycopperandthedielectricisFR,whichisatypeoffiberglassThetwomostcommontypesoftransmissionlinesusedindigitaldesignsaremicrostripsandstriplinesAmicrostripistypicallyroutedonanoutsidelayerofthePCBandhasonlyonereferenceplaneTherearetwotypesofmicrostrips,bu

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  • fankai 下载后发现, SI经典名著之一 黑宝书——高速数字设计.pdf 与 SI经典名著之二 红宝书——高速数字设计.pdf是同一本书。

    2011-04-05 09:51:09

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SI经典名著之二+红宝书——高速数字系统设计

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