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首页 Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants, Vol.3 (AP,…

Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants, Vol.3 (AP, 1998)(ISBN 0125444230).pdf

Palik, Handbook of Optical Cons…

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简介:本文档为《Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants, Vol.3 (AP, 1998)(ISBN 0125444230)pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

ListofContributorsNumbersinparenthesesindicatethepagesonwhichtheauthors'contributionsbeginE,T,ARAKAWA(),LifeSciencesDivision,OakRidgeNationalLaboratory,OakRidge,TennesseeLUISARTUS(),ConsejoSuperiordeInvestigacionesCientificas,InstitutoJaimeAlmera,SoleSabarissn,Barcelona,SpainMARKAUSLENDER(),DepartmentofElectricalandComputerEngineering,BenGurionUniversityoftheNegev,BeerSheva,IsraelIVANBIAGGIO(),InstituteofQuantumElectronics,SwissFederalInstituteofTechnology,ETHHrnggerberg,CHZiirich,SwitzerlandHACENEBOUKARI(),InstituteforPhysicalScienceandTechnology,UniversityofMaryland,CollegePark,MarylandMATTHEWEBRIGGS(),DepartmentofPhysics,JamesFletcherBuilding,UniversityofUtah,SaltLakeCity,UtahALVAROJDAMIAO(),CentroTrcnicoAeroespacial,InstitutodeEstudosAvanqados,SaoJosdosCampos,SaoPaulo,BrasilMARCIAAFDESTRO(),CentroTrcnicoAeroespacial,InstitutodeEstudosAvancados,S~oJosdosCampos,SaoPaulo,BrasilGARYLDOLL(),MailCodeRES,TheTimkenCompany,DueberAvenue,SW,Canton,OhioHARRYDDOWNING(),DepartmentofPhysicsandAstronomy,StephenFAustinStateUniversity,Nacogdoches,TexasDAVIDFEDWARDS(,,,),WValpicoRoad,Tracy,CaliforniaJOHNEELDRIDGE(,),DepartmentofPhysics,AgricultureRoad,TheUniversityofBritishColumbia,Vancouver,BCVTZ,CanadaVICENTEFONSECA(),CentredeRecherchessurlaPhysiquedeHautesTemprratures,D,AvenuedelaRechercheScientifique,OrlransCedex,FranceDANIELFRANTA(),DepartmentofSolidStatePhysics,FacultyofScience,MasarykUniversityBrno,Kothirsk~i,Brno,CzechRepublicROGERHFRENCH(),DuPontCentralResearchandDevelopment,ExperimentalStationBuildingE,Wilmington,DelawarexiiixivListofContributorsKIRKA,FULLER(),DepartmentofAtmosphericScience,ColoradoStateUniversity,FortCollins,ColoradoJONGEIST(),FulfordStreet,Olney,MarylandFRANCOISGERVAIS(),CentredeRecherchessurlaPhysiquedeHautesTemperatures,D,AvenuedelaRechercheScientifique,oflransCedex,FranceARMANDHADNI(),UniversitHenriPoincarr,NancyI,VandoeuvrelesNancyCedex,FranceSHLOMOHAVA(),DepartmentofElectricalandComputerEngineering,BenGurionUniversityoftheNegev,BeerSheva,IsraelJOSEFHUMtJCEK(),DepartmentofSolidStatePhysics,FacultyofScience,MasarykUniversityBrno,Kotl~sk~i,Brno,CzechRepublicWRHUNTER(),SFAInc,McCormackDrive,Largo,MarylandTINAGAKI(),DivisionofNaturalSciences,OsakaKyoikuUniversity,Osaka,JapanKJEZIERSKI(,),InstituteofPhysics,TechnicalUniversityofWroclaw,WybrzezeWyspianskiego,Wroclaw,PolandRKHANNA(,),DepartmentofChemistryandBiochemistry,UniversityofMaryland,CollegePark,MarylandNICHOLASLAGAKOS(),Code,NavalResearchLaboratory,Washington,DCSTEPHENLOUGHIN(),LockheedMartinAstroSpace,BuildingBB,POBox,Philadelphia,PennsylvaniaDAVIDWLYNCH(),DepartmentofPhysicsandAstronomyandAmesLaboratory,USDOE,IowaStateUniversity,Ames,IowaANDREASMANDELIS(),PhotothermalandOptoelectronicDiagnosticsLaboratories,DepartmentofMechanicalandIndustrialEngineering,UniversityofToronto,King'sCollegeRoad,TorontoMSGCanadaKAMASLIN(),RoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondon,Egham,SurreyTWOEX,UnitedKingdomGMIRJALILI*(),DepartmentofPhysics,UniversityofEssex,ColchesterCOSQ,UnitedKingdomJMISIEWICZ(,),InstituteofPhysics,TechnicalUniversityofWroclaw,WybrzezeWyspianskiego,Wroclaw,PolandWJMOORE(),Code,NavalResearchLaboratory,Washington,DCIVANOHJDAL(,),DepartmentofSolidStatePhysics,FacultyofScience,MasarykUniversityBrno,Kotl~irsk~i,Brno,CzechRepublicMILOSLAVOHJDAL(),InstituteofPhysicalEngineering,TechnicalUniversity,Brno,CzechRepublic*Presentaddress:DepartmentofPhysics,UniversityofYazd,Yazd,IranListofContributorsxvEDWARDD,PALIK(,,,,,),InstituteforPhysicalScienceandTechnology,UniversityofMaryland,CollegePark,MarylandT,J,PARKER(),DepartmentofPhysics,UniversityofEssex,ColchesterCOSQ,UnitedKingdomMARVINR,QUERRY(),DepartmentofPhysics,UniversityofMissouriKansasCity,KansasCity,MissouriCARLGRIBBING(),SchoolofEngineering,DepartmentofTechnology,UppsalaUniversity,Box,SUppsala,SwedenJCRIFE(,,),Code,NavalResearchLaboratory,OverlookAvenue,SW,Washington,DCARNEROOS(),SchoolofEngineering,DepartmentofTechnology,UppsalaUniversity,Box,SUppsala,SwedenMASATOTAZAWA(),NationalIndustrialResearchInstituteofNagoya,Nagoya,JapanMICHAELETHOMAS(,,,),TheJohnsHopkinsUniversity,AppliedPhysicsLaboratory,JohnsHopkinsRoad,Laurel,MarylandWILLIAMJTROPF(,,,,),TheJohnsHopkinsUniversity,AppliedPhysicsLaboratory,JohnsHopkinsRoad,Laurel,MarylandLWARD(),SchoolofNaturalandEnvironmentalSciences,CoventryUniversity,PrioryStreet,CoventryCVFB,UnitedKingdomPrefaceTheHandbookofOpticalConstantsofSolidshasnowgrowntothreevolumesThepublicationofHOCIinandHOCIIinhasreducedbutnotexhaustedtheavailablematerialsofscientificandtechnologicalinterestOnecanaskwhatmaterialsarelefttocritiqueThereareseveralcandidatesThereisatrickleofrecentlypublishedpapersremeasuring"old"materialsalreadycritiquedinHOCIandHOCIIThisisthecaseforSi,A,Si~Ge~~,whicharerevisitedinHOCIIIThiswillbeworthwhiletodoforseveralothermaterialsfromtimetotimeWehavenotdevelopedthecouragetoattacktheIIIVternaryandquaternarymaterialsindetailexceptforAl~Gal~a,s(HOCII),soimportantinlaserandelectronicapplicationsWelookedattheIIVIternarycompoundHg~~Cd~Te(HOCII),importantininfrareddetectorapplications,aswellastheIVVIcompoundPb~~Sn~Te(HOCII)OurdreamofcritiquingallthealkalihalidesfromLiFtoCsBrisnotyetfulfilledWehavenoticedalackofdatafortheindexofrefractionnbutnotfortheextinctioncoefficientkforgemstonesThegemologistonlyseemsinterestedinnattheNaDlineWenoticedfromascanofseveralgembooksthatnisnotgiventhroughoutthevisibleFormostpurposes,nisconsideredaconstantButtothephysicist,nisnotaconstantSincegemstonesmustbe"fullofimpurities"togivethemtheirwidevarietyofcolors,thegemologistdoesmeasurethevisibleabsorptionspectrumtodeterminetheimpurityabsorptionbandsThephysicistusuallypreferspurecrystals(atleastinsulators)Wehavepreviouslycritiqueddiamond,sapphire,quartz,andspinelinpureform,thelatterthreebeingthestartingpointforseveralgemstonesincludingruby,amethyst,agate,opal,andchrysoberylInHOCIIIweaddyttriumaluminumgarnetandzirconTherearenonmeasurementsinthevisibleexceptatnmforzirconWeneedtofindmoretechnologyusesforgemstoneswhich,inturn,willspurmeasurementsofnandk!Wecouldnotfindacritiquerforcubiczirconia,whichtousisquitedifferentfromdiamondinopticalproperties,butservesas"fake"diamondformanypeoplexviixviiiPrefaceAswithHOCIandHOCII,IamindebtedtothemanyscientistsfortheirworkinHOCIII,writingchaptersonstillmorewaystomeasureopticalconstantsandwritingcritiquestabulatingtheopticalconstantsofmorethanadditionalmaterialsJune,EDWARDDPALIKChapterIIntroductoryRemarksEDWARDDPALIKInstituteforPhysicalScienceandTechnologyUniversityofMarylandCollegePark,MarylandIIntroductionIITheChaptersIIITheCritiquesIVTheTablesVTheFiguresoftheTablesVICorrections,Additions,andCommentsAOpticalConstantsofCdSBOpticalConstantsofMetalFilmsCHenkeModelfortheElementsDMoreRecentPapersaboutOpticalConstantsEOpticalConstantsonDiskReferencesINTRODUCTIONIThetwopreviousvolumesofHandbookofOpticalConstantsofSolids(HOCIandHOCII)containedaboutmaterialsThepresentvolumeaddsaboutmorematerials,roughlydividedintoequalnumbersofmetals,semiconductors,andinsulatorsAlonglistofpotentialmaterialswascirculatedamongpossiblecritiquersTheychoseandorrecommendedtheonespresentedhereTherearestillsomematerialsomittedbecauseofalackofcritiquersTheseincludeBi,B,Ba,Ca,Cd,Pb,Zn,Zr,ZnO,HgS,HgSe,Pb~Sn~~Se,PbO,MoS,CdAs,GaS,LiOH,NaBr,NaI,KF,LiC,LiBr,ZrO,BaO,andNiONotethatofthechemicalelementsaredoneandofthe,(ormore)chemicalcompoundsWehaveomittedglassesgenerally,whicharecoveredtosomeextentbyEfimovandTropfetalThereissomelooseuseofthewordssemiconductorandinsulatorinHOCIandHOCHbasedprimarilyonthebandgapbeinglessorgreaterthanHANDBOOKOFOPTICALCONSTANTSOFSOLIDSIIICopyright�byAcademicPressAllrightsofreproductioninanyformreservedISBN$EdwardDPalikeVAgC,AgBr,AgI,BSO,andBGOareconsideredassemiconductorsbecausetheirelectricalpropertiescanbecontrolledbydopingduringgrowthofthecrystals,buttheymayendupineithercategoryDiamondisinvariablythoughtofasaninsulator,althoughnaturaldiamondscanbefoundwithsemiconductingpropertiesIITHECHAPTERSThechaptersaremeanttodescribeexperimentaltechniquesformeasuringnandkInChapter,ParkeretaldiscussthedeterminationofnandkbydifferentialFouriertransformspectroscopyinthefarinfraredThisisanelegantwaytoobtainnandkfromthereflectionamplitudeandphaseandhasbeenappliedtomanysemiconductorsandinsulatorsItisofinteresttocomparetheseneweropticalconstantswiththoseinHOCIorHOCII,whichhavegenerallybeenobtainedbyKramersKronig(KK)analysisorclassicaloscillatorfitInChapter,MandelisdescribestheuseofphotoacousticspectroscopytodeterminekWhilethischapterstressessemiconductors,severalvariationsofthetechniquehavealsofoundwidespreaduseforothermaterialsInChapter,BriggsdiscussesphotothermaldeflectionasamethodofdeterminingkItisdonewithtwointensebeams,onetoheatupasmallspotonasampleandasecondtodetectbendingofthesampleasitexpandslocallyInChapter,BoukariandLagakosdescribethedeterminationofnandkbyBrillouinscatteringWhilenotusuallythoughtofasatechniquefordeterminingopticalconstants,therearenovelwaystodeterminenankinhighlyabsorbingmaterialsandnintransparentslabsandthinfilmsInChapter,AuslenderandHavadevelopmodelsforcalculatingnandkinnSifortheinfraredregionforfreeelectronconcentrationsfromtocmInChapter,PalikcollectsanumberofopticalparametersforallthematerialsinHOCI,HOCII,andHOCIIIincludingcrystalstructure,spacegroupsymmetry,unitcelldimensions,numberofmoleculesunitcell,opticandacousticirreduciblerepresentation,transverseandlongitudinallatticevibrationfrequencies,plasmafrequency,bandgap,anddcdielectricconstantThereweresuggestionsforchaptersonthelosstangentmethodatlowfrequenciesandontheprismminimumdeviationtechnique(stillthebestwaytodeterminen),butthesecouldnotbedoneatthistimeIntroductoryRemarksTHECRITIQUESIIIThecritiquesaremeanttobethecritiquer'sownjudgmentofthebestroomtemperaturevaluesofnandkoverthewidestspectralrangeAsthevolumeshaveprogressed,wehaveexpandedtherangealittlewithafewcritiquesincludingaboveandbelowroomtemperaturedataSometimestherearetwooverlappingsetsofdatafromtwodifferentlaboratorieswhichcanbecomparedThissometimeshappensinthefarinfraredwherereflectivityisKKanalyzedandoraclassicaloscillatormodelisappliedGenerally,itisnotagoodideatogivethereaderachoiceofdatawitisthejobofthecritiquertomakethechoiceSometimes,however,acomparisonshedslightontheproblemsarisinginthemeasurementofopticalconstantssuchaswavelengthcalibrationanddeterminationofabsolutereflectivityRecently,spectroscopicellipsometryhasgrownintoawidespreadtechniquefortheeVregion,probablysupplantingKKanalysisofreflectivityWehavereturnedtoafewmaterialsdoneinpreviousvolumesbecausemoredatahavebecomeavailableTherefore,werevisitA,SixGe~xandSiTHETABLESIVThetablesofnandkhavebecomemoreindividualtomeettheneedsoftheindividualcritiquersWemaintainthecolumnslabeledeV,cm,zm,n,kandproceeddownthecolumnindecreasingeVReferencebracketsstartatthetopofagivendatacolumnandareunderstooddownthecolumnuntilanewdatasetoccurs,whichisthenlabeled,forexampleWepromotedexponentialnotationespeciallyofk,ideallyforeverycolumn,buthavenotyetreachedthatstageofuniformityTofacilitateeditingthetablesfortheOpticalSocietyofAmerica,wehaverequestedthattheexponentialnotationbeusedateveryrow,ratherthanomittingtheexponentuntilitchangesvaluesomewheredownthecolumnTHEFIGURESOFTHETABLESVThecritiquershavetakenmoreleewaywiththefigures,sincetheyhadtoproducethemwithwhatevergraphicssoftwaretheyhadavailableInpreviouseditions,allthefigureswerepreparedbythesameartistwhokeptthestyleuniformNowcritiquerscanusedatapoints(usuallyooofornandAAAfork)Datapointscanbeconnectedwithlines,orjustlinescanbeused(usually~fornandfork)Inthepast,bothnandkwereplottedonthesameEdwardDPalikfigurewiththesameloglogscaleSincetheextentofkdeterminedthenumberofdecadesofthelogscalefortheordinate,(<k<),nwassqueezedAlso,forsolidswithalotofvibrationbands,thisregiongotverybusyNowsomecritiquershaveseparatednandkplotstoshowthestructuremoreclearlyThedrawbacksinhavingeachcritiquermakehisownfigurearethemanyproblemsoffontsize,tickmarkposition,andborderthickness,rememberingthatthefigurewillbereducedinpublishedformVlCORRECTIONS,ADDITIONS,ANDCOMMENTSAOpticalConstantsofCdSAcorrectionandadditiontothedataforCdSfromHOCHneedstobemadeaccordingtothecritiquer,LWardDataofDutton~nearthebandedgehasbeenaddedTheextinctioncoefficientforbothElicandE•hasbeendeterminedbytransmissionmeasurementsofthinslabsofdifferentthicknessesThesecanbecomparedtodataofCardonaandHarbekeforbulkorientedsamplesobtainedfromKKanalysisofreflectivitywithpolarizedlightDataofKhawajaandTomlinforfilmsdepositedonquartzsubstrates(assumedtobepolycrystalline)wereobtainedfromtransmittanceandreflectancemeasurementsthesedatahavebeenreassessedtocorrectanerrorinreadingthewavelengthscaleTheresultsarepresentedinTableIWhileabovethebandgaptheresultsforkarecomparable,belowthebandgapwhereabsorptiondecreasesordersofmagnitude,theresultsdifferdrasticallyamongthethreedatasetsWesuspectthatKKanalysisofreflectivityinCardonaandHarbekegivespoorresultsfork<<comparedtotransmittanceofslabsinDuttonForthepolycrystallinefilmsinKhawajaandTomlin,itisnotobviouswhykissomuchlargercomparedtothedataofDuttonbelowthebandgapPerhapstherewassignificantlightscatteringfromdefectedmaterial,whichwasmistakenforabsorptionBOpticalConstantsofMetalFilmsTheopticalconstantsofmetalsinHOCI,II,andIIIcanbecomparedwiththosegiveninOptimatr,acomputerprogramtocalculateopticalpropDDutton,FundamentalabsorptionedgeincadmiumsulfidePhysRev,()MCardonaandGHarbeke,OpticalpropertiesandbandstructureinwurtzitetypecrystalsandmillePhysRevA,()EEKhawajaandSGTomlin,TheopticalconstantsofthinevaporatedfilmsofcadmiumandzincsulphideJPhysD:ApplPhys,()IntroductoryRemarksTABLEIValuesofnandkforCadmiumSulfidefromVariousReferenceseVcm',mnknLkLnilkllkLkllertiesofmaterialsThissoftwareisavailablefromARSoftware,CorporateDr,Suite,Landover,MDItiscopyrightedbytheJohnsHopkinsUniversityAppliedPhysicsLaboratoryandARSoftware,IncThecalculationalprocedures,basedonseveralliteraturemodelsfordeterminingopticalpropertiesofsolids,arebasedontheworksofMEThomasandWJTropfThedataformetalsinOptimatrwereessentiallythatofOrdaletal,whofittedaDrudemodeltomanysetsofexistingdataIncomparingtheopticalconstantsofmetalsfromOptimatrandHOCinthevisibleandnearinfraredregions,onefindsforAuandAgespecially,significantvariationsinnandk(uptoafactoroftwo)ThisisduetothefactthatdatafromdifferentlaboratorieswereusedWherethedatafromthesamelaboratorieswereused,theagreementismuchbetter,ofcourseThisgeneralproblemofthevariationofopticalconstantsofmetalfilmsdepositedatdifferentlaboratoriesandwithdifferentdepositiontechniques,hasbeendiscussedbyAspnesetalwithregardtogoldTheyfindthatvoidsEdwardDPalikandgrainsizeinthefilmscanaccountforsignificantvariationsinnandk,asdemonstratedbytheirspectroscopicellipsometrymeasurementsintheeVspectralregionTherefore,itwouldappearthatmetalfilms(andespeciallyAuandAg)shouldbemeasureddirectlyiftheoptical

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Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants, Vol.3 (AP, 1998)(ISBN 0125444230)

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