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首页 柏拉图的垫脚石

柏拉图的垫脚石.pdf

柏拉图的垫脚石

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2010-01-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《柏拉图的垫脚石pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Plato’sSteppingStones:DegreesofMoralVirtueMichaelCormackContinuumPlato’sSteppingStonesContinuumStudiesinAncientPhilosophySeriesEditor:JamesFieser,UniversityofTennesseeatMartinAristotle’sEthics–HopeMayCicero’sEthics–HaraldThorsrudHappinessandGreekEthicalThought–MAndrewHolowchakSocraticMethod–RebeccaBensonCainPlato’sSteppingStones:DegreesofMoralVirtueMichaelCormackContinuumInternationalPublishingGroupTheTowerBuildingMaidenLane,SuiteYorkRoadNewYork,NYLondonSENX#MichaelSCormack,AllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,oranyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpriorpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersMichaelSCormackhasassertedhisrightundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,tobeidentifiedasAuthorofthisworkBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:(hardback)TypesetbyDataStandardsLtd,Frome,SomersetUKPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyBiddlesLtd,KingsLynn,NorfolkThisbookisdedicatedtothememoryofmyverygoodfriend,ThadWoosterThebeautyoftheworldhasbeendiminishedwiththelossofhischarmandlaughter,andwearenowinasadderplacewithouthimAcknowledgementsThisbookoriginallybeganasmyPhDdissertation,‘Virtue,Knowledge,andHappinessinPlato’sEarlyandMiddleDialogues’(UniversityofKansas,)Accordingly,IwishtothankallthoseteacherswhohelpedmeseethebeautyofPlato’sphilosophyingeneralandofthePlatonicdialogueinparticularSpecifically,IwanttothankKarenBellforsparkingmyinitialinterestinPlato,andMikeYoungforshowingmewhatitmeanstobealoverofwisdomIespeciallywanttothankTomTuozzofortheexpertguidanceheprovidedasmydissertationadvisorAnysignificantinsightIhavegainedintoPlato’sphilosophyhasbeenadirectresultofhisexampleofrigorousscholarshipIwouldalsoliketothankJamesFieser,UniversityofTennesseeatMartin,andPhilipdeBaryandSarahDouglasatThoemmesContinuumformakingthepublicationofthisbookpossibleIespeciallywanttothankTimothyBartelandJohnSargantfortheircarefuleditingandhelpfulsuggestionswhichgreatlyimprovedthequalityofthisbookMostimportantlyIwanttothankmywife,JillHardesty,andourtwobeautifuldaughters,EmmaandAnnaTheworldismademorebeautifulbyyourlove,yoursmiles,yoursparklingeyes,yourmerepresenceinitThethreeofyouarethebestteachersanyonecouldeverhopeforIthankyoufortheconstantloveandsupportyouhavealwaysgivenmeMylifewouldtrulybeincompletewithoutyouContentsIntroductionChapter:InterpretingthedialoguesHistorical,developmental,andunitarianinterpretationsPurposeofthedialoguesChapter:ThecraftanalogyintheearlydialoguesThecraftanalogyandpietyintheEuthyphroThecraftanalogyandcourageintheLachesThecraftanalogyandmoderationintheCharmidesTheroleofknowledgeintheearlydialoguesChapter:PotentialdifficultieswiththecraftanalogyCraftknowledgeintheGorgiasThecraftanalogyandjusticeintheRepublicIThepossiblemisuseofknowledgeintheHippiasMinorChapter:VirtueanditsacquisitionTheProtagorasandtheteachingofvirtueTheunityofvirtueEpistemicpessimismintheMenoCanvirtuebetaughtTheroleoftrueopinionintheMenoVirtueandopinionintheProtagorasandtheMenoChapter:DegreesofvirtueinthemiddledialoguesPopularvirtueinthePhaedoThevirtueoftheauxiliaries:ShapingthesoulthroughpracticeandhabitJusticeinthestateandjusticeinthesoulThevirtueofthephilosopherrulers:TurningthesoultowardtheGoodResultsoftheeducationalprocessThephilosopher’sloveofBeautyintheSymposiumChapter:TheroleofknowledgeinvirtueThecompletionofthecraftanalogyTheproductandbenefitofvirtueTheincompletenatureofknowledgeoftheformsVariousdegreesofvirtueConclusionThenecessityofknowledgePlato’scontinuingsignificanceNotesBibliographyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionHumanwisdomisworthlittleornothingSocratesHumanhistory,inonesignificantsense,canbecharacterizedbythedrivetoattaingreaterknowledgeaboutourselvesandoursurroundingsCoupledwiththedesireforknowledgeisthebeliefthattheaccumulationofhumanwisdommightenableustoleadbetterlivesThissameviewwasprevalentnearlytwentyfourcenturiesagoinancientAthens,anditplaysacentralroleinPlato’sphilosophicdialoguesGiventheobviousbenefitofaccumulatedknowledge,whatcouldSocratesmeanwhenhestatesthathumanknowledgeisworthlittleornothingSocrates,perhapsthemostenigmaticofancientphilosophers,claimedthatitwashisawarenessofhisownignorancethatdistinguishedhimfromhisfellowAtheniancitizensandearnedhimthedivinerecognitionofbeingthewisestofmenYetinspiteofhisclaimthathiswisdomisworthless,thecharacterSocratesimpliesthroughoutmanyofPlato’sdialoguesthattheproperwaytoliveone’slifeistostrivetowardtheattainmentofknowledgeandwisdomInfactSocratesservesastheexemplarofthewisdomlover,forinclaimingthat‘theunexaminedlifeisnotworthliving’(Apologya),hesuggeststhatthesearchforknowledgeandwisdomitselfplaysanessentialpartintheachievementofagoodlifeTheunexaminedlifeiswhatSocratesimploredhisfellowAthenianstoavoid,alifeinwhichone’sbeliefs,values,andactionsremainunquestionedanduntestedIfSocrates’claimabouttheimportanceofknowledgeistobebelieved,thentheremustexistakindofwisdomthatSocratesdoesnotdeemworthlessThefocusofthisbookwillbeuponthenatureofthatworthwhilewisdomanditsrelationshiptovirtueAparadoxicalviewfoundthroughoutPlato’searlyandmiddledialoguesistheidentificationofvirtuewithknowledgeContemporaryandancientreadersalikehavefoundthisviewpuzzling,ifnotcounterintuitive,foritcertainlyseemsthatonecouldbeconsideredvirtuouswithoutthepossessionofknowledgeForexample,asoldierwhogoesintobattletofacetheenemyisgenerallyconsideredtobecourageousButisthesoldier’scouragedependentuponthepossessionofknowledge,asSocratesimpliesAdditionally,therearemanyseeminglyknowledgeablepeoplewhononethelessfailtoexhibiteventhefirstsignsofvirtueGiventhatknowledge,asitiscommonlyunderstood,appearstobeneithernecessarynorsufficientforvirtuousaction,itseemspuzzlingtothinkthattheremustexistaconnectionbetweenknowledgeandvirtue,asSocratesimpliesinsomanyofthedialoguesIftheredoesexistarelationshipbetweenknowledgeandvirtue,thenhowdoesPlatointendforthisconnectiontobeunderstoodWhatexactlyisentailedinPlato’suseoftheterms‘knowledge’and‘virtue’IsknowledgenecessaryifoneistobevirtuousIsknowledgeitselfsufficientorarethereadditionalrequirementsforvirtueIfvirtueisatypeofknowledge,thenwhatistheobjectofthatknowledge,andhowdoesthismoralknowledgerelatetootherkindsofknowledgeAnswerstoquestionssuchasthesearerequiredifoneistogainanyinsightintotherelationshipbetweenknowledgeandvirtueInthisbookIexploretherelationshipbetweenknowledgeandvirtueinseveralofPlato’searlyandmiddledialoguesIndoingsoIexplainthePlatonicconceptionofmoralknowledgebyexaminingPlato’sviewsconcerningthenatureofknowledgeingeneral,theexistenceofdifferentdegreesofknowledgeandopinion,andfinallytherelationshipofthesedifferentcognitivestatestodifferentlevelsofvirtueInmyexaminationofthedialoguesIshowthatPlatomakesseveraldistinctionsbetweendifferenttypesofknowledgeanddifferenttypesofopinionForexample,whilePlatodistinguishes‘truevirtue’,whichinvolvesknowledge,from‘theillusoryappearanceofvirtue’(Phaedob),whichdoesnotinvolveknowledge,IrecognizefurtherdistinctionsbetweenvaryingdegreesofvirtuethatcorrespondtodifferentcognitivestatesnotcapturedbythisgeneraldistinctionFurthermore,whereasPlatoclearlydistinguishesbetweenthecognitivestatesofknowledgeandopinionindialoguessuchastheMeno,Phaedo,andRepublic,hisdistinctionsbetweenthemoresubtlevarietiesofknowledgeandopinionarenotalwaysasobviousIhopetoclarifythisaspectofPlato’sphilosophyIarguethatthevariouscognitivestatesintroducedinthedialoguescorrespondnottoasinglevirtuebutthateachcognitivestatecorrespondstoauniquelevelordegreeofvirtueThusmyclaimisthattherearemoredegreesofvirtueatworkinthedialoguesthanonemightcommonlyimagineandthatanydiscussionofPlatonicethicsmusttakethisfeatureintoaccountFurthermore,thedifferentlevelsofvirtuearenotmerelyinterestingfromanacademicstandpointTheyalsohaveapracticalsignificance,fortheyenableonetoprogressfromonelevelofvirtuetoPlato’sSteppingStonesanotherThevariousdegreesofvirtuearethesteppingstonesinone’supwardjourneytowardknowledgeandwisdomIbegininChapterbyillustratingthedifferencesbetweentheprimaryinterpretationsofthedialoguesasawhole,concentratingonthehistorical,developmental,andunitarianaccountsIultimatelyhopetoshowparticularweaknesseswithboththehistoricalanddevelopmentalinterpretationsandtodemonstratethattheunitarianinterpretationisthebestwaytoaccountfortheexistenceofconsistentethicalviewsfoundthroughoutPlato’searlyandmiddleperioddialoguesIemphasizetheprotrepticandprolepticnatureoftheearlydialoguesbyshowingthatthepurposeofmanyoftheearlydialoguesistoturnthereadertowardphilosophybyintroducingsignificantphilosophicalquestionsandproblemsthataremorefullyaddressedinthemiddleperioddialoguesPlato’sdialoguesareprotrepticinthattheyintroducereaders,bothancientandmodernalike,toimportantconceptsthataffectusinourdailylives,suchaspiety,courage,moderation,andjusticeThedialoguespointtothestudyofphilosophyasthepathonemusttaketogainadeeperunderstandingoftheseconceptsInthissense,thedialoguesturnonetowardphilosophyasameanstoachieveagreaterunderstandingofwhatinitiallyappeartobeonlypracticalconcernsPlato’sdialoguesarealsoprolepticinthattheearlydialoguesanticipateamorecompleteelaborationandexplanationofconceptsinlaterdialoguesAreadermayinitiallyonlybeattractedtotheideaofcourageanditsacquisition,buttheprotrepticandprolepticnatureofthedialoguescaneventuallyleadthereaderfarbeyondtheoriginalpracticaltopicofinterest,totheultimateapprehensionofuniversaltruthsInChapter,IbeginmyinvestigationintotheroleofknowledgeinthePlatonicconceptionofvirtuebyexaminingthekindsofknowledgedescribedintheearlydialoguesofdefinition,thosedialoguesinwhichtheparticipantsseekthedefinitionofaparticularvirtueIconcentrateonSocrates’useofcraftknowledgeasamodelforunderstandingmoralknowledgeIlookspecificallyattheEuthyphro,Laches,andCharmidesInthesedialoguesSocratesclearlyrecognizestheanalogousnatureofacraft(te´xnh)andvirtue(a|reth´)Withintheexaminationofwhathascometobecalledthecraftanalogy,IinvestigatethenatureofcraftknowledgeandthestrongandweakpointsofSocrates’analogicalargumentsbaseduponthesimilaritybetweenthevariouscraftsandvirtueIalsoinvestigatethenatureofSocraticselfknowledge,fortheconceptoftherecognitionofone’sknowledgeandignorance,aswellasthelimitationsofknowledge,willplayanimportantroleinmyoverallviewofPlatonicepistemologyandethicsInChapter,IexamineselectionsfromtheGorgias,RepublicI,andIntroductionHippiasMinorinanattempttoseehowPlatoaddressessomeoftheproblematicissuesconcerningthecraftanalogyIexploretheparticularproblemofthepossiblemisuseofknowledgeasitisaddressedinthesedialoguesIndoingsoIfirstdemonstratethesufficiencyofknowledgeforvirtueYetwithinthisdiscussionistherecognitionthatthereexistotherpossibleroutestowardvirtuethatapparentlydonotrequireknowledgeThuswhileknowledgemaybeasufficientconditionforvirtue,itwouldappearthatitisnotanecessaryconditionforvirtueTheimplicationsofthisclaimwillbefurtheraddressedinChaptersandUltimately,Ishowthatcertainessentialfeaturesofcraftknowledgecanbegleanedfromanumberoftheearlydialogues,andthatPlatointendsforthereadertoviewcraftknowledgeasanadequatemodelforunderstandingmoralknowledgeInChapter,IaddresstheconceptofvirtueanditsacquisitionbyexaminingselectionsfromtheProtagoras,Euthydemus,andMenoInmyexaminationoftheProtagorasIemphasizethedistinctionbetweenthePlatonicconceptionofvirtue,whichnecessarilyinvolvesknowledge,andthepopularconceptionofvirtue,whichdoesnotinvolveknowledgeTheMenoservesasatransitionaldialoguebetweenPlato’searlyandmiddleperiodsofcompositionAssuch,itisanimportantdialoguewhichprovidesfurthercluesthataidintheconstructionofacomprehensiveunderstandingofPlato’sepistemologicalandethicalviewsthroughoutthedialoguesMyexaminationoftheMenoprimarilyemphasizesthedistinctionPlatodrawsbetweenknowledge(e|pisth´mh)andtrueopinion(a|lhuh`qdo´ja)andtheimplicationthisepistemologicaldistinctionhasforPlatonicethicsThediscussionoftheMenoiscomplementedbyanexaminationofpassagesfromtheEuthydemusInChapter,IexaminetheroleknowledgeplaysinthePhaedo,Republic,andSymposium,dialoguesinwhichonefindsreferencetoPlato’smetaphysicaltheoryofformsRecognizingthatPlatoholdstheformstobetheproperobjectsofknowledge,Icomparethistypeofknowledgetobothselfknowledgeandcraftknowledge,tobetterunderstandtheirrelationshiptoPlatonicmoralknowledgeThedialoguesofthemiddleperioddemonstratethatknowledgeoftheformsservesastheparadigmforPlatonicwisdomThistypeofknowledgeisstableandcertainbecausethecorrespondingobjectsofknowledgeareperfect,eternal,andchangelessThedifficulty,however,withthislevelofepistemiccertaintyisthatitappearstobeimpossibletoattainThisfactisaddressedingreaterdetailinChapterGiventhatPlatodistinguishesknowledgefromopinioninseveraldialogues,IreturntothisrelationshipinChapterandinvestigatethePlato’sSteppingStonesroletrueopinionplaysasaguideinone’sactions,aswellasexaminingthebenefitandreliabilityoftrueopinionWithinthisdiscussionIrecognizetwotypesofopinion:trueopinionacquiredbynatureandtrueopinionacquiredthroughhabitIarguethattheprimarydifferencebetweenthesetwostatesofopinion,whenseenasguidesforone’saction,istobefoundintheirdegreeofreliabilityOne’sopinioncouldbestableortransient,dependinguponthemannerinwhichitwasacquiredSimilarly,thedegreeofone’svirtuewillcorrespondtotheparticularaccompanyingcognitivestateIillustratethedistinctionPlatointendstodrawbetweentrueopinionacquiredbynatureandtrueopinionacquiredthroughhabitbyrecognizingtheauxiliariesintheRepublicasrepresentativesofhabituallyacquiredtrueopinionIarguethatthehabitualtrueopinionoftheauxiliaries,acquiredthroughmanyyearsofpracticeandtraining,ismorereliableasaguideforactionthanthemerepossessionofnaturallyacquiredtrueopinionConsequently,thetypeofvirtuethatcorrespondstohabituallyacquiredtrueopinionismorereliablethananytypeofvirtueacquiredbynatureAdditionally,Iexaminethepossibilityoftrueopinionoftheforms,anddiscusstherelationshipbetweenthiscognitivestateandtheothervarietiesoftrueopinionRecognizingtrueopiniontobealessercognitivestatethanthatofknowledge,IexplaintherelationshipbetweenknowledgeandtrueopinionandthenexaminetherelationshipbetweenthesevariouscognitivestatesandtheircorrespondingdegreesofvirtueGivenourlimitedabilitytoacquireknowledgeinthislife,theincompletenatureofknowledgeisanimportantaspectofPlatonicepistemologyIfPlatowerenotinterestedinemphasizingtheincompletenatureofknowledgeandwisdom,perhapshewouldhavewrittenhisphilosophicalworksinadifferentstyleThecharacterofaphilosophicdialogue,especiallyanaporeticdialogue,issuchthatknowledgeandunderstandingareoftenexplicitlyexpressedonlytothedegreeoftheinterlocutor’sabilities,andthetaskisleftforthereadertocontinuethephilosophicinvestigationonherownPlatorecognizesthelimitationsplaceduponknowledgeandthedifficultyincommittinghisphilosophytowritingduetothestaticnatureofthewrittenwordandtheinabilityoflanguagetoexpressthetruthfully:Thereisnowritingofmineaboutthesematters,norwillthereeverbeoneForthisknowledgeisnotsomethingthatcanbeputintowordslikeothersciencesbutafterlongcontinuedintercoursebetweenteacherandpupil,injointpursuitofthesubject,suddenly,likelightflashingforthwhenafireiskindled,itisborninthesoulandstraightawaynourishesitself(SeventhLetterc–d)IntroductionPlatofurtherclaimsthatknowledgeofthehighesttruthscannotbewritteninabook,butrathermustbe‘writtenonthesoulofthehearertogetherwithunderstanding’(Phaedrusa)OnecannotsimplyimpartknowledgefromteachertostudentKnowledgetakesholdinone’ssoulastheresultofadynamic,interactiveprocessofinvestigationbetweenteacherandstudentThisdynamicprocesswasexemplifiedbySocrates’elencticmethodofinvestigationPlato’sdramaticportrayalofthephilosophicconversationsofSocratesandhiscompanions,however,isonlyastaticexampleofthedynamicsearchfortruthAssuch,thedialoguesservetoremindthereaderoftheincompletenatureofknowledgeLikeSocrates,onemustbecognizantoftheselimitationsInfact,toliveanexaminedlifeistomakeoneselfawareoftheincompletenatureofone’sunderstandingandtocontinueone’ssearchfortruthThusinmyexaminationofthevariouslevelsofknowledge,IalsoaddressthedegreetowhicheachcognitivestateislimitedandincompleteIexamineavarietyofcognitivestatesthatPlatodescribesthroughoutthedialoguesandshowtheirrelationshiptovariouslevelsofvirtueAlthougheachofthesecognitivestatescanserveasaguidetowardvirtuousaction,andalthoughthevirtuousactionsthemselvesmayberemarkablysimilarifnotidentical,IarguethatthedegreeofvirtueisuniquetoeachparticularcognitivestateInarguingfordifferentlevelsofvirtueIdonotintendtoclaimthatthevariousdegreesofvirtuearecompletelydistinctfromoneanotherRather,thevarioustypesofvirtuedifferindegreesofreliability,permanence,andcompletenessFurthermore,Iexaminetherelationshipbetweenthesedifferingcognitive

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