加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 有中国特色资本主义capitalism+with+chinese+characters

有中国特色资本主义capitalism+with+chinese+characters.pdf

有中国特色资本主义capitalism+with+chines…

dada
2010-01-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《有中国特色资本主义capitalism+with+chinese+characterspdf》,可适用于战略管理领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankCAPITALISMWITHCHINESECHARACTERISTICSSince,theChineseeconomyhasgrownphenomenallyThisisnotindisputeByexactlywhatmechanismshasChinamanagedtogrowsofastThereismoreroomfordebateonthisquestionAwidespreadviewisthatprivateentrepreneurship,financialliberalization,andpoliticalreformsplayedaminorroleinexplainingChina’seconomictakeoffBasedonarchivalresearchandsurveydata,thisbookoffersanalternativeview:Privateentrepreneurship,facilitatedbyaccesstocapitalandmicroeconomicflexibility,wasatthecenterofChina’stakeoffinthesThepoliticalsystem,thenasnow,wasauthoritarian,butitwasmovinginaliberaldirectionChinalackedwellspecifiedpropertyrights,butitsubstantiallyimprovedsecurityofproprietorsButgiventhisinitialsuccess,howthentoexplainthesubstantialdistortionsintheChineseeconomytodayThekeytogettingtheChinastoryrightistorecognizetheexistenceoftwoChinas–anentrepreneurialruralChinaandastatecontrolledurbanChinaInthes,ruralChinagainedtheupperhand,andtheresultwasrapidaswellasbroadbasedgrowthInthes,urbanChinatriumphedwhentheChinesestatereversedmanyoftheproductiveruralexperimentsofthepreviousdecadeWhilethisreversaldoesnotshowupintheGDPnumbers,itshowsupinthewelfareimplicationsofgrowthSincetheearlys,householdincomehaslaggedbehindeconomicgrowthandthelaborshareofGDPhasfallenSocialperformancehasdeterioratedThedirectionalliberalismofChinainthesandtheemergingIndiamiracletodaydebunkthewidespreadnotionthatdemocracyisautomaticallyantigrowthAsthecountrymarksitsthanniversaryofreformsin,ChinafacessomeofitstoughesteconomicchallengesandvulnerabilitiesThelongoverduepoliticalreformsarerequiredtoimprovegovernanceandaccountabilityandtoputChinaonasustainablepathofdevelopmentProfessorYashengHuangteachespoliticaleconomyandinternationalmanagementattheSloanSchoolofManagement,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyHepreviouslyheldfacultypositionsattheUniversityofMichiganandattheHarvardBusinessSchoolandasaconsultantattheWorldBankHehaspublishedInflationandInvestmentControlsinChina(),FDIinChina(),andSellingChina(Chineseversionin)HisworkonFDIinChinahasbeenfeaturedintheWallStreetJournal,theEconomist,Bloomberg,Businessworld,LeMonde,EconomicandPoliticalWeekly,andEconomicTimes,aswellasinChinesepublicationssuchasNanfangZhoumo,NanfangDushibao,EconomicObserver,GlobalEntrepreneur,ChinaEntrepreneur,FortuneWeekly,stCenturyBusinessHerald,Liangwang,andXinhuanetInadditiontoacademicjournalarticles,hehaswrittenforFinancialTimes,ForeignPolicy,andNewYorkTimesIncollaborationwithotherscholars,ProfessorHuangisconductingresearchoneducationandhumancapitalinChinaandIndiaandnonperformingloans,privatization,andentrepreneurshipinChinaAtMIT,ProfessorHuangrunsa“ChinaLab”andan“IndiaLab”thathelpentrepreneurialbusinessesinChinaandinIndiaimprovetheirmanagementCapitalismwithChineseCharacteristicsEntrepreneurshipandtheStateYASHENGHUANGSloanSchoolofManagement,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBN©YashengHuangInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgeBook(EBL)hardbackThisbookisdedicatedtoNianGuangjiu,ZhengLefeng,andSunDawuandmillionslikethemwhocreatedthetrueChinamiracleContentsPrefacepageixADetailedSynopsisoftheBookxiiiJustHowCapitalistIsChinaTheEntrepreneurialDecadeAGreatReversalWhatIsWrongwithShanghaiCapitalismwithChineseCharacteristicsNotesBibliographyIndexviiPrefaceIn,duringmyfieldresearchinShanghaiformylastbook,SellingChina,IaskedagovernmentofficialwhetherhecouldintroducemetosomeprivateentrepreneursHegavemeaquizzicallookandasked,“AreyouaHarvardprofessor”(IwasteachingatHarvardthen)“AsaHarvardprofessor,”hecontinued,“whyareyouinterestedinthosepeoplesellingwatermelons,tea,androttenapplesonthestreet”Somewhattakenabackbyhisresponse,IgentlyremindedhimthatcompaniessuchasMicrosoftandHewlettPackardwereallfoundedandrunbyprivateentrepreneursIthenventuredtohimthatmaybethereasonprivateentrepreneursinShanghaiwerejustsellingwatermelonsandteaisbecausetheseweretheonlyactivitiesthegovernmentallowedthemtodoThecommentbythatShanghaiofficialhasalwaysstayedwithme,anditprovidedtheinitialinspirationtowritethisbook(Onechapterinthisbookisentitled,“WhatiswrongwithShanghai”)ItisstrikinghowhiscommentcontrastswithmuchofthetheorizingaboutChinesereformsintheWestAprevailingviewamongWesternacademics,especiallyeconomists,isthatthegoaloftheChinesestatewastocreateamarketeconomybasedonprivateownership,butthereformswereblockedbypoliticalobstaclesForpoliticalexpediency,policymakersthensettledforthesecondbestoptionstoachievethesamegoals–suchaspartiallyprivatizingstateownedenterprises(SOEs),introducingforeigncompetition,andencouragingnewentrepreneurshipwhileretainingSOEsThetruthisclosertothespiritofthecommentbythatShanghaiofficialAslateasmuchoftheChineseofficialdomheldprivateentrepreneurshipinuttercontemptIfitisindeedthecasethattheChinesestatechosetorepresstheprivatesector,therearesomemajorpuzzlesForone,howtoexplaintheundisputedfactthattheprivatesectoractuallymanagedtogrowovertimeIprovidedanexplanationinmylastbook,SellingChina,whichixxPrefaceshowsthatforeigndirectinvestment(FDI),insteadofbringingtechnologyandknowhow,actedasventurecapitalorprivateequitybyprovidingsomefinancingtotherepressedentrepreneursThisisthereasonwhyFDIissoprevalentinChina,fromhightechtolowtechindustriesandfromrichtopoorregionsofthecountrySeveralempiricalpapershavesystematicallyconfirmedthishypothesissincethepublicationofmybookFDIisnottheendofthestoryFDIflowedintoChinainthes,andifFDIexplainedthegrowthoftheprivatesectorandeconomicgrowthinthes,howdoesoneexplainthedecadeofthesThequestionofthesexposedmyownignoranceofrecentChinesehistoryIhadalwaysassumed,asdomanyotheracademics,thattheChinesereformsfollowedagradualisttrajectory–firstbeginningwithmodest,smallstepsandthenacceleratingthepaceandtheintensityofeconomictransformationovertimeFormanyyears,IheldtheviewthatthereformsintheswerefarmoreradicalandfarreachingthanthereformsinthesAreaderofthisbookwouldrecognizethatthethesisofthisbookisexactlytheoppositeItshowsthatthetrueChinamiracleoccurredinthesandthatitwasamiraclecreatedbythebottomupentrepreneurshipandconsiderableliberalizationonmanyfrontsInthes,therewasinfactasubstantialreversalofreformsIbegantoquestionmyownassumptionafterIhadanopportunitytodiscussanddebatewithDrZhangWeiZhang,nowalecturerofChineseeconomyatCambridgeUniversity,isextremelyknowledgeableaboutthehistoryofreformsHewasarisingstarintheChinesegovernmentinthes,headinganimportanteconomicdevelopmentzoneinTianjinatayoungageZhangWei,gentlybutfirmly,toldmethatmygradualistperspectivesignificantlyunderstatedthepaceofreformsinthesSincethatconversation,Ibegantonoticethatquiteafewinsiders–thosewhoworkedintheChinesesystem–heldasimilarviewLiChangping,aruralofficialwhomIquotedinChapter,wasmostdirectaboutthereversalofreformsinthesButanacademictreatmentofthistopicrequiresmorethanproducingtheopinionsofinsidersTheviewhastobesubstantiatedbydataThisisthechallengeFewsocialscientistsappreciatejusthowdifficultitistogetaccurateChinesedata,especiallyaboutthesTheCulturalRevolutioncompletelydestroyedtheChinesesystemofdatacollectionAccordingtooneaccount,onlypeopleworkedattheNationalBureauofStatistics(NBS)inand,aslateas,percentoftheChineseeconomicdatawerehandledmanually(In,theNBSconductedaneconomiccensusAnAmericaneconomistinquiredaboutobtainingtherawdataPrefacexiofthecensus,towhichthereportedresponsewasthatthemagnetictapecontainingthedatafellintowaterandwascompletelydamaged)AtMIT,Ioftenmarvelatandenvysomeofmycolleaguesfortheirabilitytogeneratedatafortheirresearch–bydesigningelaborateexperiments,sometimesusingtheirstudentsasobjectsOneofmycolleaguesdesignedanexperimentinwhichhewouldtakepicturesofstudentsinthedinninghall(MaybeIwouldonlymarvelatthemuptoapoint)Idonothavethesimilarluxuryofgeneratingdataexperimentally,anditisnoteasytoretrospectivelysurveypeopleabouttheirpast,especiallywhentherelevantpeopleareformerpremiersorministers(includingquiteafewwhoarestillpersonanongrata,politically)Isettledonanalternative–researchinggovernmentdocumentsChinaisnotshortondocumentsOneparticularsourceofdocumentsprovedtobeextremelyusefultomyproject–collectionsofbankdocumentsForthisbookproject,Iexaminedthousandsofpagesofbankdocuments,manygoingbacktotheearlysItisonthebasisofthecumulativeweightofthedocumentaryevidencethatIcametorejectthegradualistinterpretationofChinesereformsAskepticalreadermayarguethataconclusionbasedondocumentaryevidenceisnotrigorousenough(Apartfromthedocumentaryevidence,Ihavealsocollectedasubstantialbodyofsurveydata)Inlevelingthiscriticism,oneshouldberemindedthatthegradualistperspectivewasneversystematicallyproveninthefirstplaceThemostconvincingpieceofevidenceinsupportofthegradualistperspectiveistherisingoutputsharebytheprivatesectorInChapter,IwentintosomedetailexplainingwhythisisaproblematicindicatorofpolicyevolutionThequestionofmethodologicalrigorismostrelevantwhenwetrytodrawcausalinferences,notwhenweattempttoestablishfactsHereisonemajordifferencebetweenresearchingChineseeconomyandresearchingAmericaneconomyInstudiesofAmericaneconomy,scholarsmaydebateabouttheeffectsof,say,“Reagantaxcuts”InstudiesoftheChineseeconomy,themorerelevantquestionwouldbe,DidthegovernmentcuttaxesinthefirstplaceMuchofthisbookisaboutdocumentingfacts,includingestablishinganaccuratedefinitionoftownshipandvillageenterprises(TVEs)andcomingupwithananalyticallyappropriatemeasureofpolicyevolutiontowardtheprivatesectorTwoindividualsshouldbesingledoutforbeingmosthelpfulinmyefforttosourcedocumentaryevidenceonChinesereformsOneisJeanHung,whowasthelibrarianattheUniversityServiceCentreattheChineseUniversityofHongKongJeancreatedanamazingcollectionofdocumentsxiiPrefaceonChinaOnebookthatIusedatherlibraryshowsthereachandthedepthofhercollection:OnlycopiesofthatbookwereeverprintedHercollectiongoeswayback–tothelatesandtheearlys–andwasmeticulouslycataloguedIoweherahugedebtofgratitudeNancyHearst,atHarvard’sFairbankCenterLibrary,wasequallyinstrumentaltomyprojectHerlibrary,unquestionably,isthebestplacetodoresearchoncontemporaryChinaoutsideofAsiaNancyhasalsohelpedthisbookprojectinotherwaysSheeditedandproofreadtheearlierversionsandcorrectedmanyofthemistakesImadeIamverygratefultoherOvertheyears,IhavehadanumberofcapableresearchassistantsTheseincludeLuGao,YuLu,HeiwaiTang,YanboWang,andWendiZhangOtherstrackeddownandprovidedcrucialdataProfessorYifanZhangatLingnanUniversityinHongKonggenerouslyshareddatawithme,andYangZhiatHongKongUniversityassistedmeindataanalysisScottParris,myeditoratCambridgeUniversityPress,andKenKarpinski,myprojectmanageratAptara,providedthemostefficientassistanceintheproductionprocessofthisbookIamdeeplygratefultothemLetmealsothankthoseindividualsandcolleagueswithwhomIhavediscussedtheideasinthebookandthosewhohaveprovidedvaluablecommentsonearlierdraftsorpresentationsofideasTheseincludeWilliamBaomul,PranabBardhan,SuzanneBerger,KristinForbes,JunFu,SimonJohnson,DeveshKapur,TarunKhanna,NicholasLardy,DonLessard,DavidLi,RickLocke,MinxinPei,GuyPfeffermann,EdSteinfeld,LesterThurow,LauraTyson,AshutoshVarshney,EleanorWestney,andAlanWhiteFouranonymousreviewersatCambridgeUniversityPressprovidedveryhelpfulcommentsThisbookwouldnothavebeenwrittenwithouttheunfailingsupportandencouragementfrommywife,JeanYangSheenduredmanyofmyabsencesfromhomewhileshewastakingcareofourtwoyoungdaughters,KunkunandNanan,andworkingasahighlevelexecutiveatahealthinsurancecompanyShewasmyfirsttestinggroundofthesanityofmanyofmyideasMydaughtersmayhaveimprovedmyworkaswell,ifindirectly,whentheytookawaymylaptopandwroteorpaintedtheirownexpressionsovermywritingsFinally,Idevotethisbooktothreeindividualswho,Ibelieve,representthetrueChinamiracleIreferredtothemindifferentpartsofthebook–NianGuangjiuinChapterandZhengLefangandSunDawuinChapterAllthreewereruralentrepreneurs,andtheymetthecommonunhappyfateofbeingbroughtdownbytheilliberalpoliciesofthesInmymodestway,Iamnotingtheircontributionshere–YashengHuangonJune,,inDelhi,IndiaADetailedSynopsisoftheBookSince,theChineseeconomyhasgrownphenomenallyThisisnotindisputeByexactlywhatmechanismshasChinamanagedtogrowsofastThereismoreroomfordebateonthisquestionThenearconsensusview–ortheviewthathasachievedthegreatesttraction–amongeconomistsisthatChinahasgrownbyrelyingonunique,contextspecificlocalinstitutionalinnovations,suchasownershipbythelocalstateoftownshipandvillageenterprises(TVEs),decentralization,andselectivefinancialcontrolsTheconventionalmechanismsofgrowth,suchasprivateownership,propertyrightssecurity,financialliberalizationandreformsofpoliticalinstitutions,arenotcentralcomponentsofChina’sgrowthstoryMuchoftheeconomicresearchontheChinesereformsrevolvesaroundthefollowingquestion:GiventhemanifestinefficienciesintheChineseeconomy,howdoweexplainitsgrowthTheanswer,oftenbackedupbyformal,mathematicalmodels,isthatseeminglyinefficientpolicies,practices,andinstitutions–suchaspublicownershipofTVEsandfinancialcontrols–performunderlyingefficientfunctionsinthespecificcontextofChinaTheapproachistypicallyinferential–theseefficientfunctionsofobservablyinefficientformsareinferredfromChina’sexcellenteconomicperformanceThisbooktakesadifferentandfactualapproachItstartswiththefollowingsetofquestions:WereTVEsreallypubliclyownedDidChinaimplementfinancialreformspriortoorconcurrentlywiththeinitialeconomictakeoffintheearlysTheresearchisbasedondetailedarchivalexaminationsofpolicy,bureaucratic,andbankdocumentsaswellasseveralwavesofhouseholdandprivatesectorfirmsurveysThequalitativeandquantitativedataspantheperiodfromtoThisbookisfactuallydense–Ihaveexaminedthousandsofpagesofmemoranda,directives,operatingmanuals,andrulesofpersonnelevaluationsissuedbythepresidentsofxiiixivADetailedSynopsisoftheBookChina’scentralbank,allthemajorcommercialbanks,ruralcreditcooperatives,andsoonThesedocumentsarecontainedinavolumecompilationofbankdocuments,which,whileavailableatHarvardandinHongKong,haveneverbeenexaminedbyaWesternacademicIhavealsogonetotherawdatabaseonTVEsestablishedbytheMinistryofAgricultureTheMinistryofAgriculturewasinchargeofcollectingdataonTVEs,anditsdatahavefinerownershipbreakdownsthantheTVEdataavailableinChinaStatisticalYearbooksBasedonthisbodyofresearch,herearethemainfindings:�ExplicitlyprivateentrepreneurshipinthenonfarmsectorsdevelopedvigorouslyandrapidlyinruralChinaduringthes�Financialreforms,againintheruralareas,weresubstantialinthes,andtheChinesebankingsystemchanneledasurprisinglyhighlevelofcreditstotheprivatesectorinthes�Conventionalpropertyrightssecuritywas–andstillis–problematic,butthesecurityoftheproprietor–thepersonholdingtheproperty–increasedsubstantiallyattheveryonsetoftheeconomicreforms�TheChinesepolicymakersintheearlysstrongly,directly,andselfconsciouslyprojectedpolicycredibilityandpredictability�Thepoliticalsystem,althoughabsentofthenormalinstitutionalconstraintsassociatedwithgoodgovernance,becamedirectionallyliberalearlyduringthereformeraThisbookclarifiesthefollowingperspectivesissuesandprovidesnewinformationandillustrativedata:�TheChinesedefinitionofTVEsreferstotheirlocationsofestablishmentsandregistration(ie,businesseslocatedintheruralareas),nottheirownershipWesternresearchers,ontheotherhand,havecometounderstandTVEsintermsoftheirownershipstatus�Thecognitivegapishuge:Asearlyas,ofthemillionbusinessesclassifiedasTVEs,millionwerecompletelyandmanifestlyprivate�AlmosteverysinglenetentrantintheTVEsectorbetweenthemidsandthemidswasaprivateTVEthusboththestaticanddynamicTVEphenomenaweresubstantiallyprivate�PrivateTVEsweremostvibrantinthepoorestandthemostagriculturalprovincesofChina(andthisfeatureofprivateTVEsalsoexplainstheunderstatementoftheirsizeintheconventionalreportingaswellastheconnectionsbetweenruralprivateentrepreneurshipandpovertyalleviation)ADetailedSynopsisoftheBookxv�TherearereportsofprivatizationofcollectiveTVEsintheearlysandlargescaleprivatizationsinthepoorprovinces�

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/49

有中国特色资本主义capitalism+with+chinese+characters

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利