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首页 GB1971-2006_旋转电机_线端标志与旋转方向

GB1971-2006_旋转电机_线端标志与旋转方向.pdf

GB1971-2006_旋转电机_线端标志与旋转方向

liming
2013-12-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《GB1971-2006_旋转电机_线端标志与旋转方向pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

ICSK。’巧黔中华人民共和国国家标准GBIEC:代替GB去幼无上.山+n小仑华d匕匕.七殆t上~七.七服朽甩Tl‘战IM而悯砚芯勺AE朽力lRotatingelectricalmachinesTerminalmarkingsanddirectionofrotation(IEC:IDT)发布实施中华人民共和国国家质量监督检验检疫总局.*中国国家标准化管理委员会a,iGBIEC:目次前言·················································································································⋯⋯V范围···············································································································⋯⋯规范性引用文件········································································........................⋯⋯术语和定义·符号············································································································⋯⋯通则·······································································································⋯⋯直流和单相换向器电机·······························································⋯⋯........··..⋯⋯无换向器的交流电机·················································································......⋯⋯辅助器件······································································································⋯⋯旋转方向······································································································⋯⋯线端标志的规则······························································································.⋯⋯通则··········································································································⋯⋯后缀···········································································································⋯⋯前缀··········································································································⋯⋯不同类型电机的绕组标志······························································...............⋯⋯⋯同步电机·····································································································⋯⋯直流电机·····································································································⋯⋯线端标志和旋转方向的关系··································································.⋯⋯....⋯⋯线端标志图··················································································.............··..⋯⋯辅助线端标志规则········································································....................⋯⋯通则···········································································································⋯⋯标志············································································································⋯⋯附录A(规范性附录)常用接线图················································.............⋯⋯......⋯⋯A通则········································································································⋯⋯A三相电机···································································································⋯⋯A单速定子绕组·······································································..········........⋯⋯A多速定子绕组·····································································.....................⋯⋯A单相异步电动机·······。··················································..·.·······.................⋯⋯。⋯A直流电机···································································································⋯⋯图三相单绕组个单元开路联接个线端····························································⋯⋯图三相单绕组角接个线端·····················································........⋯⋯.........⋯⋯图三相单绕组带中性线的内星联接个线端·························································⋯⋯图三相单绕组每相个单元开路联接个线端···················································⋯⋯图三相单绕组每相个单元开路联接个线端···················································⋯⋯图三相单绕组每相个单元每个单元个抽头开路联接个线端·图具有种独立功能的个独立三相绕组每相个单元开路联接个线端·················一图个单元内联接个线端··········································..............⋯⋯。...............⋯⋯GBIEC:图三相单绕组星联接双线端可换接个线端·························································⋯⋯图三相单绕组星联接并联线端可分流个线端···················································⋯⋯图三相绕线转子带中性导体的星联接个线端························································⋯图主绕组和辅助绕组个单元········································....··..................⋯⋯..⋯⋯图单相辅助绕组内接电容个单元·····································································⋯⋯图单相主绕组内接热保护器个单元································································⋯⋯图六相绕组开路联接个单元·······································....................................⋯⋯图电枢绕组个单元··········。·····························································⋯⋯二.....⋯⋯图换向绕组个或个单元·············································...···...........................⋯⋯图补偿绕组个或个单元·····························································...........⋯⋯..⋯图串联绕组个单元个抽头··············································........⋯⋯二二。.......⋯⋯图并励绕组个单元·······················································.......·.·....................⋯⋯图他励励磁绕组个或个单元·················································......................⋯⋯。图直轴辅助绕组个单元····································································.............⋯⋯图交轴辅助绕组l个单元···························································.···⋯⋯‘。二。.......⋯⋯图带换向绕组和补偿绕组的电枢绕组个单元······················································⋯⋯图单相、单电压····························。······················································..........⋯⋯图单相双电压····················································································...⋯⋯..⋯图三相、单电压··············································································............⋯⋯图三相双电压·······························································································⋯⋯n图双引出线器件(R型除外)··············································································⋯⋯图R型双引出线器件··········································································............⋯⋯图R型三引出线器件·······································································...........·....⋯⋯图R型四引出线器件·················································································......⋯⋯图开关联接·图A角接·····································································································⋯⋯图A星接一引出/未引出中性线·············································································⋯图A双电压个线端(:办)······························································⋯⋯..⋯⋯⋯图A星接双电压个线端()·························································⋯⋯..⋯图A角接双电压个线端()··················································⋯⋯.⋯⋯。..⋯⋯图A星一角单电压个线端····················································..·····.·....·.........⋯⋯。.图A星一角双电压个线端()······························································⋯⋯图A部分绕组单电压个线端·································································......⋯⋯图A部分绕组双电压个线端()·······························································⋯⋯图A变转矩个线端·······································································..........⋯⋯。图A恒转矩个线端································································.···⋯⋯⋯⋯..⋯图A恒功率个线端·························。·····················⋯⋯·.·..........................⋯⋯图A变转矩个线端·············································⋯⋯................................⋯⋯图A恒转矩个线端·····················································.·⋯⋯.·.......⋯⋯二..⋯⋯图A恒功率个线端·······························································.....................⋯⋯图A带套独立绕组个线端三速恒转矩电动机的示例···································⋯⋯图A带套独立绕组个线端的三速电动机的示例············································⋯⋯GBIEC:图A带套独立绕组个线端四速变转矩电动机的示例····································⋯⋯图A分相电动机或电容起动可逆转的电动机·····················································⋯⋯图A外接电容个线端的电容起动可逆转的电动机············································⋯⋯图A并励电动机或发电机个线端·····················。············································⋯⋯图A带积复励绕组和换向绕组的并励电动机或复励发电机个线端························⋯⋯图A串励电动机个线端············································································⋯⋯GBIEC:月U青本标准全文强制。本标准等同采用IEC:((旋转电机第部分:线端标志与旋转方向)}(英文版)。本标准代替GB《电机线端标志与旋转方向》。本标准与GB相比主要变化如下:更加详细、全面地规定了线端标志的规则增加了多重三相组(如六相)电机线端标志与旋转方向的内容增加了接地端标志PE增加了辅助线端标志规则增加了规范性附录“电机的常用接线图”(见附录A)本标准的附录A为规范性附录。本标准由中国电器工业协会提出。本标准由全国旋转电机标准化技术委员会(SACTC)归口。本标准由上海电器科学研究所负责起草哈尔滨大电机研究所、广州电器科学研究院、佳木斯防爆电机研究所、浙江金龙电机股份有限公司、上海联合电机(集团)有限公司、山东齐鲁电机制造有限公司、江苏大中电机股份有限公司、安徽皖南电机股份有限公司等参加起草。本标准主要起草人:刘金琐、郭钟潘、陈康、王晓文、李金香、林棠华、张传林、崔华建、叶锦武、刘文超、倪佩娟。本标准于年首次发布本次为第一次修订。GBIEC:七聆t上d二去n在仑相巴.卜书全七.七二七结沼土i七.七声期‘甲又.二’口‘‘}vU刁、匕-NL甲又/J二J范围本标准适用于交流电机和直流电机具体规定了:a)绕组联接点的标注规则b)绕组线端标志c)旋转方向d)线端标志和旋转方向的关系e)辅助器件的线端标志f)电机的常用接线图。本标准不适用于透平型同步电机。规范性引用文件下列文件中的条款通过本标准的引用而成为本标准的条款。凡是注日期的引用文件其随后所有的修改单(不包括勘误的内容)或修订版均不适用于本标准然而鼓励根据本标准达成协议的各方研究是否可使用这些文件的最新版本。凡是不注日期的引用文件其最新版本适用于本标准。GB旋转电机定额和性能(idtIEC:)GBT电术语旋转电机(neqIEC():)GBT人机界面标志标识的基本方法和安全规则设备接线端子和特定导体终端标识及字母数字系统的应用通则(IEC:,IDT)GBT电气设备用图形符号(idtIEC:)术语和定义本标准除采用GB规定的术语和定义外还增加了下列术语和定义。线端标志terminalmarking由用户使用的用于电机联接电源或电器设备而配备的绕组引接线或辅助引接线的外部线端永久性标识并表明线端功能。联接点connectingpoints绕组或绕组单元端部永久性内联接的电流传输点。抽头tappingpoints部分绕组的联接。绕组引接线windingleads绕组和线端之间电气联接的带绝缘的导体。绕组winding旋转电机内具有规定功能的一组线匝或线圈(参见GBT)aGBIEC:相绕组windingphase与一特定相有关的一个或多个绕组单元。绕组单元windingelement绕组的一部分此部分中所有的线匝或线圈永久联接在一起。独立绕组separatewindings两个或两个以上绕组每个绕组具有独立功能没有内联接无论全部还是部分只能单独使用。多速电动机multispeedmotor能以两种或多种规定转速中任一转速运行的电动机。恒功率constantpower多速电动机的转速改变时电动机的功率接近恒定。恒转矩constanttorque多速电动机的转速改变时电动机的转矩接近恒定。变转矩variabletorque多速电动机的输出转矩近似与转速的平方成比例。相序phasesequence供电导体中电压依次达到正最大值的顺序。D端Dend电机轴端一端(参见GBT),对于有两个轴端的电机D端指:a)直径较大的一端b)当轴端直径相同时非外风扇端。符号通则供电导体PE保护接地端C卜用户使用的线端强制性标志一曰一卜份.-内联接点(.⋯)内部线端标志非强制性标志[·⋯·⋯〕用户联接的线端组线端或线端组的分隔直流和单相换向器电机A电枢绕组B换向绕组GBIEC:C补偿绕组D串励绕组E并励绕组F他励绕组H直轴辅助绕组交轴辅助绕组无换向器的交流电机F直流励磁绕组K次级绕组矛次级绕组M次级绕组N初级绕组的星点(中性导体)Q次级绕组的星点(中性导体)U初级绕组V初级绕组W初级绕组Z辅助绕组注:初级和次级的符号确定与初级绕组是否在定子或转子上无关。辅助器件BA交流制动器BD直流制动器BW电刷磨损探测器CA电容器CT电流互感器HE加热器LA避雷器PT电压互感器R电阻式温度计SC浪涌电容器SP浪涌保护器S开关包括逆流制动开关TB随温度升高而断开的热动开关TC热电藕TM随温度升高而闭合的热动开关TN负温度系数的热敏电阻TP正温度系数的热敏电阻旋转方向旋转方向应是面对D端观察轴时轴的旋转方向。线端标志符合本标准的电机应是顺时针旋转方向。对于其他结构的电机包括单转向电机旋转方向应按外壳上的箭头所示。线端标志的规则通则用途线端标志应明确标识所有可供用户联接使用的绕组和辅助器件的线端。GBIEC:注:常用的外部接线和绕组布置如附录A所示。标志说明具有三个以上线端的所有三相交流电机和具有两个以上线端的其他电机(包括辅助器件)应有与本标准一致的联接说明。字母数字标志含义线端标志由大写拉丁字母和阿拉伯数字构成字符排列无空格。每套绕组、相绕组或辅助电路应标注一个符合第章规定的字母符号。为了避免与数字和混淆不应使用字母“I和“O"o双线端一台电机的几个引接线可以有相同的标志但每个引接线具有完全相同的电气功能。可以联接任一相同标志的引接线见图a分流线端当用几根引接线或导体分流时线端标志应由一个连字号分隔数字后缀来标识见图,具有两套或多套独立绕组的多速电动机可能会在不接电的绕组内产生环流在这种情况下开路角接的线端标志应由一个连字号分隔附加数字后缀来表示见图A省略在不会发生混淆的条件下则数字前缀和/或后缀可以省略见图当两个或以上元件联接到同一线端则应标注一个标志应优先标注后缀数字小的标志见图当两个或以上不同功能的单元内联接应视为一个整体单元按其主要功能单元的字母符号标注线端标志见图接地端保护接地导体的线端应按GBT标注字母PE(或按GBT的符号标注)不允许其他线端这样标注。后缀绕组单元按照GBT的规定每一绕组单元的两端标注不同的数字后缀如下述(见图),第一绕组单元标注,,第二绕组单元标注,,第三绕组单元标注,,第四绕组单元标注,在所有的绕组中与电源联接较近的绕组线端应标注数字较小的后缀。内联接当绕组单元的几个线端联接线端标志应标注数字较小的后缀见图抽头绕组单元的抽头应按出现的顺序依次标注如下(见图):/第一i绕组单元标注为,,等第二绕组单元标注为,,等第三绕组单元标注为,,等第四绕组单元标注为,,等离绕组始端越近的抽头应标注数字较小的后缀。前缀具有相同功能、相互无关、彼此独立的(或属于不同电流系统)绕组单元应标注相同的字母不同的数字前缀。GBIEC:每一线端应相应标注所属独立绕组(或电流系统)的数字前缀如下述(见图)第一绕组单元第二绕组单元第三绕组单元第四绕组单元等等⋯⋯对于多速电机来说线端标志前缀的顺序对应于转速由小到大的排列见图A,不同类型电机的绕组标志三相电机三相电机的初级绕组线端标志应分别由字母U,V,W表示中性线由N表示(见图)次级绕组的线端标志分别由字母K,L,M,Q表示见图llo两相电机两相电机的线端标志由三相电机的线端标志演变而来省略字母W和Mo单相电机单相电机初级主绕组线端标志为字母U辅助绕组为字母Z见图,如果主绕组和辅助绕组的线端联接到一个公共线端上则线端标志应根据主绕组的规则来标注。多重三相组(如六相)电机每一相组的线端标志加一前缀按的规定见图前缀的数字顺序应按每相组中的U相电压达到最大值的顺序而增大。同步电机同步电机初级绕组的线端标志与异步电机的相同。直流他励磁场绕组的线端标志应是F,Fa直流电机表示绕组元件的字母符号应按所列线端标志见图至图所示。线端标志和旋转方向的关系多相电机线端标志的字母顺序(如U,Vl,W)与电源的相序一致则旋转方向为顺时针旋转方向。通过重排供电电缆(如三相中的L和L)颠倒电源的相序电机可达到逆时针旋转。本要求也适用于任何额定功率、电压且仅为顺时针旋转的电机。当电机只适于单一方向旋转时应以箭头指示该旋转方向。指示箭头不必标在铭牌上但应标在容易看见、不易磨灭的位置。多相、多速电机带有倍极比反向式或极幅调制式的变极绕组的多速电机为了在不同的转速下获得相同的旋转方向如果需要则与电源相接的低速绕组的线端标志(如U和W)应互换。单相电机如果电源与Ul,U联接辅助绕组Zl接到Ul,Z接到U则电机顺时针旋转。如果线端Z接到U,Z接到Ul则电机逆时针旋转。多重三相组(如六相)电机每一相组的字母顺序与接于该相组电源的相序对应一致电机顺时针旋转相组的前缀顺序与每相组中第一相电压达到最大值的顺序对应一致。应通过重新排置每相组中供电电源和颠倒电源电压组与绕组相组的联接顺序来颠倒电源的相序使电机逆时针旋转。GBIEC:直流电机若供电线极性I+和I,一与线端Al,A的极性对应一致则电机顺时针旋转。若电机有他励绕组那么线电压极性L+和L一同时与线端Al,A和F,F的极性对应则电机顺时针旋转。若要电机逆时针旋转根据供电线与电枢或磁场的联接极性应颠倒。电流方向和磁场方向的关系(直流电机)如果两套绕组的励磁电流均从数字后缀小的(大的)线端流向数字后缀大的(小的)则两套励磁绕组产生单向磁场。若在所有的绕组中电流从后缀数字小的(大的)线端流向后缀数字大的(小的)线端补偿绕组和换向绕组之间以及相对于电枢绕组的磁场应彼此极性正确。线端标志图常用接线图如附录A所示。三相异步电机UioviowoUovoW图三相单绕组个单元开路联接个线端应圈三相单绕组角接个线端。一土州图三相单绕组带中性线的内星联接个线端UiovioWioUVWUOVWUOVW图三相单绕组每相个单元开路联接个线端GBIEC:牛一}一):一)一)一):一)一}一:)一)一)一)一)图三相单绕组每相个单元开路联接个线端Ucvi飞w飞UlVil飞““侧UV勺W洲“卜不V}W川U输‘’‘WWVU携V携WUUVWUVWVWUVWUdUVdVWdW图三相单绕组每相个单元每个单元个抽头开路联接个线端IU)一)二)U)U:一)WWIUU)一)WUIWU:一)WW图具有种独立功能的个独立三相绕组每相个单元开路联接个线端、。、(U(U)I(一:‘图个单元内联接个线端GB八EC:uU~~~--~-州~.-...vv-----~.-----~-ww(U万爪(u’一(V)r(W)j图三相单绕组星联接双线端可换接个线端Ul(Ul)}(vl点瓦离种U}}V(Vi)II(W))I(U)‘一(W)匕二垫图三相单绕组星联接并联线端可分流个线端uv立jK汗列图三相绕线转子带中性导体的星联接个线端单相异步电机UlUZZVIN八___产丫、气图主绕组和辅助绕组个单元乙一一州岸图单相辅助绕组内接电容个单元Ul乡一一UTP}图单相主绕组内接热保护器,个单元多皿三相组(六相)电机lUliIVlilWliUiViwlug!IVIIW!uIVIw图六相绕组开路联接个单元GBIEC:直流电机fxi)图电枢绕组个单元BB.~-~~叫丫、、.~-...BBBB-~~~~产丫尸、~~~--~~~~~~J、产r图换向绕组个或个单元CC~...-.了丫丫、..~-CCCC

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