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首页 *新书上架*红色工厂之梦:中国高度斯大林主义下的遗产

*新书上架*红色工厂之梦:中国高度斯大林主义下的遗产.pdf

*新书上架*红色工厂之梦:中国高度斯大林主义下的遗产

九月虺
2010-01-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*红色工厂之梦:中国高度斯大林主义下的遗产pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

DREAMOFAREDFACTORYThispageintentionallyleftblankDREAMOFAREDFACTORYTheLegacyofHighStalinisminChinaDeborahAKapleNewYorkOxfordOxfordUniversityPressOxfordUniversityPressOxfordNewYorkTorontoDelhiBombayCalcuttaMadrasKarachiKualaLumpurSingaporeHongKongTokyoNairobiDaresSalaamCapeTownMelbourneAucklandMadridandassociatedcompaniesinBerlinIbadanCopyright©byDeborahAKaplePublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,Inc,MadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataKaplc,DeborahADreamofaredfactory:thelegacyofhighStalinisminChinaDeborahAKaplepcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNIndustrialorganizationChinaIndustrialmanagementChinaIndustrialorganizationSovietUnionIndustrialmanagementSovietUnionSocialismChinaSocialismSovietUnionITitleHDCK''dcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperTomybestfriendandhusband,MiguelAngelCentenoThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceDreamofaRedFactory:TheLegacyofHighStalinisminChinaisastudyofenduringcommunistpowerandauthority,andlikeChina'smostbelovednovel,DreamofaRedChamber,itsmethodistocapturetheessenceofalargersocietythroughtheprismofasmallerworld,inthiscase,throughtheeyesoffactorymanagersandworkersItisthestoryoftheChineseCommunistParty's(CCP)"dream"oftransformingChinaintoamodern,socialist,industrializedcountryand,inparticular,thewayinwhichthePartywentaboutchangingthestructureoffactoryadministrationThisbookisalsoareinterpretationoftheSinoSovietrelationship,aboutwhichsomuchhasbeenwrittenand,untilnow,aboutwhichsolittlehasbeenknownFinally,inexaminingtheroleofimportedideasintheprocessofsocialchange,thisbookchroniclestheCCP'srelianceonanidealizedversionoftheSoviet"model"andhowStalinismultimatelybecameanintegralpartofChinesecommunismInwhenthecommunistscametopower,theyhadsomespecificgoalsforChina,likesocialistindustrialization,butfewconcreteplansThisbookdemonstrateshowtheyexpandedtheirgoalstoincludenotonlysocialistindustrializationbutworkersocializationandcontrolaswell,forChina'spopulationwaslarge,uneducated,andnotnecessarilyprocommunistEffectingsocialistindustrializationinChinawouldmeanmorethanchangingmanagersatafewfactoriesitwouldmeanthatworkershadtobetrainedandreeducatedasviziPreface"socialists"andthatmanagershadtolearnMarxismLeninisminordertocontrolandmobilizetheworkerscorrectlyWiththishugetaskfacingthem,theChineseCommunistPartyinstinctivelyturnedtotheSovietUnionforhelpTheUSSR,however,didnotprovidetheanswers,fortherelationshipbetweenStalinandMaowasnevergood,andtheUSSRwasbadlystrappedforcashafteritsdisastrouswarexperienceUndeterredandwithfewotherchoices,theCCPlaunchedahugetranslationprogramfromRussiantoChinesesothatChinacouldimmediatelybeginitsplannedindustrializationbasedontheSovietexperienceThisturnofevents,thoughunnoticedbytheoutsideworld,shapedthestyleandformofcommunismthateventuallydevelopedinChinaTheseneglectedoriginalsourcesthattheChinesetranslatedfromRussianformthebasisofthisbookWhatdidtheCCPchoosetotranslateintoChinese,andwhyWhatwasthe"Sovietmodel"thattheysoonurgedontheChinesepeopleThisbooklooksattheprimarysources(theChinesetranslationsandtheoriginalRussianbooks)inordertounderstandnotonlytheCCPvisionandintentioninthistransitionbutalsowhattheChinesecommunistsimportedandhowthisaffectedChina'sdevelopmentOneoftheimportantfindingsofthisbookisthattheCCPbaseditsworkinindustrialmanagementontheSovietFourthFiveYearPlanofBecausetheCCP'semulationofthisparticularperiodsoaffectedlaterChinesedevelopmentsandbecausethisperiodofSoviethistoryhasbeenoverlookedbyWesternspecialists,ChapterexaminesindustrialmanagementandorganizationintheUSSRduringtheseyearsTheCCPdidnotimportsomegeneric"Sovietmodel"butemulatedthemethodsandtechniquesofStalinism,inparticular,amodelthatexistedduringthebleakandoppressivepostwarrecoveryperiodknownas"HighStalinism"ThroughChapter'sexaminationofSovietmanagementandorganizationaltechniquesduringthisperiod,theelementsofHighStalinismemergeTheseweretheCommunistParty'sprimacyinfactorymanagement,theformationof"mass"organizationsinallfactoriesandenterprises,themilitarizationofmanagementrhetoric,thecreationof"reeducation"classesforworkersandmanagers,andtheequationofpatriotismwithplanfulfillmentAlongwiththevariousmanagementtechniquesandmethodsthattheCCPimportedfromStalin'sUSSRcamealloftheHighStalinistelements,whichlaterappearedasanimportantaspectofChineseindustriallifeTheSovietmanagementmodelasitactuallyexistedbetweenandfocusedonworkertrainingprograms,recruitmentmethods,andvariousmobilizationtechniquesOneoftheprincipalmethodstoutedintheSovietpress,andsubsequentlybytheCCP,wastheusePrefaceixofmasscampaignstopushworkerstoproduceAnexaminationofthehistoricalrecord,however,revealsonemajorfactthathadlastingconsequencesforChina'sdevelopmentandthattheChinesecouldnothavegleanedfromtheirreadingofthepressandjournalarticlesThecampaignmethodwassodisruptivetothenormalrhythmofproductionthattheFourthFiveYearPlanwassecretlydroppedinTheproblemsofthisSoviet"model"didnotappearintheCCP'sintroductiontotheChinesepeoplebetweenand,asChaptershowsInstead,thePartyfocusedonconvincingthepopulationthattheSovietshadcreatedthebestsocialistindustrialmanagementmodelpossibleItwasanenticingargumentbecauseoftheapparentparallelsbetweentheSovietconditionsofandtheChinesecircumstancesofForinstance,in,theSovietswererecoveringfromawarandwerefacedwithtraininganewworkforcetobegintherecoveryefforttheChinesewerealsorecoveringfromlongtermstrifeandalsofacedthetaskofcreatinganindustrialproletariatfromamostlyruralpopulationTheCCPpraisedSovietmethodsandtechniquesfromthisperiodasthewaytosolvetheseproblemsTheChinesetranslatedanddisseminatedtheUSSR'sSevenPreceptsofManagement,whichmainlyensuredCommunistPartycontrolovermanagement,andtheSoviettechniqueofusing"mass"methodsinthefactorybyrelyingontheParty,thelaborunion,andtheyouthgroup,allofwhichweretoorganize,control,andtrainworkersChapterintroducestheSovietmodelofenterprisemanagementastheChinesesawit,basedonChinesetranslationsofSovietmaterials,books,articles,andjournalsThemodel'soptimistictonereflectstheCCP'slackofexperienceandacquaintancewiththeworkingsofSovietsocialismTheclearlessoninthisliteratureis,again,thestrengthandpoweroftheSovietCommunistPartyineveryaspectofproductionandmanagementofenterprisesChapters,,andlookattheCCP'sthreegoalsthatwouldrealizeits"dreamofaredfactory"intheperiodbetweenand,illustratinghowthemostimportantHighStalinistpreceptofPartycontrolbecametheoutstandingcharacteristicoftheChineseindustrialmanagementstrategyChapterconcentratesonthegoalofindustrializationandhowtheCCPapproachedthetaskofmanagingasocialistfactoryTheChinesecommuniststookatwoprongedapproach:They,liketheSoviets,issuedaformalstatementcalledtheIndustrialManagementMechanism,andtheycreatedanindigenousprogramcalledDemocratizationofManagementthatfunctionedinthefactoriesaswellBothofthesemanagementmechanismsoperatingsimultaneouslycausedconfusionbutalsostrengthenedthepowerofthePartyinfactorymanagementIntheformalmanagementmechaxPrefacenism,theCCPcopiedtheoriginalSovietpreceptsandalsoincreasedthenumberofthoseemphasizingpartycontrolIntheDemocratizationmovement,thePartycontrolledallthecommitteesandgroupsthatwereformedChapterturnstotheimportantissueofworkersocialization,forwithoutastrongeducationandreeducationprogram,theCommunistPartycouldnotsolidifyitscontroloverthepopulationandcouldnotpursueits"dream"ofsocialistfactoriesIthadtocreateaworkingclassinChinaAgain,theCCPtookatwotieredapproach:Itsubjectedtheworkerstoaneducationprogramthattaughtthemthenewsocialist"worldview,"anditmadeorganizationalchangesinthemanagementhierarchyoffactoriesTheCCP'snewworldview,whichwaswrittenasworkers'handbooksanddistributedatwork,wasacompletereinterpretationofChinesehistoryasthehistoryofclassexploitation,includinganewsectionaboutthesignificantroleoftheCommunistPartyHeretheCCPintroducedtheconceptsof"classwar,""classstruggle,"and"thoughtcontrol,"allofwhichwereusedtogreateffectformanyyearsTosupplementtheteachings,theCCPthenestablishedSovietstylefactory"mass"organizations,includingfactoryPartycommittees,laborunions,andyouthgroupsThislargescalerelianceon"mass"organizationsinthefactorywastheCCP'smainvehicleforeffectingpoliticalcontrolofthepopulation,asseeninChapterThroughtheseorganizations,theCommunistPartywasabletomobilize,teach,andcontrolthemovementofallmembersbychannelingthemintomasscampaignsTheCCPsawsuchcampaignsasthebestwaytoachievelargeeconomicgoalsandalsotomanipulateandcontroltheworkersTheCCP'scampaignssoonexhibitedtheinfluenceofitsrelianceontheharshHighStalinistsourcesTheCCP'sfirstcampaignswereorganizedtoachieveeconomicgoals,butthesewerefollowedbycampaignswithmoreblatantlypoliticalgoalsSoonthepoliticalgoalsweremoreprominentthantheeconomicaims,andwitheachcampaigncamemorefearandintimidationastheCCP,liketheSovietParty,coerceditsworkersintofulfillingitsgoalsThisbookillustrateshowfromthebeginningtheearlystructuresandlessonsthattheCCPtookfromthewrittenHighStalinistsourcescreatedapowerfulandauthoritativeCommunistPartyinChinaAfterthisbookwascompleted,IspentseveralmonthsinthenewlyopenedSovietCommunistPartyarchivesinMoscowThisnewresearchontheSinoSovietrelationshipofthesconfirmstheconclusionsthatthisbookreaches,bothabouttherelationshipandtheconsequencesofChina'smassstudyprogramoftheSovietmodelintheearlysTheideasborrowedfromHighStalinismcombinedwiththeCCPgoalofpoliticalcontrolhadseveralconsequencesforChina,someofwhichendureeventodayFirst,theenvironmentatthefactoriesandPrefacexiinsocietyingeneralbecamepoliticizedmorequicklythanotherwisewouldhavebeenpossibleSecond,theCCPhadmorepowerthanitsSovietcounterpartdid,inbothindustryandsociety,andthird,theParty'sintrusionandcoercioninmanagementwasgreatveryearlyonFourth,deepanddivisiveclasslinesinsocietyweredrawn,withclearramificationsforthebitter"classstruggle"thatindeeddevelopedlaterBoththeCCP'srelianceonanidealizeddescriptionofableakstageofSoviethistoryanditsowndriveforpoliticalcontrolinsocietyhelpeddeveloptheCommunistParty'slegacyofcoercionandauthoritarianpower,whichendureseventodayMoscowDAKJanuaryThispageintentionallyleftblankAcknowledgmentsMygoodfortuneasIworkedonthisbookisevidentinthelonglistofinstitutionsthatprovidedassistanceIgratefullyacknowledgethesupportoftheHarrimanInstituteatColumbiaUniversitytheEastAsiaNationalResourceCenteratStanfordUniversitytheCenterforInternationalStudies,theCouncilonRegionalStudies,andthesociologydepartmentatPrincetonUniversitytheMellonFoundationtheSocialScienceResearchCouncilandtheInternationalResearchandExchangesBoardIntheformerUSSR,IextendmythankstotheUSSRAcademyofSciences'InstituteoftheFarEast,InstituteofScientificInformation,andInstituteofWorldEconomyandInternationalRelationsInthePeople'sRepublicofChina,IthanktheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences'InstituteontheSovietUnionandEasternEuropeIalsohavebeenblessedwithalonglistofsupportersandfriends,allofwhomcontributedinsomewaytothisbook(andnoneofwhomisresponsibleforanyofitserrors)AtPrincetonUniversity,IthanktheSociologyDepartmentandtheEastAsianStudiesDepartmentmyoriginaldissertationcommitteeofGilRozman,LynnWhite,andFrankDobbinandmymentorsandprofessors,MelTuminandMarvinBresslerAttheHarrimanInstitute,IthankmyfellowpostdoctoralscholarsGeraldEaster,RogerPeterson,andNedWalkerandespeciallymyfriendandadviser,KevinLaneyIalsomustmentionthemanyxzvAcknowledgmentscolleaguesandfriendsinBeijingandMoscowwhohelpedme,inparticularmygoodfriendIdaAronovnaKatsJosephBerlinerdeservesspecialmentionasanunswervingsupporterofmeandmyworkandasonewhoreadthemanuscriptseveraltimesandprovidedinsightfulcomments,andIthankalsotheanonymousreadersforOxfordUniversityPresswhodidagreatjobofreviewingthemanuscriptMythankstoOxfordUniversityPress'sNancyLaneandEdwardHarcourt,whoseprofessionalismandtalenthavemadethisprocessapleasureIalsooweagreatdebttoJohnSMajor,mydearfriendandcolleaguewhosomehowstayedinteresteduntiltheend,aswellastoJamesRMillarJeff,Edie,andWalterBlattnerBob,Edie,andDavidEngelSallyPaxton,AnnieReynolds,andofcoursemyclosefriends,theSweglefamilyMymostheartfeltthanksgoestomyfamily,whoalwaysstandsbehindmenomatterwhatIdoIfeelluckytobepartofthiswonderfulOhiofamily,whichincludesJack,Pat,andAddieKapleTravisHorstmanEstherKapleKimandRickStuckandtheirfamilyDawnandDavidRoebuckandtheirfamilyandJuliaandBobHareandtheirfamilyMostofall,IthankmyhusbandMiguelAngelCentenoforsharinghisknowledgeandenthusiasminmakingthisbookasgoodasitisContentsListofTablesxviiNoteonTransliterationxixModernChina'sStalinistRootsReadingtheSovietPressofTheInfluenceofHighStalinismChina'sViewoftheSovietModelWhyHighStalinismBookstheSovietsTranslatedintoChinese,TheRealityoftheSovietManagementModelHighStalinismandtheRoleofthePartyTheLaborProblemintheUSSRTheFourthFiveYearPlan:The"StalinPlan"ConclusionSovietSocialisminTranslationProblemsofCreatingaChineseWorkingClassSovietEnterpriseManagementMeansPartyPrimacyWorkerMobilizationandMotivationintheFactoryTheAgitatorintheFactoryTheProductionConferenceConclusionxviContentsIndustrialization:ManagingaSocialistEnterpriseTheDualApproachtoIndustrialEnterpriseManagementTheCCP'sIndustrialManagementMechanismDemocratizationofManagementConclusionSocialization:CreatingaChineseWorkingClassANewWorldviewforWorkersTheFactoryMassOrganizationsWorkerSocializationintheFactoryConclusionControl:ManipulatingtheMassesMassOrganizationsintheFactoryMassCampaignsandMovementsConclusionTheTriumphofHighStalinismTheWorstofStalinisminTranslationPoliticalControloverEconomicRationalityCCPGoals:ThreeExplicit,OneImplicitTheLastingLessonsofHighStalinismAppendix:TheSovietUnionandChinaSignAgreementsinMoscow,February,NotesBibliographyIndexListofTablesChangesintheNumberofWorkersandEmployeesintheSovietNationalEconomy,GosplanUSSR'sLaborRecruitmentPlanandItsFulfillmentforWorkinConstruction,Industry,andTransport,GosplanUSSR'sLaborTrainingPrograminNumberofIndustrial,Construction,andTransportWorkersParticipatinginSocialistCompetitionsintheUSSR,GrowthintheNumberofCommunistsandPrimaryPartyOrganizationsinIndustry,Construction,andTransportintheUSSR,andPopulationandEmploymentinChina,ThispageintentionallyleftblankNoteonTransliterationThereisnoeasywaytosolvetheproblemofcorrectlyrenderingRussianorChinesewordsintoEnglishInthistext,Ihavetriedtobeconsistentthroughout,sothatareaderwhoknowseitherlanguagewillnotbeconfusedIhaveallowedconventiontoprevailinseveralcases,whereawordhasalreadybecomefamiliarspelledinacertainwayHence,thetextincludeswordslikeGorky(insteadofGorkii),orDalny(insteadofDal'nii),orChiangKaishekThispageintentionallyleftblankDREAMOFAREDFACTORYAstandcanbemadeagainstaninvasionbyanarmynostandcanbemadeagainstinvasionbyanideaVictorHugoModernChina'sStalinistRootsInthelates,theworldwatchedasthetwoleadingcommunistregimesgrappledwithseriouschallengestotheirauthorityandpowerInChina,theChineseCommunistParty(theCCP)remainedfirmlyinchargebyorderingtankstocrushitsvocaloppositionIntheUSSR,theSovietCommunistPartytriedtousetanksandfailedThecollapseofthehardlinercoupinAugustsignaledtheendofoverseventyyearsoftheCommunistPartyoftheSovietUnion(theCPSU)anditsdominationoverSovietsocietyBothareturntosuchauthoritarianpracticesinChinaandthetotaldisintegrationoftheCPSUwouldhavebeenunimaginablejustafewyearsagoThesedramaticchangeshaveledmanyobserverstoreflectonthereasonsbehindthefailureofSovietcommunism,butgiventheactualsocial,political,andeconomicdeteriorationthatwenowknowcharacterizedcommunismintheformerUSSRandEasternEurope,themoreinterestingquestionishowthehardlinershaveretainedpowersosuccessfullyinChinaThelatteristhestartingpointofthisstudy,whichexplorestherootsofCommunistPartycontrolinChinaTheoriginsofChinesecommunistpowerandauthorityare,ironically,rootedinSovietcommunismTheyearsofbitterdefeatsandGuomindangPartybetrayals,thetimespentinYenan,andthelongyearsofthewaragainstJapanalsoinfluencedthedevelopmentofChinesecommunismTheYenanyearswereparticularlyimportantDreamofaRedFactorytoshapingMaoZedong'spoliticalbeliefsandstrengtheningcommunistresolveIn,hereflectedthisresolveandhisdeeplyfeltnationalismwhenheproclaimedthatChina"willnolongerbeana

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