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首页 Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants, Vol.1 (AP,…

Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants, Vol.1 (AP, 1985)(ISBN 0125444206).pdf

Palik, Handbook of Optical Cons…

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简介:本文档为《Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants, Vol.1 (AP, 1985)(ISBN 0125444206)pdf》,可适用于教育、出版领域

ListofContributorsNumbersinparenthesesindicatethepagesonwhichtheauthors'contributionsbeginA,ADDAMIANO(),NavalResearchLaboratory,Washington,DCDEASPNES(),BellCommunicationsResearch,Inc,MurrayHill,NewJerseyGBAUER(,),InstitutforPhysik,MontanuniversititLeoben,ALeoben,AustriaABORGHESI(,),DipartimentodiFisica"AVolta"andGruppoNazionalediStrutturadellaMateriadelCNR,UniversitdiPavia,Pavia,ItalyWJCH�(),WestinghouseResearchandDevelopmentCenter,Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,andUniversityofPittsburgh,Pittsburgh,PennsylvaniaDAVIDFEDWARDS*(,),UniversityofCalifornia,LosAlamosNationalLaboratory,LosAlamos,NewMexicoJEELDRIDGE(),DepartmentofPhysics,UniversityofBritishColumbia,VancouverVTW,BritishColumbia,CanadaOJGLEMBOCKI(),NavalResearchLaboratory,Washington,DCGGUIZZETTI(,),DipartimentodiFisica"AVolta"andGruppoNazionalediStrutturadellaMateriadelCNR,UniversitdiPavia,Pavia,ItalyRTHOLM(,),NavalResearchLaboratory,Washington,DCWRHUNTERt(,,),NavalResearchLaboratory,Washington,DCMITIOINOKUTI(),ArgonneNationalLaboratory,Argonne,IllinoisBJENSEN(),DepartmentofPhysics,BostonUniversity,Boston,MassachusettsHKRENN(,),InstitutforPhysik,MontanuniversititLeoben,ALeoben,Austria*Presentaddress:LawrenceLivermoreNationalLaboratory,Livermore,CaliforniaI"Presentaddress:SachsFreemanAssociates,Inc,Bowie,MarylandXVxviListofContributorsDAVIDWLYNCH(,),DepartmentofPhysicsandAmesLaboratory,USDepartmentofEnergy,IowaStateUniversity,Ames,IowaSHASHANKASMITRA(),DepartmentofElectricalEngineering,UniversityofRhodeIsland,Kingston,RhodeIslandEDWARDDPALIK(,,,,,,,,,),NavalResearchLaboratory,Washington,DCHRPHILIPP(,,,,),GeneralElectricResearchandDevelopmentCenter,Schenectady,NewYorkHPILLER(,),DepartmentofPhysicsandAstronomy,LouisianaStateUniversity,BatonRouge,LouisianaROYFPOTTER(,),DepartmentofPhysicsandAstronomy,WesternWashingtonUniversity,Bellingham,WashingtonMWRIBARSKY(),SchoolofPhysics,GeorgiaInstituteofTechnology,Atlanta,GeorgiaJOSEPHSHAMIR(),FacultyofElectricalEngineering,Technion~IsraelInstituteofTechnology,Haifa,IsraelESHILES*(),ArgonneNationalLaboratory,Argonne,IllinoisGEORGEJSIMONIS(),ElectronicsResearchandDevelopmentCommand,HarryDiamondLaboratories,Adelphi,MarylandDYSMITH(,),ArgonneNationalLaboratory,Argonne,Illinois,andMaxPlanckInstitutforFestk~rperforschung,Stuttgart,FederalRepublicofGermanyPATEMPLE(),MichelsonLaboratory,PhysicsDivision,NavalWeaponsCenter,ChinaLake,CaliforniaDJTREACY(,),PhysicsDepartment,USNavalAcademy,Annapolis,Maryland*Presentaddress:GulfResearchandDevelopmentCompany,Houston,TexasChaptertIntroductoryRemarksEDWARDDPALIKNavalResearchLaboratoryWashington,DCIIntroductionIITheChaptersIIITheCritiquesIVTheTablesVTheFiguresoftheTablesVIGeneralRemarksReferencesINTRODUCTIONIDuringaprofessionalcareercoveringmolecularspectroscopy,magnetoopticalpropertiesofsemiconductors,internalreflectionspectroscopy,andgeneralopticalpropertiesofelectronicmaterials,IrarelymeasuredrefractiveindexnorextinctioncoefficientktobetterthantwosignificantfiguresandthenonlywhentheexperimentreallydemandeditHowever,therewasalwaysaneedfornandkvaluesforestimatinganopticaleffect,internalreflectioninaprismwithmultilayers,bandedgetransmissionofathinsemiconductorfilmonasubstrate,orfreecarrierreflectioneffects,forexampleSuchnumberswerenotveryhandy,especiallyforavarietyofmetalsintotheinfraredtothefarinfraredandforsemiconductorswithvariousfreecarrierconcentrationsThepresenthandbookisanattempttocollectreferencesandtabulatenandkforareasonablylargenumberofmaterialsoftechnologicalandphysicsinterest,sothatapersonhavingtheneedcouldeasilyfindthenumbersoverthewidestspectralrange,ideallyxraytomicrowave,inagridfineenoughtoyieldthenumberbyinspectionorbyasimpleinterpolation,andprovidethepertinentreferencesifmoredetailswereneededForeachmaterialacritiqueisprovidedtoindicatehowthenumberswereobtainedfromexperimentandhowgoodtheyareHANDBOOKOFOPTICALCONSTANTSOFSOLIDSISBNEdwardDPalikIITHECHAPTERSToprefaceandsupplementthecritiquesforeachmaterial,therearechapters(includingthisone)thatdiscussvariousaspectsofopticalconstantswithsomeemphasisonexperimentaltechniquesandsamplepreparationWhilenandkareoblivioustotheunitsusedinMaxwell'sequations,derivingthesenumbersboththeoreticallyandexperimentallycanbedoneinvariousunitsthattheindividualcontributorshaveindicatedwhennecessary(primarilycgsandmks)InChapterRoyFPotterdevelopsR,T,andAforageneralsampleofmultiplefilmsonbothsidesofathicksubstrateThissimplifiestothesingleslabandthesinglefilmonaslabsubstrate,thetwomostprevalentkindsofsamplesInChapterDYSmithreviewstheworldofsumrulesoverinfiniteandfinitefrequencyrangesandstresseshowsuchanalysiscanspotexperimentalerrorsInChapterWRHunterdiscussespolarizednonnormalincidencereflectiontechniquesespeciallyastheyarepracticedintheultravioletvisible(UVvis)spectralregion,withemphasisonhowerrorsinRarepropagatedtoerrorsinnandkandtheeffectsofoxidelayersInChapterDEAspnesoutlineswavelengthellipsometrywithemphasisontheeffectsofsurfacepreparationandthepropertiesofadepositedorgrownfilmonasubstrateInChapterJosephShamirreviewsstandardinterferometrictechniquesfortransparentsamplesandthendiscusseshismorerecentlaserinterferometrictechniqueformeasuringbothnandkforafilmonasubstrateInChapterPATempledealswithcalorimetryforbulkmaterialandforafilmonasubstratetodeterminesmallabsorptionconstantsInChapterGeorgeJSimonisdiscussesthemorespecializedtechniquesusedinthefarIRandsubmillimeterwaveregiontodetermineopticalconstantsTheseareofconsiderableinterestnowwiththeadventofgyratronsourcesInChapterBJensensummarizesthequantumfreecarrierabsorptiontheoryforsemiconductorsandgivesnumericalresultsforthecontributionstonandkforGaAs,InP,andInAsforvariousfreecarrierdensitiesThus,thereadercancalculatefromscratch(oruseanabbreviatedtable)todeterminethefreecarriercontributiontoe~andeandthusnandkTheregularcritiquesforGaAs,InP,andInAsweredonefor"pure"material,andthesevaluesofnandkcanbecombinedwiththefreecarriercontributionstoestimatetheopticalconstantsforanysampleofarbitraryfreecarrierconcentrationFinallyinChapterDavidWLynchdiscussestheabsorptionmechanismsabovethefundamentalbandgapwithemphasisonthevarietyofinterband,plasma,corelevel,exciton,andUrbachtailabsorptionprocessesInChapterShashankaSMitradescribestheabsorptionmechanismsbelowthefundamentalbandgap,suchassingleandmultiphononprocesses,freecarrierabsorption,andimpurityabsorptionIntroductoryRemarksSpecialattentionhasbeengiventoaluminumbyDYSmithinalongcritiquesinceitisthemoststudiedmetalanditsopticalconstantshavebeendeterminedoverawidespectralrangewiththeaidofdispersionrelationsItwouldbehopedthatthedatagivenforsomeoftheothermaterialsmightspurfurthersuchanalysisWehavestressedthefilmonasubstratesamplebecausethisisbecomingmoreandmorethesampleconfrontingusinmaterialsstudiessincetheupsurgein()epitaxialfilmgrowth,()useofinsulatorfilmsonsemiconductors,()surfacestudiesofadsorbedlayersunderultrahighvacuum(UHV)conditions,and()reflectionandantireflectioncoatingsTHECRITIQUESIIIThirtysevenmaterialshavebeenexaminedwithsomecrystallineandamorphousformsincludedforafewmaterialsThecritiqueshavebeendonebypeopleThus,thestylesvarysomewhatWewantedacommonthreadofdiscussionofexperimentaltechniques,reasonsforchoicesofnumbersusedinthetable,themostimportantliteraturereferences,andsomeideaofaccuracyandprecisionThislastrequirementhasbeenmetheadonbysomeofthecontributors(andoriginalworkers)whoquoteplusminusvariationsinexperimentalscatterforaSellmeiertypefittoexpressthedata,whodiscusslimitsofsystematicandrandomerrors,orwho(morevaguely)discusswhichdecimalplaceisbecomingunreliableoruncertainBecauseofthewidespectralrangealongwiththenumberofdifferentexperimentaltechniquesusedforagivenmaterial,thisbecomesataskimpossibletodoindetail,andwecanonlyreferthereaderbacktotheoriginalreferencesInmosttableswehaveoverlappednandkvaluesfromdifferentexperimentstogivethereaderanideaofthemismatchSometimes,wecanfigureoutthereasonsforthismismatchandsuggestwhichisthebettersetofdataForexample,KramersKronig(KK)analysisdeteriorateswhenkbecomessmallerthannandattheedgesofaparticularspectralregionalso,thepurityandstructureofthematerialcanvaryamonglaboratoriesUnfortunately,thevariationsinnandkaresuchthatfornontransmissionexperimentsgenerally,onlyoneortwofiguresshouldbeusedinquotingabsolutevalues(accuracy),whilemoreareoftencarriedalongtoshowspectralstructureasafunctionofwavelength(precision)OnlyinthecaseofmeasurementofrefractiveindexbyminimumdeviationorfringesareweabletosetdownvaluestofourdecimalplaceswithsomeconfidenceWhilewecangiveexamplesofellipsometricmeasurementsandKKanalysisofreflectivityinanoverlapregion(eV)thatagreetotwofigures,wealsohaveexamplesEdwardDPalikinwhichtwolaboratoriesmeasuringRanddoingKKanalysishardlyagreetotwofiguresamongthemselvesMuchoftheworkcitedwasdonebyphysicistsinterestedinabsorptionpeakssoastobeabletoidentifyphononabsorptionandinterbandabsorptiontransitionsindetailTheirprecisionisgenerallyhighinordertodistinguishpeaksandshoulders,buttheiraccuracyisnotnecessarilyhigh,asacomparisonoftwoexperimentsmeasuringmultiphononabsorptioninsiliconorgalliumarsenidewillshow,forexampleWedothinkthatasinglesetofvaluesofnandkisdesirableincontrasttoacollectionofalltheworkeverdonesincethedawnoftimewithnoselectivityorhintsastowhatiswhatTosomeextent,wefeelthishandbookaccomplishesthisgoalTherehavebeenanumberofpreviouscollectionsofopticaldatathathavebeenhelpfulThemostusefulis"TheRefractiveIndexofAlkaliHalides,"byLi,inwhichSellmeiertypefitshavebeengiventomanymaterialsTheworkofHaelbichetal,"OpticalPropertiesofSomeInsulatorsintheVacuumUltravioletRegion,"wasespeciallyusefulbecauseitcataloguedallthexraytoUVworkofanumberofinsulatorsandprovedtobeagoodstartingpointAnotheroldercollectionwaspublishedbyMoses,"RefractiveIndexofOpticalMaterialsintheInfraredRegion"MycopyofBallardetal,"OpticalMaterialsforInfraredInstrumentation,"isdogearedfromuseAnothermorerecentstartingpointwasWolfe's"PropertiesofOpticalMaterials"ThetableofHassandHadley,"OpticalPropertiesofMetals,"wasuseful,aswasthemorerecentcompilationofWeaveretalbasedonsynchrotrondataformetalsIVTHETABLESAfewgeneralcommentsabouttheformatofthetablesareinorderWehaveusedphotonenergyinelectronvolts,wavenumberinreciprocalcentimeters,andwavelengthinmicrometersforeachmaterialtoaidthereaderItisnaturaltothinkinelectronvoltsandangstromsinthexrayUVregion,whileintheinfraredreciprocalcentimetersandmicrometersaremorecomfortableWewillnevergetusedtoanumberlike!,cm~,althoughthisusageappearsinolderatomicspectroscopybooksTherefore,weintroducereciprocalcentimetersusuallynear,cmx(~eV),keepingthemtoalllowerenergiesItisusuallyobviouswhattheunitswerefortheoriginaldatabecauseofthesystematictrendsofthesimplenumbersgiventoone,two,orthreefiguresTheothertwounitsareusuallygiventofourfiguresjustforconsistencyandtohelpidentifytheoriginalunitsToconvertelectronvoltstoreciprocalIntroductoryRemarkscentimetersweusecmleVroundedofffromthemostrecentlydeterminedfundamentalconstantsehcTherealandimaginarypartsofthedielectricfunctionearegivenbyE=elie=(nik)OneobtainsnikbychoosingtheformoftheplanewavesolutiontoMaxwell'sequationsasexpi(Ywtqr)ThischoicealsodeterminessignsintheLorentzoscillatorformulaforlatticevibrationsWehaveelectedtotabulatenandkbecauseitisthenaneasy=Fkmattertoobtainelande=nkaswellasreflectivityR=(n)k(n)kTheextinctioncoefficientisoftengiveninpowersofThispowerisunderstoodtobethesamedownthecolumnuntilthispowerrepeatsitselfjustbeforeanewpowerofappearsorthenumberbecomesapuredecimalat~Inmostinstances,thevaluesfornandkhavebeenobtainedfromtablesandgraphsintheoriginalreferencesInsomecases,theoriginalworkershavekindlysupplieddetailedtablestothecritiquersThetablesareacknowledgedasprivatecommunicationsToobtainnandkfromagraphproducesallsortsofeyestrainproblemsManyauthorsdonotprovidefiduciarymarksonallfoursidesofthegraphoromitthemarksforonlogplotsTablesthataretoosmalltoreadmustbeexpandedForsomereason,artistsandorexperimenterscannotdrawalinearscalewithevenlyspacedfiduciarymarksTherefore,someofthesenumbersprobablyhaveanuncertaintylargerthantheexperimentaluncertaintyquotedintheoriginalpaperWhenabsorptionisduetoextrinsicmechanismssuchasimpuritiesandsurfacequality,thecritiquerhasmentionedthisandeitheromittedthedataornoteditsextrinsiccharacterThereferencesaregiveninbracketsnexttothebeginningnandkandareunderstoodtoapplydownthecolumnuntilanewreferenceappearsThismaygetalittleconfusingwhenasignificantoverlapoftwosetsofdataoccursTHEFIGURESOFTHETABLESVThetablesareplottedforeachcritique,usuallyasFig,onaloglogscale,sothatthereadercanseeataglancewhatisgoingonAdmittedly,thedetailsarelostThesolidlineisforthedashedlineisforkAfterplottingoversuchtables,findtheopticalconstantsofsolidstobeaboringsubjectwiththesameoldreststrahlenbands,thesameoldmultiphononbands,thesameoldfleecarrierabsorption,thesamefundamentalbandgapandhigherlyingbandgapsandthesameK,L,MatomicabsorptionedgesEdwardDPalikVlGENERALREMARKSAfewinterestingobservationshavebeenmadewhileIwasdoingseveralofthecritiquesandreadingallofthemRoomtemperaturewasanythingfromtoK,anditwassurprisinghowmanyauthorsneglectedtoreportthisnumberatallThisisnoproblemexceptfortherefractiveindexvariationtypicallyinthefourthdecimalplaceforaKchangeintemperatureSomecritiquesdoquotetemperaturedependencesDescriptionofthesamplesurfacepreparationwasoftenneglected,aswasthefreecarrierconcentrationinsemiconductorsMechanical(nonchemical)polishingofthesurfaceshouldhavebeenoutlawedyearsago,althoughwhetheritaffectsanopticalmeasurementoftendependsonthewavelengthtodamagesizeandthekindofmaterial~metal,semiconductor,orinsulatorWesometimesrunintotroublewithsurfaceroughnessatreststrahlenminimaatwhichrefleetionislow(R~)andatmaximaatwhichsurfaceopticalphononfeaturesweaklyoccurbecauseroughnesscancouplelighttothesurfacephononmodesDepositedfilmswereoftenundercharacterizedastostateofcrystallinityThegreatmajorityoffarIRdeterminationsofnandkareindirectviatheLorentzoscillatormodelandDrudemodelfitstoRTheformerisnotoriouslypoorinthewings,butitisallwehaveinmanycases,andmanyofthematerialsinthehandbookareanalyzedintheIRbythistechniqueInafewcases,KKanalysisforRwasalsodone,withsomeagreementwiththeresultsofanoscillatormodelfitFortunately,asymmetricFouriertransformspectroscopycannowgiveboththerealandimaginarypartsofR,e~,ande,andnandkdirectly,thusavoidingtheoscillatormodelandKKanalysisTheother,moredirect,techniqueofpolarizednonnormalincidencereflectionisnotsowidespreadintheIRyetThenomenclatureforopticsgetsalittlemixeduponoccasionintheoriginalreferencesandinthepresentchaptersandcritiquesWhilereflectionandtransmissionaregeneralprocesses,themeasurementonemakesonalaboratorysampleyieldsnumbers,thereflectanceandtransmittanceThis,ofcourse,includesmultiplereflectioneffectsAsthesamplebecomesopaqueorasthesampleiswedged,thereflectanceapproachesthesinglesurfacereflectivity,andthisisthequantitythatisusedinKKanalysisSince~=~rkdefinestheabsorptionconstant,mostpeoplemeasuredirectlyanddonotconverttokInconvertingsome~datatokdataoveraconsiderablerangeof,Inoticedthatdetailedstructurewasoftenwashedoutsomewhatinthefinalplotofkincontrasttotheplotof~Also,apeakin~didnotnecessarilyfallatthesamewavelengthasapeakinkSincepowerabsorptionisproportionalto~,measurementof~isabetterapproachtolocatingresonancesIntroductoryRemarksVeryfewofthemeasurementsweredonetodeterminenandkfortheirownsake,exceptwhenthematerialwasnew,suchasinthecaseofInSbinTheinterestinlaserwindowmaterialsspurredsuchmeasurementsinselectedtransparentmaterialssuchasNaCandKCTheavailabilityofsynchrotronradiationsourcesisnowproducingphysicsinterestsinmaterialstructureandwillyieldbettervaluesSomegeneralreviewsofhowtocalculateandmeasureopticalconstantsarealsolistedinthereferencesREFERENCESHHLi,JPhysChemRefData,()RPHaelbich,MIwan,andEEKoch,"PhysikDaten,PhysicsData,"Fachinformationzentrum,Kar

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Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants, Vol.1 (AP, 1985)(ISBN 0125444206)

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