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低分辨平板显示.pdf

低分辨平板显示.pdf

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简介:本文档为《低分辨平板显示pdf》,可适用于硬件技术领域,主题内容包含SupermultiviewdisplaywithalowerresolutionflatpaneldisplayYasuhiroTakaki,*K符等。

SupermultiviewdisplaywithalowerresolutionflatpaneldisplayYasuhiroTakaki,*KosukeTanaka,andJunyaNakamuraInstituteofEngineering,TokyoUniversityofAgricultureandTechnology,Nakacho,Koganei,Tokyo,Japan*ytakakicctuatacjpAbstract:Alenticulartypesupermultiview(SMV)displaynormallyrequiresanultrahighresolutionflatpaneldisplayToreducethisresolutionrequirement,twoormoreviewsaregeneratedaroundeacheyewithanintervalsmallerthanthepupildiameterCylindricallensesconstitutingalenticularlensprojectagroupofpixelsoftheflatpaneldisplaytogenerateagroupofviewingzonesPixelgroupsgeneratingleftandrightviewingzonesthroughthesamecylindricallensarepartitionedtoseparatethetwozonesTheleftandrightpixelgroupsfordifferentcylindricallensesareinterlacedhorizontallyAprototypeSMVdisplayisdemonstratedOpticalSocietyofAmericaOCIScodes:()Imagingsystems()DisplaysReferencesandlinksTOkoshi,ThreeDimensionalImagingTechniques(AcademicPress,NewYork,)TOkoshi,“Threedimensionaldisplays,”ProcIEEE(),–()JHPark,KHong,andBLee,“Recentprogressinthreedimensionalinformationprocessingbasedonintegralimaging,”ApplOpt(),H–H()JYSon,andBJavidi,“Threedimensionalimagingmethodsbasedonmultiviewimages,”JDisplayTechnol(),–()YKajiki,HYoshikawa,andTHonda,“Hologramlikevideoimagesbyviewstereoscopicdisplay,”ProcSPIE,–()THonda,YKajiki,KSusami,THamaguchi,TEndo,THatada,andTFujii,“Threedimensionaldisplaytechnologiessatisfying„supermultiviewcondition‟,”SPIECriticalReviewsCR,p–THonda,YKajiki,SSusami,THamaguchi,TEndo,THatada,andTFujii,“AdisplaysystemfornaturalviewingofDimages,”inThreedimensionaltelevision,videoanddisplaytechnologies,BJavidi,FOkanoed(SpringerVerlag,BerlinHeidelberg,Germany,)p–THonda,DNagai,andMShimomatsu,“DevelopmentofDdisplaysystembyafanlikearrayofprojectionoptics,”ProcSPIE,–()YTakaki,andNNago,“Multiprojectionoflenticulardisplaystoconstructaviewsupermultiviewdisplay,”OptExpress(),–()WAIjsselsteijn,HdeRidder,andJVliegen,“Effectsofstereoscopicfilmingparametersanddisplaydurationonthesubjectiveassessmentofeyestrain,”ProcSPIE,–()YTakaki,“HighDensityDirectionalDisplayforGeneratingNaturalThreeDimensionalImages,”ProcIEEE(),–()HNakanuma,HKamei,andYTakaki,“NaturalDdisplaywithdirectionalimagesusedforhumanengineeringevaluation,”ProcSPIE,–()KKikuta,andYTakaki,“DevelopmentofSVGAresolutiondirectionaldisplay,”ProcSPIE,U,U()YTakaki,“Thintypenaturalthreedimensionaldisplaywithdirectionalimages,”ProcSPIE,–()YTakaki,andTDairiki,“directionaldisplayhavingVGAresolutionforhighappearanceimagegeneration,”ProcSPIE,X,X()MTsuboi,MFujioka,YTakaki,andTHorikoshi,“RealTimeRenderingforaFullParallaxDDisplayUsingHighDensityDirectionalImages,”inProceedingsofthethInternationalDisplayWorkshops(IDW’),pp–()SKKim,DWKim,MCPark,YMKwon,andJYSon,“DevelopmentofaHMDtypemultifocusDdisplaysystemusingLEDs,”ProcSPIE,B,B()SKKim,DWKim,YMKwon,andJYSon,“EvaluationofthemonoculardepthcueinDdisplays,”OptExpress(),–()#$USDReceivedJanrevisedFebacceptedFebpublishedFeb(C)OSAFebruaryVol,NoOPTICSEXPRESSSLiu,andHHua,“Asystematicmethodfordesigningdepthfusedmultifocalplanethreedimensionaldisplays,”OptExpress(),–()KAkeley,SJWatt,ARGirshick,andMSBanks,“Astereodisplayprototypewithmultiplefocaldistances,”ACMTransGraph(),–()RSBrar,PSurman,ISexton,andKHopf,“MUTED:MultiuserDdisplay,”JSocInfDisp(),–()GPark,JHJung,KHong,YKim,YHKim,SWMin,andBLee,“Multiviewertrackingintegralimagingsystemanditsviewingzoneanalysis,”OptExpress(),–()YTakaki,“MultiviewDdisplayemployingaflatpaneldisplaywithslantedpixelarrangement,”JSocInfDisp(),–()CvanBerkel,andJAClarke,“CharacterizationandoptimizationofDLCDmoduledesign,”ProcSPIE,–()IntroductionSubstantialresearchhasbeenconductedtodevelopglassesandglasseslesstypethreedimensional(D)displays–Asupermultiview(SMV)display–hasbeendevelopedasaglasseslesstypeDdisplaythatisfreefromthevisualfatiguecausedbytheaccommodationvergenceconflictandprovidessmoothmotionparallaxBecausetheSMVdisplayrequiresgenerationofalargenumberofviews,numerousstudiessofarhavefocusedonincreasingthenumberofviewsInthepresentstudy,wedevelopatechniquethatenablesreductionofthenumberofviewsrequiredfortheSMVdisplayHumansperceivedepthusingfourphysiologicalfactors:vergence,binoculardisparity,motionparallax,andaccommodationConventionalDschemes,includingglassestypetwoviewdisplayandglasseslesstypetwoviewandmultiviewdisplays,havetwophysiologicalproblems:theaccommodationvergenceconflictandimperfectmotionparallaxWhentwoparallaximagesaredisplayedtotheleftandrighteyes,thedepthofDimagescanbeperceivedcorrectlybyvergence,whichallowsfordepthperceptionbyusingtheanglebetweenthelinesofsightoftheleftandrighteyeswhenthebotheyeslookatthesamepointAccommodation,whichcreatesdepthperceptionwhenthefocallengthoftheeyelenseschanges,doesnotworkcorrectlybecausetheeyesfocusonthedisplayscreeninsteadoftheDimagesbecausethetwoimagesaredisplayedonthescreenThisconflictcausesvisualfatiguebecauseofthecloseinteractionbetweenvergenceandaccommodationthehumanvisualsystemmakestheeyesfocusonthepositionatwhichvergenceperceivesthedepthAtwoviewdisplaydoesnotcompensateformotionparallax,whichisthechangeinretinalimagescausedbyashiftineyepositionAmultiviewdisplayprovidesdiscontinuousmotionparallaxbecausethepitchofmultipleviewingzonesisusuallytheaverageinteroculardistanceorhalfofitthus,theretinalimagedoesnotchangeuntiltheeyemovesontotheadjacentviewingzoneTheabsenceofmotionparallaxordiscontinuousmotionparallaxreducesthepresenceandrealismeffectsofDimagesbecausehumansunconsciouslypredictretinalimagechangecausedbyeyemovementAnSMVdisplaygeneratesdenseviewingzonestomaketheirpitchsmallerthanthepupildiameter,,asshowninFigBecausetwoormoreviewingzonesexistinthepupil,twoormorerayspassingthroughonepointofaDimageenterthepupilsimultaneouslythroughtheviewingzonesthus,theeyescanfocusonthatpointaccordingtothedepthinformationperceivedbyvergenceTheaccommodationresponsesareevokedbytheSMVdisplaytechniquetopreventtheaccommodationvergenceconflictBecausethepitchoftheviewingzonesissmallerthanthepupildiameter,theretinalimagechangessmoothlywitheyemovementTherefore,anSMVdisplayprovidessmoothandcontinuousmotionparallax#$USDReceivedJanrevisedFebacceptedFebpublishedFeb(C)OSAFebruaryVol,NoOPTICSEXPRESSFigSupermultiview(SMV)displaytechniqueBecausetheaveragepupildiameterofhumansismm,theviewingzonepitchofSMVdisplaysshouldbelessthanmmThetotalwidthofthemultipleviewingzonesshouldbeatleasttwiceaslargeastheinteroculardistancetoprovideenoughviewingareaandeffectiveuseoftheentireviewingzonesTherefore,displaysystemsthatcangeneratedenseviewingzonesshouldbedevelopedtorealizeSMVdisplaysAnSMVdisplaywithviews–wasfirstdemonstratedusingafocusedlightarrayASMVdisplaysystemwithviewsusingfanlikearrayprojectionopticswasalsoreportedHighdensitydirectional(HDD)displays–werealsodevelopedtorealizetheSMVdisplayconditionWhileSMVdisplaysprojectanumerousparallaximageswithraysconvergingtoviewingzones,HDDdisplaysprojectalargenumberofdirectionalimageswithnearlyparallelraysParallaximagesareperspectiveprojectionsofaDscene,anddirectionalimagesareorthographicprojectionsReducingtheprojectionanglepitchofHDDdisplayssatisfiestheSMVdisplayconditionHDDdisplayswithandraydirections–wereconstructedwithamultiprojectionschemeconsistingofanarrayofprojectionimagingsystems,andthosewithandraydirections–wereconstructedwithaflatpanelsystemconsistingofaflatpaneldisplayandalenticularlensToconstructSMVdisplays,numerousprojectorsarerequiredforamultiprojectionsystem,andanultrahighresolutionflatpaneldisplayisrequiredforaflatpanelsystemThemultiprojectionandflatpanelsystemswererecentlycombinedtoincreasethenumberofviewsThistechniqueenabledtheconstructionofanSMVdisplaywithviewsAheadmountdisplay(HMD)typeSMVdisplayhasalsobeendeveloped,BecausetheeyepositionisfixedforHMDdisplays,thenumberofviewscanbereducedAhighspeedprojectoremployingadigitalmicromirrordevicewasusedtogeneratemultipleviewsforoneeyeAsanothermethodtoresolvetheaccommodationvergenceconflict,amultifocaldisplay,hasbeendevelopedinwhichseveraltwoviewimagesarealignedinthedepthdirection,generatingdifferenttwoviewimagesatdifferentdepthpositionsThepositionsofthetwoviewingzonesfortheleftandrighteyesareidenticalforallthetwoviewimagesAlthoughfewerdisplayimagesarerequiredforthistechnique,motionparallaxisnotprovidedInthepresentstudy,weproposeaflatpaneldisplaysystemthatgeneratesfewerviewstosatisfytheSMVconditionWeofferaflatpanelsystemthatgeneratestwoormoreviewsforeacheyewithanintervalsmallerthanthepupildiameterThistechniquereducestheresolutionoftheflatpaneldisplayrequiredtoconstructanSMVdisplay#$USDReceivedJanrevisedFebacceptedFebpublishedFeb(C)OSAFebruaryVol,NoOPTICSEXPRESSConventionalflatpanelSMVdisplayFigureshowstheformationofviewingzonesforaconventionalflatpanelSMVdisplayMassiveviewingzonesaregeneratedwithoutdiscontinuityAlenticularlensisattachedtoaflatpaneldisplay,andagroupofpixelscorrespondstoeachcylindricallensconstitutingthelenticularlensThecylindricallensesmagnifypixelsineachgrouptogenerateviewingzonesAllmagnifiedimagesofthepixelgroupsbyalllensesaresuperimposedatapredefineddistancebymakingthelenspitchslightlysmallerthanthepitchofthepixelgroupsThenumberofviewsisequaltothenumberofpixelsineachpixelgroupwhenthepixelgroupconsistsofnpixels,nviewingzonesaregeneratedForcolorimagegeneration,thenumberofsubpixels(R,G,andBsubpixels)inthepixelgroupisthreetimesthenumberofviewsWhenthetotalwidthoftheviewingzonesistwicetheaverageinteroculardistance(assumedtobemmhere)andthepitchoftheviewingzonesistheaveragepupildiameter(mm),therequirednumberofviewsisTherefore,aflatpaneldisplaywitharesolutiontimeslargerthantheDresolutionisrequiredThisrequirementofanultrahighresolutionflatpaneldisplayisthemaindifficultyofaflatpanelSMVdisplayFigViewingzoneformationofaconventionalflatpanelSMVdisplaySMVdisplaywithalowerresolutionflatpaneldisplayInthepresentstudy,toallowalowerresolutionflatpaneldisplaytobeusedinanSMVdisplay,weproposeanSMVdisplaytechniquethatproducestwoormoreviewingzonesonlyaroundeacheye,withanintervalsmallerthanthepupildiameterTherefore,thetotalnumberofviewscanbereduced,thusreducingtheresolutionrequiredfortheflatpaneldisplayFigureillustratestheviewingzonesformedintheproposedtechniqueTheleftpixelgroupsthatgeneratetheleftviewingzonesforthelefteyeareindicatedbywhiteboxes,andthosefortherighteyearerepresentedbyblackboxesTheleftandrightpixelgroupscorrespondingtothesamecylindricallensarepartitionedtoseparatetheleftandrightviewingzonestheleftandrightpixelgroupscorrespondingtodifferentcylindricallensesareinterlacedhorizontallyBetweentheleftandrightpixelgroupscorrespondingtothesamelens,npixelgroupscorrespondingtotheotherlensesarearrangedFigures(a)and(b)showthecaseswhenn=andn=,respectively#$USDReceivedJanrevisedFebacceptedFebpublishedFeb(C)OSAFebruaryVol,NoOPTICSEXPRESSFigFormationofviewingzonesfortheleftandrighteyesintheproposedtechnique:(a)n=(b)n=Here,wrepresentsthewidthoftheleftaswellastherightviewingzonesThewidthoftheregionbetweentheleftandrightviewingzonesisgivenbynwThedistancebetweenthecentersoftheleftandrightviewingzonesisgivenbynww,andthisdistanceismadeidenticaltotheinteroculardistancedenotedbyPThus,()wPn()WhenthenumberofviewingzonesintheleftandrightviewingzonesisdenotedbyV,thepitchofviewingzones,representedbyd,isgivenby()dPnV()Therefore,increasingncanreducethepitchoftheviewingzonesTheSMVdisplayconditioncanbeachievedbyproperlychoosingnandVTheformationofviewingzonesbyaconventionalSMVdisplaycorrespondstothecasewhenn=theleftandrightviewingzonesareconnectedIntheregionbetweentheleftandrightviewingzones,viewingzonesthatprovidethesameparallaximagesasthoseoftheleftandrightviewingzonesaregeneratedTheseviewingzonesareproducedwhenthepixelgroupsareprojectedbylensesotherthanalensthatprojectsthepixelgroupstogeneratetheleftandrightviewingzonesBecausethewidthwoftheviewingzonesforeacheyedecreasesasnincreases,theallowablerangeofeyemovementdecreasesTheintroductionofaneyetrackingsystemcansolvethisproblemTheuseofsuchasystemwithamultiviewdisplayandanintegralimagingdisplayhasbeenreportedThepositionsoftheleftandrightviewingzonescanbemovedbyalteringthegroupingofpixelsasshowninFigTheuseoftheeyetrackingsystemineffectallowsasingleviewer#$USDReceivedJanrevisedFebacceptedFebpublishedFeb(C)OSAFebruaryVol,NoOPTICSEXPRESSFigMovementofleftandrightviewingzonesTherequirementsforthelenticularlensareconsiderednextThedistancebetweentheviewingzonesandthelensesisdenotedbyl,andthatbetweenthelensesandthepixelsoftheflatpaneldisplayisdenotedbylThepixelpitchoftheflatpaneldisplayisdenotedbypFromthesimilarityoftriangles,'llwVp()Whenthefocallengthofthelensesisrepresentedbyf,thelensmaker‟sformulagivesf=llThepixelgroupsareimagedtogeneratetheleftandrightviewingzonesTherefore,thefocallengthcanbegivenbythefollowingequationflwVp()Whennisincreasedtoreducethepitchoftheviewingzones,thetotalviewingzonewidthwdecreasesaccordingtoEq()thus,thefocallengthfincreasesTherefore,theproposedtechniquerequiresalongerfocallengthforthelensesandthusathickerlenticularlensWhenthewidthofthepixelgroup,Vp,ismuchsmallerthanthewidthwoftheviewingzonesforeacheye,thefocallengthcanbeapproximatedbyVplw,whichisequaltolPrototypesystemAnSMVdisplaywasconstructedtodemonstratetheproposedtechniqueofpartitioningviewingzonesforthelefteyeandthosefortherighteyeAflatpaneldisplaywithaslantedsubpixelarrangement,whichwaspreviouslydevelopedtoconstructaviewdisplay,wasusedAphotographoftheslantedsubpixelarrangementisshowninFigSubpixelsofthesamecolorhavedifferenthorizontalpositionsineachDpixel,whichconsistsofsubpixels(subpixelsineachR,G,andBcolor)ThelensesofthelenticularlensdeflectraysemittedfromsubpixelswithdifferenthorizontalpositionsintodifferenthorizontaldirectionstogeneratemultipleviewingzonesInthepresentstudy,eachDpixelwasdividedintoleftandrightpixelgroupsTheresolutionoftheflatpaneldisplaywas,pixels,andthescreensizewasinchesThehorizontalpitchofthesubpixelswasμm,andthehorizontalpitchofsubpixelsofthesamecolorwasp=μmTheverticalpitchofthesubpixelswasμmTheDresolutionwaspixelsTheprototypeSMVdisplaywasdesignedforn=Eachoftheleftandrightviewingzonesconsistedofeightviewingzones,ie,V=Thewidthoftheeachoftheleftandrightviewingzoneswasw=mmfromEq()ThewidthoftheregionbetweenthetwoviewingzoneswasmmThepitchoftheviewingzoneswasv=mmfromEq(),whichissufficientlysmallerthantheaveragepupildiameter(mm)#$USDReceivedJanrevisedFebacceptedFebpublishedFeb(C)OSAFebruaryVol,NoOPTICSEXPRESSFigSlantedsubpixelarrangementofflatpaneldisplayThelenticularlenswasdesignedtogenerateviewingzonesmminfrontofit(l=mm)Thefocallengthofthelenseswasf=mmfromEq()ThepitchofthelensesgivenbyVp(n)(Vpw)wascalculatedtobemmThelenticularlenswasmadeofPMMATheasphericallenssurfacewasoptimizedtominimizetheradiiofthespotdiagramsintheviewingareawhosewidthwastwiceaslargeastheinteroculardistance(mm)usingthelensdesignsoftwareAlthoughaneyetrackingsystemisnotusedinthepresentstudy,thelenswasdesignedtocovertheviewingareadescribedabovesothatwecouldenhancethesysteminthefuturebyintroducinganeyetrackingsystemSpotdiagramsfordifferentpositionsintheviewingareaareshowninFigFigSpotdiagramsforourdesignedlenticularlens:Positionsfromthecenteroftheviewingareaare(a)mm,(b)mm,(c)mm,(d)mm,(e)mm,(f)mm,and(g

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