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首页 泰奥多·蒙森《罗马史》英文版

泰奥多·蒙森《罗马史》英文版

泰奥多·蒙森《罗马史》英文版

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简介:本文档为《泰奥多·蒙森《罗马史》英文版pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

CHAPTER<p>ICHAPTER<p>ICHAPTER<p>ICHAPTER<p>ICHAPTER<p>ICHAPTER<p>ICHAPTERICHAPTERIICHAPTERIIICHAPTERIVCHAPTERVCHAPTERVICHAPTERVIICHAPTERVIIICHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIICHAPTERXIIICHAPTERXIVChapterXVCHAPTER<p>ICHAPTERICHAPTERIICHAPTERIIICHAPTERIVCHAPTERVCHAPTERVICHAPTERVIICHAPTERVIIICHAPTERIXCHAPTER<p>ICHAPTERICHAPTERIICHAPTERIIICHAPTERIVCHAPTERVCHAPTERVICHAPTERVIICHAPTERVIIICHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIICHAPTERXIIICHAPTERXIVCHAPTER<p>ICHAPTERICHAPTERIICHAPTERIIICHAPTERIVCHAPTERVCHAPTERVICHAPTERVIIPartLosttotheRomansCHAPTERVIIICHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIICHAPTERXIIIChapterIChapterIIChapterIIIChapterIVChapterVChapterVIChapterVIIChapterVIIIChapterIXChapterXChapterXIChapterXIIChapterXIIICHAPTER<p>ICHAPTERICHAPTERIICHAPTERIIICHAPTERIVCHAPTERVCHAPTERVICHAPTERVIICHAPTERVIIICHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIITheHistoryofRome(Volumes),byTheodorTheProjectGutenbergeBook,TheHistoryofRome(Volumes),byTheodorMommsen,TranslatedbyWilliamPurdieDicksonThiseBookisfortheuseofanyoneanywhereatnocostandwithalmostnorestrictionswhatsoeverYoumaycopyit,giveitawayorreuseitunderthetermsoftheProjectGutenbergLicenseincludedwiththiseBookoronlineatwwwgutenbergnetTitle:TheHistoryofRome(Volumes)Author:TheodorMommsenReleaseDate:March,eBook#Language:EnglishCharactersetencoding:ISOUS(USASCII)***STARTOFTHEPROJECTGUTENBERGEBOOKTHEHISTORYOFROME(VOLUMES)***EtextpreparedbyDavidCeponisNote:ThisebookisacompilationofthefivevolumesofthisworkEachvolumeisalsoavailableindividuallyintheProjectGutenberglibraryBookI:ThePeriodAnteriortotheAbolitionoftheMonarchySeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextBookII:FromtheAbolitionoftheMonarchyinRometotheUnionofItalySeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextBookIII:FromtheUnionofItalytotheSubjugationofCarthageandtheGreekStatesSeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextBookIV:TheRevolutionSeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextBookV:TheEstablishmentoftheMilitaryMonarchySeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextTheoriginalGermanversionofthiswork,RoemischeGeschichte,isalsoavailableintheProjectGutenberglibraryErstesBuch:biszurAbschaffungdesroemischenKoenigtumsSeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextZweitesBuch:vonderAbschaffungdesroemischenKeonigtumsbiszurEinigungItaliensSeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextDrittesBuch:vonderEinigungItaliensbisaufdieUnterwerfungKarthagosunddergriechischenStaatenSeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextViertesBuch:DieRevolutionSeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextFuenftesBuch:DieBegruendungderMilitaermonarchieSeehttp:wwwgutenbergorgetextTHEHISTORYOFROMEbyTHEODORMOMMSENTranslatedwiththeSanctionoftheAuthorTheHistoryofRome(Volumes),byTheodorbyWilliamPurdieDickson,DD,LLDProfessorofDivinityintheUniversityofGlasgowANewEditionRevisedThroughoutandEmbodyingRecentAdditionsDEDICATIONSTheFirstVolumeoftheoriginalbearstheinscription:ToMyFriendMORIZHAUPTofBerinTheSecond:ToMyDearAssociatesFERDINANDHITZIGofZurichandKARLLUDWIGofVienna,,AndtheThird:DedicatedwithOldandLoyalAffectiontoOTTOJAHNofBonnCONTENTSBOOKI:ThePeriodAnteriortotheAbolitionoftheMonarchyTheHistoryofRome(Volumes),byTheodorCHAPTERIIntroductionIITheEarliestMigrationsintoItalyIIITheSettlementsoftheLatinsIVTheBeginningsofRomeVTheOriginalConstitutionofRomeVITheNonBurgessesandtheReformedConstitutionVIITheHegemonyofRomeinLatiumVIIITheUmbroSabellianStocksBeginningsoftheSamnitesIXTheEtruscansXTheHellenesinItalyMaritimeSupremacyoftheTuscansandCarthaginiansXILawandJusticeXIIReligionXIIIAgriculture,Trade,andCommerceXIVMeasuringandWritingXVArtBOOKII:FromtheAbolitionoftheMonarchyinRometotheUnionofItalyCHAPTERCHAPTERIChangeoftheConstitutionLimitationofthePoweroftheMagistrateIITheTribunateofthePlebsandtheDecemvirateIIITheEqualizationoftheOrders,andtheNewAristocracyIVFalloftheEtruscanPowertheCeltsVSubjugationoftheLatinsandCampaniansbyRomeVIStruggleoftheItaliansagainstRomeVIIStruggleBetweenPyrrhusandRome,andUnionofItalyVIIILawReligionMilitarySystemEconomicConditionNationalityIXArtandScienceBOOKIII:FromtheUnionofItalytotheSubjugationofCarthageandtheGreekStatesCHAPTERCHAPTERICarthageIITheWarbetweenRomeandCarthageConcerningSicilyIIITheExtensionofItalytoItsNaturalBoundariesIVHamilcarandHannibalVTheWarunderHannibaltotheBattleofCannaeVITheWarunderHannibalfromCannaetoZamaVIITheWestfromthePeaceofHannibaltotheCloseoftheThirdPeriodVIIITheEasternStatesandtheSecondMacedonianWarIXTheWarwithAntiochusofAsiaXTheThirdMacedonianWarXITheGovernmentandtheGovernedXIITheManagementofLandandofCapitalXIIIFaithandMannersXIVLiteratureandArtBOOKIV:TheRevolutionCHAPTERCHAPTERITheSubjectCountriesDowntotheTimesoftheGracchiIITheReformMovementandTiberiusGracchusIIITheRevolutionandGaiusGracchusIVTheRuleoftheRestorationVThePeoplesoftheNorthVITheAttemptofMariusatRevolutionandtheAttemptofDrususatReformVIITheRevoltoftheItalianSubjects,andtheSulpicianRevolutionVIIITheEastandKingMithradatesIXCinnaandSullaXTheSullanConstitutionXITheCommonwealthandItsEconomyXIINationality,Religion,andEducationXIIILiteratureandArtBOOKV:TheEstablishmentoftheMilitaryMonarchyCHAPTERCHAPTERIMarcusLepidusandQuintusSertoriusIIRuleoftheSullanRestorationIIITheFalloftheOligarchyandtheRuleofPompeiusIVPompeiusandtheEastVTheStruggleofPartiesduringtheAbsenceofPompeiusVIRetirementofPompeiusandCoalitionofthePretendersVIITheSubjugationoftheWestVIIITheJointRuleofPompeiusandCaesarIXDeathofCrassusRupturebetweentheJointRulersXBrundisium,Ilerda,Pharsalus,andThapsusXITheOldRepublicandtheNewMonarchyXIIReligion,Culture,Literature,andArt*****THEHISTORYOFROME:BOOKIThePeriodAnteriortotheAbolitionoftheMonarchyPreparer'sNoteThisworkcontainsmanyliteralcitationsofandreferencestoforeignwords,sounds,andalphabeticsymbolsdrawnfrommanylanguages,includingGothicandPhoenician,butchieflyLatinandGreekThisEnglishGutenbergedition,constrainedtothecharactersofbitASCIIcode,adoptsthefollowingorthographicconventions:)ExceptforGreek,allliterallycitednonEnglishwordsthatdonotrefertotextscitedasacademicreferences,wordsthatinthesourcemanuscriptappearitalicized,arerenderedwithasinglepreceding,andasinglefollowingdashthus,xxxx)Greekwords,firsttransliteratedintoRomanalphabeticequivalents,arerenderedwithaprecedingandafollowingdoubledashthus,xxxxNotethatinsomecasestherootworditselfisacompoundformsuchasxxxxxxx,andisrenderedasxxxxxx)Simpleunideographicreferencestovocalicsounds,singleletters,oralphabeicdipthongsandprefixes,suffixes,andsyllabicreferencesarerepresentedbyasingleprecedingdashthus,x,orxxxCHAPTER)(EspeciallyforthecomplexdiscussionofalphabeticevolutioninChXIV:MeasuringandWriting)Ideographicreferences,meaningpointerstotheformofrepresentationitselfratherthantoitscontent,arerepresentedas"id:xxxx""id:"standsfor"ideograph",andindicatesthatthereadershouldformapicturebasedonthefollowing"xxxx"whichmaybeasinglesymbol,aword,oranattemptatapicturecomposedofASCIIcharactersEg"id:GAMMAgamma"indicatesanuppercaseGreekgammaformfollowedbytheforminlowercaseSomesuchexoticparsingasthisisnecessarytoexplainalphabeticdevelopmentbecauseasinglesymbolmayhavebeenusedforanumberofsoundsinanumberoflanguages,orevenforanumberofsoundsinthesamelanguageatdifferenttimesThus,"id:GAMMAgamma"mightverywellrefertoaPhoenicianconstructthatinappearanceresemblestheformthateventuallystabilizedasanuppercaseGreek"gamma"juxtaposedtooneoflowercaseAlso,aconstructsuchas"id:E"indicatesasymbolthatwithASCIIresemblesmostcloselyaRomanuppercase"E",but,infact,isactuallydrawnmorecrudely)DrMommsenhasgivenhisdatesintermsofRomanusage,AUCthatis,fromthefoundingofRome,conventionallytakentobeBCThepreparerofthisdocumenthasappendedtotheendofthiscombinedtext(BooksIV)atableofconversionbetweenthetwosystemsPREFACEBYTHETRANSLATORWhenthefirstportionofthistranslationappearedin,itwasaccompaniedbyaPreface,forwhichIwasindebtedtothekindnessofthelateDrSchmitz,introducingtotheEnglishreadertheworkofanauthorwhosenameandmerits,thoughalreadyknowntoscholars,werefarlesswidelyfamiliarthantheyarenowAfterthirtythreeyearssuchanintroductionisnolongerneeded,butnonethelessgratefullydoIrecallhowmuchthebookowedattheoutsettoDrSchmitz'sfriendlyofficesThefollowingextractsfrommyown"PrefatoryNote"dated"December"statethecircumstancesunderwhichIundertookthetranslation,andgivesomeexplanationsastoitsmethodandaims:"InrequestingEnglishscholarstoreceivewithindulgencethisfirstportionofatranslationofDrMommsen's'RomischeGeschichte,'IamsomewhatinthepositionofAlbinuswho,whenappealingtohisreaderstopardontheimperfectionsoftheRomanHistorywhichhehadwritteninindifferentGreek,wasmetbyCatowiththerejoinderthathewasnotcompelledtowriteatallthat,iftheAmphictyonicCouncilhadlaidtheircommandsonhim,thecasewouldhavebeendifferentbutthatitwasquiteoutofplacetoasktheindulgenceofhisreaderswhenhistaskhadbeenselfimposedImaystate,however,thatIdidnotundertakethistask,untilIhadsoughttoascertainwhetheritwaslikelytobetakenupbyanyonemorequalifiedtodojusticetoitWhenDrMommsen'sworkaccidentallycameintomyhandssomeyearsafteritsfirstappearance,andrevivedmyinterestinstudieswhichIhadlonglaidasideforothersmorestrictlyprofessional,IhadlittledoubtthatitsmeritswouldhavealreadyattractedsufficientattentionamidstthelearnedleisureofOxfordtoinducesomeofhergreatscholarstoclotheitinanEnglishdressButitappearedoninquirythat,whiletherewasagreatdesiretoseeittranslated,andthepurposeoftranslatingithadbeenentertainedinmorequartersthanone,theprojectshadfromvariouscausesmiscarriedMrGeorgeRobertsonpublishedanexcellenttranslation(towhich,sofarasitgoes,Idesiretoacknowledgemyobligations)oftheintroductorychaptersontheearlyinhabitantsofItalybutotherstudiesandengagementsdidnotpermithimtoproceedwithitIaccordinglyrequestedandobtainedDrMommsen'spermissiontotranslatehiswork"Thetranslationhasbeenpreparedfromthethirdeditionoftheoriginal,publishedinthespringofthepresentyearatBerlinThesheetshavebeentransmittedtoDrMommsen,whohaskindlycommunicatedtomesuchsuggestionsasoccurredtohimIhavethusbeenenabled,moreespeciallyinthefirstvolume,tocorrectthosepassageswhereIhadmisapprehendedorfailedtoexpresstheauthor'smeaning,andtoincorporateintheEnglishworkvariousadditionsandcorrectionswhichdonotappearintheoriginal"InexecutingthetranslationIhaveendeavouredtofollowtheoriginalascloselyasisconsistentwithadueregardtothedifferenceofidiomManyofourtranslationsfromtheGermanaresoliteralastoreproducetheCHAPTERveryorderoftheGermansentence,sothattheyare,ifnotaltogetherunintelligibletotheEnglishreader,atleastfarfromreadable,whileothersdeviatesoentirelyfromtheformoftheoriginalastobenolongertranslationsinthepropersenseofthetermIhavesoughttopursueamiddlecoursebetweenamereliteraltranslation,whichwouldberepulsive,andalooseparaphrase,whichwouldbeinthecaseofsuchaworkpeculiarlyunsatisfactoryThosewhoaremostconversantwiththedifficultiesofsuchataskwillprobablybethemostwillingtoshowforbearancetowardstheshortcomingsofmyperformance,andinparticulartowardsthetoonumeroustracesoftheGermanidiom,which,onglancingoverthesheets,Ifinditstilltoretain"ThereadermayperhapsbestartledbytheoccurrencenowandthenofmodesofexpressionmorefamiliarandcolloquialthanisusuallythecaseinhistoricalworksThis,however,isacharacteristicfeatureoftheoriginal,towhichinfactitowesnotalittleofitscharmDrMommsenoftenusesexpressionsthatarenottobefoundinthedictionary,andhefreelytakesadvantageoftheunlimitedfacilitiesaffordedbytheGermanlanguageforthecoinageorthecombinationofwordsIhavenotunfrequently,indeferencetohiswishes,usedsuchcombinationsas'CarthaginoSicilian,''RomanoHellenic,'althoughlesscongenialtoourEnglishidiom,forthesakeofavoidinglongerperiphrases"InDrMommsen'sbook,asineveryotherGermanworkthathasoccasiontotouchonabstractmatters,thereoccursentencescouchedinapeculiarterminologyandnotverysusceptibleoftranslationThereareoneortwosentencesofthissort,moreespeciallyinthechapteronReligioninthestvolume,andinthecritiqueofEuripidesastowhichIamnotveryconfidentthatIhaveseizedorsucceededinexpressingthemeaningInthesecasesIhavetranslatedliterally"InthespellingofpropernamesIhavegenerallyadoptedtheLatinorthographyasmorefamiliartoscholarsinthiscountry,exceptincaseswherethespellingadoptedbyDrMommsenismarkedbyanyspecialpeculiarityAtthesametimeentireuniformityinthisrespecthasnotbeenaimedat"Ihaveventuredinvariousinstancestobreakuptheparagraphsoftheoriginalandtofurnishthemwithadditionalmarginalheadings,andhavecarriedoutmorefullythenotationoftheyearsBConthemargin"ItisduetoDrSchmitz,whohaskindlyencouragedmeinthisundertaking,thatIshouldstatethatIaloneamresponsiblefortheexecutionofthetranslationWhatevermaybethoughtofitinotherrespects,IventuretohopethatitmayconveytotheEnglishreaderatolerablyaccurateimpressionofthecontentsandgeneralspiritofthebook"InanewLibraryedition,whichappearedin,IincorporatedalltheadditionsandalterationswhichwereintroducedinthefourtheditionoftheGerman,someofwhichwereofconsiderableimportanceandItooktheopportunityofrevisingthetranslation,soastomaketherenderingmoreaccurateandconsistentSincethattimenochangehasbeenmade,excepttheissueinofanIndexBut,asDrMommsenwasgoodenoughsometimeagotosendtomeacopyinwhichhehadtakenthetroubletomarkthealterationsintroducedinthemorerecenteditionsoftheoriginal,IthoughtitduetohimandtothefavourwithwhichthetranslationhadbeenreceivedthatIshouldsubjectittosuchafreshrevisionasshouldbringitintoconformitywiththelastform(eighthedition)oftheGerman,onwhich,asIlearnfromhim,hehardlycontemplatesfurtherchangeAscomparedwiththefirstEnglishedition,themoreconsiderablealterationsofaddition,omission,orsubstitutionamount,Ishouldthink,towellnighahundredpagesIhavecorrectedvariouserrorsinrenderings,names,anddates(thoughnotwithoutsomemisgivingthatothersmayhaveescapednoticeorbeenincurredafresh)andIhavestillfurtherbrokenupthetextintoparagraphsandaddedmarginalheadingsTheIndex,whichwasnotissuedfortheGermanbooktillnineyearsaftertheEnglishtranslationwaspublished,hasnowbeengreatlyenlargedfromitsmorerecentGermanform,andhasbeen,attheexpenditureofnosmalllabour,adaptedtothealteredpagingoftheEnglishIhavealsoprepared,asanaccompanimenttoit,acollationofpagings,whichwillmateriallyfacilitatethefindingofreferencesmadetotheoriginalortoCHAPTERthepreviousEnglisheditionsIhavehadmuchreasontobegratifiedbythefavourwithwhichmytranslationhasbeenreceivedonthepartalikeofDrMommsenhimselfandofthenumerousEnglishscholarswhohavemadeitthebasisoftheirreferencestohiswork()Itrustthatinthealteredformandnewdress,forwhichthebookisindebtedtotheprinters,itmaystillfurthermeettheconvenienceofthereaderSeptemberNotesforPrefaceIthas,Ibelieve,beenlargelyinuseatOxfordforthelastthirtyyearsbutithasnotapparentlyhadthegoodfortunetohavecometotheknowledgeofthewriterofanarticleon"RomanHistory"publishedintheEncyclopediaBritannicain,whichatleastmakesnomentionofitsexistence,oryetofMrBaringGould,whoinhisTragedyoftheCaesars(volpf)haspresentedDrMommsen'swellknown"character"ofCaesarinanindependentversionHisrenderingisoftenmorespiritedthanaccurateWhileinseveralcasesimportantwords,clauses,orevensentences,areomitted,inothersthemeaningislooselyorimperfectlyconveyedegin"Hellenistic"for"Hellenic""success"for"plenitudeofpower""attempts"or"operations"for"achievements""prompttorecover"for"readytostrike""swashbuckler"for"brilliant""many"for"unyielding""accessibletoall"for"complaisanttowardseveryone""smallestfibre"for"Inmostcore""ideas"for"ideals""unstainedwithblood"for"asbloodlessaspossible""described"for"apprehended""purity"for"clearness""smug"for"plain"(orhomely)"avoid"for"avert""takinghisdarkcourse"for"stealingtowardshisaimbypathsofdarkness""rose"for"transformedhimself""checkedeverythinglikeapraetoriandomination"for"allowednohierarchyofmarshalsorgovernmentofpraetorianstocomeintoexistence"andinonecasethemeaningisexactlyreversed,when"neversoughttosoothe,wherehecouldnotcure,intractableevils"standsfor"neverdisdainedatleasttomitigatebypalliativesevilsthatwereincurable"INTRODUCTORYNOTEBYDRMOMMSENTheVarroniancomputationbyyearsoftheCityisretainedinthetextthefiguresonthemarginindicatethecorrespondingyearbeforethebirthofChristIncalculatingthecorrespondingyears,theyearoftheCityhasbeenassumedasidenticalwiththeyearBC,andwithOlymp,although,ifwetakeintoaccountthecircumstancethattheRomansolaryearbeganwiththestdayofMarch,andtheGreekwiththestdayofJuly,theyearoftheCitywould,accordingtomoreexactcalculation,correspondtothelasttenmonthsofandthefirsttwomonthsofBC,andtothelastfourmonthsofOl,andthefirsteightofOl,TheRomanandGreekmoneyhasuniformlybeencommutedonthe

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泰奥多·蒙森《罗马史》英文版

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