下载

1下载券

加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 2012中国医疗卫生事业

2012中国医疗卫生事业.doc

2012中国医疗卫生事业

北极光翻译赵小贤
2013-11-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2012中国医疗卫生事业doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

  中国的医疗卫生事业MedicalandHealthServicesinChina 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室InformationOfficeoftheStateCouncil,thePeople’sRepublicofChina 年月December,Beijing 目录Contents 前言Foreword 一、卫生基本状况IBasicConditions 二、医药卫生体制改革IIReformofMedicalandHealthcareSystems 三、传染病防治与卫生应急IIIInfectiousDiseasePreventionandTreatment,andHealthEmergencyManagement 四、慢性非传染性疾病防治IVPreventionandTreatmentofChronicNoncommunicableDisorders 五、妇女儿童健康权益保护VProtectingWomenandChildren’sRighttoHealth 六、中医药发展VIDevelopmentofTraditionalChineseMedicine 七、卫生国际合作VIIInternationalMedicalandHealthcareCooperation 结束语Conclusion 前言Foreword 健康是促进人的全面发展的必然要求。提高人民健康水平实现病有所医的理想是人类社会的共同追求。在中国这个有着亿多人口的发展中大国医疗卫生关系亿万人民健康是一个重大民生问题。 GoodhealthisaprerequisiteforpromotingallrounddevelopmentofthepersonAnditisacommonpursuitofhumansocietiestoimprovepeople’shealthandensuretheirrighttomedicalcareForChina,alargedevelopingcountry,medicalandhealthcareisofvitalimportancetoitspopulationofoverbillion,andisamajorissueconcerningitspeople’swellbeing 中国高度重视保护和增进人民健康。宪法规定国家发展医疗卫生事业发展现代医药和传统医药保护人民健康。围绕宪法中国逐步形成了相对完善的卫生法律法规体系。 Chinapaysgreatattentiontoprotectingandimprovingitspeople’shealthAstheConstitutionstipulates,“Thestatedevelopsmedicalandhealthservices,promotesmodernmedicineandtraditionalChinesemedicine,allfortheprotectionofthepeople’shealth”Basedonthisconstitutionalstipulation,Chinahasputinplaceacompletesystemoflawsandregulationsconcerningmedicalandhealthservices 多年来中国坚持“以农村为重点预防为主中西医并重依靠科技与教育动员全社会参与为人民健康服务为社会主义现代化建设服务”的卫生工作方针努力发展具有中国特色的医疗卫生事业。经过不懈努力覆盖城乡的医疗卫生服务体系基本形成疾病防治能力不断增强医疗保障覆盖人口逐步扩大卫生科技水平日益提高居民健康水平明显改善。 Overtheyears,ChinahasworkedhardtodevelopitsmedicalandhealthserviceswithChinesecharacteristicsinaccordancewiththepolicyof“makingruralareasthefocusofourwork,puttingdiseasepreventionfirst,supportingbothtraditionalChinesemedicineandWesternmedicine,relyingonscience,technologyandeducation,andmobilizingthewholeofsocietytojointheefforts,improvingthepeople’shealthandservingsocialistmodernization”Thankstounremittingeffortsthathavebeenmade,medicalandhealthcaresystemscoveringbothurbanandruralresidentshavetakenshape,thecapabilitiesofdiseasepreventionandcontrolhavebeenenhanced,thecoverageofmedicalinsurancehasexpanded,continuousprogresshasbeenmadeinmedicalscienceandtechnology,andthepeople’shealthhasbeenremarkablyimproved 为建立起覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗卫生制度保障每个居民都能享有安全、有效、方便、价廉的基本医疗卫生服务中国深入推进医药卫生体制改革取得了重要阶段性成效。 Toputintoplacebasicmedicalandhealthcaresystemscoveringbothurbanandruralresidents,andensurethateveryresidenthasaccesstosafe,effective,convenientandaffordablebasicmedicalandhealthservices,Chinahaskeptadvancingthereformofitsmedicalandhealthcaresystem,andmadeimportantachievementsinthecurrentstage一、卫生基本状况IBasicConditions 居民健康状况不断改善。从反映国民健康状况的重要指标看中国居民的健康水平已处于发展中国家前列。年人均期望寿命达到岁其中男性岁女性岁。孕产妇死亡率从年的万下降到年的万。婴儿死亡率及岁以下儿童死亡率持续下降婴儿死亡率从年的‰下降到年的‰岁以下儿童死亡率从年的‰下降到年的‰提前实现联合国千年发展目标。 Thepeople’shealthhasbeenimprovedJudgingfromimportantindicatorsthatgiveexpressiontonationalhealth,thehealthoftheChinesepeopleisnowamongthetopindevelopingcountriesIn,thelifeexpectancywasyearsyearsformalesandyearsforfemalesthematernalmortalityratewentdownfromper,intoper,intheinfantmortalityrateandthemortalityrateofchildrenundertheageoffivehavekeptdropping,withtheformergoingdownfromperthousandintoperthousandin,andthelatter,fromperthousandtoperthousand,attainingaheadofscheduletheUNMillenniumDevelopmentGoalinthisregard   建立起覆盖城乡的医疗卫生体系。一是公共卫生服务体系。包括疾病预防控制、健康教育、妇幼保健、精神卫生、卫生应急、采供血、卫生监督和计划生育等专业公共卫生服务网络以及以基层医疗卫生服务网络为基础、承担公共卫生服务功能的医疗卫生服务体系。二是医疗服务体系。在农村建立起以县级医院为龙头、乡镇卫生院和村卫生室为基础的农村三级医疗卫生服务网络在城市建立起各级各类医院与社区卫生服务机构分工协作的新型城市医疗卫生服务体系。三是医疗保障体系。这个体系以基本医疗保障为主体、其他多种形式补充医疗保险和商业健康保险为补充。基本医疗保障体系包括城镇职工基本医疗保险、城镇居民基本医疗保险、新型农村合作医疗和城乡医疗救助分别覆盖城镇就业人口、城镇非就业人口、农村人口和城乡困难人群。四是药品供应保障体系。包括药品的生产、流通、价格管理、采购、配送、使用。近期重点是建立国家基本药物制度。 MedicalandhealthcaresystemscoveringbothurbanandruralresidentshavebeenputinplaceOfthesesystems,thefirstisthepublichealthservicesystem,whichcoversdiseasepreventionandcontrol,healtheducation,maternityandchildcare,mentalhealth,healthemergencyresponse,bloodcollectionandsupply,healthsupervision,familyplanningandsomeotherspecializedpublichealthservices,andamedicalandhealthcaresystembasedoncommunitylevelhealthcarenetworksthatprovidespublichealthservicesThesecondisthemedicalcaresystemIntheruralareas,itreferstoathreelevelmedicalservicenetworkthatcomprisesthecountyhospital,thetownshiphospitalsandvillageclinics,withthecountyhospitalperformingtheleadingrole,andtownshiphospitalsandvillageclinicsserviceatthebaseAndinthecitiesandtowns,itreferstoanewtypeofurbanmedicalhealthservicesystemthatfeaturesdivisionofresponsibilitiesaswellascooperationamongvarioustypesofhospitalsatalllevelsandcommunityhealthcarecentersThethirdisthemedicalsecuritysystemThissystemcomprisesmainlythebasicmedicalsecurity,supportedbymanyformsofsupplementarymedicalinsuranceandcommercialhealthinsuranceThebasicmedicalsecuritysystemcoversbasicmedicalinsuranceforworkingurbanresidents,basicmedicalinsurancefornonworkingurbanresidents,anewtypeofruralcooperativemedicalcareandurbanruralmedicalaid,whichcover,respectively,theemployedurbanpopulation,unemployedurbanpopulation,ruralpopulationandpeoplesufferingfromeconomicdifficultiesAndthefourthisthepharmaceuticalsupplysystem,whichcoverstheproduction,circulation,pricecontrol,procurement,dispatchinganduseofpharmaceuticalsTherecentworkisfocusedonestablishinganationalsystemforbasicdrugs 卫生筹资结构不断优化。卫生筹资来源包括政府一般税收、社会医疗保险、商业健康保险和居民自费等多种渠道。年中国卫生总费用达亿元人民币同期人均卫生总费用为元人民币卫生总费用占国内生产总值的比重为。按可比价格计算~年中国卫生总费用年平均增长速度为。个人现金卫生支出由年的下降到年的卫生筹资系统的风险保护水平和再分配作用不断提高。年医院、门诊机构费用为亿元人民币公共卫生机构费用为亿元人民币分别占卫生总费用的和。医院费用中城市医院、县医院、社区卫生服务中心、乡镇卫生院费用分别占、、、。 ThehealthfinancingstructurehasbeenconstantlyimprovedChina’shealthexpenditurecomesfromthegovernment’sgeneraltaxrevenue,socialmedicalinsurance,commercialhealthinsurance,residents’outofpocketspending,etcIn,thetotalhealthexpenditureinChinareached,billionyuan,,yuanpercapitaThetotalexpenditureaccountedforofthecountry’sGDPIncomparableprices,thehealthexpendituregrewbyanaverageannualrateoffromtoIndividual“outofpocket”spendingdeclinedfromintoin,showingthathealthfinancingisworkingbetterintheareasofriskprotectionandredistributionIn,thespendingonhospitalsandoutpatientestablishmentswas,billionyuan,andthatonpublichealthagencies,billionyuan,comprisingand,respectively,ofthetotalhealthexpenditureOfthetotalspendingonhospitals,thoseonurbanhospitals,countyhospitals,communityhealthservicecentersandtownshiphealthservicecentersstoodat,,and,respectively  卫生资源持续发展。截至年底全国医疗卫生机构达万个(所)与年比较医疗卫生机构增加万个(所)。执业(助理)医师万人每千人口执业(助理)医师数由年的人增加到人。注册护士万人每千人口注册护士数由年的人增加到人。医疗卫生机构床位数万张每千人口医疗卫生机构床位数由年的张提高到张。 HealthresourceshavebeendevelopinginasustainedwayBytheendof,medicalandhealthcareinstitutionsaroundthecountrytotaled,,anincreaseof,overLicenseddoctors(assistants)reached,,,orperthousandpeople,ascomparedwithperthousandpeopleinRegisterednursestotaled,,,orperthousandpeople,ascomparedwithoneperthousandpeopleinThenumberofhospitalbedsreached,,orperthousandpeople,ascomparedwithperthousandpeoplein 医疗卫生服务利用状况显著改善。年全国医疗机构诊疗人次由年的亿人次增加到亿人次住院人数由年的万人增加到亿人。中国居民到医疗卫生机构年均就诊次每百居民住院人医院病床使用率为医院出院者平均住院日为天。居民看病就医更加方便可及性显著提高。分钟内可到达医疗机构住户比例由年的提高到年的其中农村地区为。医疗质量管理和控制体系不断完善。建立无偿献血制度血液安全得到保障。 MarkedimprovementhasbeenseenintheutilizationofmedicalandhealthservicesIn,medicalinstitutionsthroughoutthecountryhostedbillionoutpatients,ascomparedwithbillioninandadmittedmillioninpatients,ascomparedwithmillioninThatyear,ChineseresidentswenttothemedicalinstitutionsformedicaltreatmenttimesonaverageofeverypeoplewerehospitalizedtheutilizationrateofhospitalbedsreachedandthehospitalstayoftheinpatientsaverageddaysThesefiguresshowthatithasbecomeincreasinglyconvenienttoseeadoctorandmoreeasilyaccessibletogetmedicalservicesIn,ofallhouseholds(inruralareas)couldreachmedicalinstitutionswithinminutes,ascomparedwithinMedicalservicequalitymanagementandcontrolsystemshavebeenconstantlyimprovedAsystemofblooddonationwithoutcompensationhasbeenestablished,soastoensurebloodsupplyandsafety二、医药卫生体制改革IIReformofMedicalandHealthcareSystems 经过多年努力中国卫生事业取得显著发展成就但与公众健康需求和经济社会协调发展不适应的矛盾还比较突出。特别是随着中国从计划经济体制向市场经济体制的转型原有医疗保障体系发生很大变化如何使广大公众享有更好、更健全的医疗卫生服务成为中国政府面临的一个重大问题。从世纪年代开始中国启动医药卫生体制改革并在年抗击传染性非典型肺炎取得重大胜利后加快推进。年月中国公布《关于深化医药卫生体制改革的意见》全面启动新一轮医改。改革的基本理念是把基本医疗卫生制度作为公共产品向全民提供实现人人享有基本医疗卫生服务从制度上保证每个居民不分地域、民族、年龄、性别、职业、收入水平都能公平获得基本医疗卫生服务。改革的基本原则是保基本、强基层、建机制。 Withyearsofeffort,Chinahasmaderemarkableachievementsinthedevelopmentofitshealthcareundertakings,which,however,stillfallfarshortofthepublic’sdemandsforhealthcareaswellastherequirementsofeconomicandsocialdevelopmentEspeciallywhenChinaturnedfromaplannedeconomytoamarketeconomy,theoldmedicalcaresystemhasundergonegreatchangesSoitbecameanissueofmajorimportancefortheChinesegovernmenttoprovidebetterandmoreaccessiblemedicalandhealthservicestothepublicInthes,theChinesegovernmentinitiatedreformofthemedicalandhealthcaresystems,andspeededupthereforminafterasuccesswaswoninthefightagainsttheSARSInMarch,theChinesegovernmentpromulgatedthe“OpinionsonDeepeningReformoftheMedicalandHealthCareSystems,”settingoffanewroundofreforminthisregardThebasicgoalofthisreformwastoprovidethewholenationwithbasicmedicalandhealthservicesasapublicproduct,andensurethateveryone,regardlessoflocation,nationality,age,gender,occupationandincome,enjoysequalaccesstobasicmedicalandhealthservicesAndthebasicprinciplestobefollowedinthereformweretoensurebasicservices,improvingsuchservicesatthegrassrootslevelandestablishingtheeffectivemechanisms 医改是一项涉及面广、难度大的社会系统工程在中国这样一个人口多、人均收入水平低、城乡区域差距大的发展中国家深化医改是一项十分艰巨复杂的任务。三年多来中国政府大力推进医药卫生服务与经济社会协调发展积极破解医改这一世界性难题。通过艰苦努力中国的新一轮医改取得积极进展。 MedicalreformisasocialprogramthatcoversawiderangeandinvolvesdifficulttasksAnditisahardandcomplicatedtasktodeepenthisreforminChina,adevelopingcountrywithalargepopulation,lowpercapitaincomeandawidegapbetweenurbanandruralareasForoverthreeyears,theChinesegovernmenthasworkedhardtostrikeabalancebetweenimprovingmedicalandhealthservicesononehandandeconomicandsocialdevelopmentontheother,tryingtofindasolutiontothisworldwideproblemThankstothepersistenteffortsmade,Chinahasmadepositiveprogressinthisnewroundofmedicalreform 基本医疗保障制度覆盖城乡居民。截至年城镇职工基本医疗保险、城镇居民基本医疗保险、新型农村合作医疗参保人数超过亿覆盖面从年的提高到年的以上中国已构建起世界上规模最大的基本医疗保障网。筹资水平和报销比例不断提高新型农村合作医疗政府补助标准从最初的人均元人民币提高到年的元人民币受益人次数从年的亿人次提高到年的亿人次政策范围内住院费用报销比例提高到左右保障范围由住院延伸到门诊。推行医药费用即时结算报销居民就医结算更为便捷。开展按人头付费、按病种付费和总额预付等支付方式改革医保对医疗机构的约束、控费和促进作用逐步显现。实行新型农村合作医疗大病保障截至年万患有先天性心脏病、终末期肾病、乳腺癌、宫颈癌、耐多药肺结核、儿童白血病等疾病的患者享受到重大疾病补偿实际补偿水平约。年肺癌、食道癌、胃癌等种大病也被纳入农村重大疾病保障试点范围费用报销比例最高可达。实施城乡居民大病保险从城镇居民医保基金、新型农村合作医疗基金中划出大病保险资金采取向商业保险机构购买大病保险的方式以力争避免城乡居民发生家庭灾难性医疗支出为目标实施大病保险补偿政策对基本医疗保障补偿后需个人负担的合规医疗费用给予保障实际支付比例不低于有效减轻个人医疗费用负担。建立健全城乡医疗救助制度救助对象覆盖城乡低保对象、五保对象并逐步扩大到低收入重病患者、重度残疾人、低收入家庭老年人等特殊困难群体年全国城乡医疗救助万人次。 ThebasicmedicalcaresystemscoverbothurbanandruralresidentsBy,morethanbillionpeoplehadjoinedthethreebasicmedicalinsuranceschemesthatcoverbothurbanandruralresidents,ie,thebasicmedicalinsuranceforworkingurbanresidents,thebasicmedicalinsurancefornonworkingurbanresidents,andthenewtypeofruralcooperativemedicalcare,withtheirtotalcoveragebeingextendedfromintoinThissignaledthatChinahasbuilttheworld’slargestnetworkofbasicmedicalsecurityMedicalcarefinancingandthereimbursableratioofmedicalcostshavebeenraised,andthegovernmentsubsidystandardsforthenewruralcooperativemedicalcaresystemwereincreasedfromyuanatthebeginningtoyuanperpersonperyearin,benefitingpersontimesinasagainstpersontimesinThereimbursementrateforhospitalizationexpensescoveredbyrelevantpolicieshasbeenraisedtoaround,andtherangeofreimbursableexpenseshasbeenexpandedtoincludeoutpatientexpensesRealtimereimbursementhasbeenadoptedformedicalexpenses,makingitmoreconvenientforpeopletohavetheirmedicalcostssettledReformhasbeencarriedoutinrespectoftheformsofpaymenttoincludepaymentbyperson,paymentbydiseaseandtotalamountprepayment,enablingmedicalinsurancetoplayabetterrestrictiveroleovermedicalinstitutionsaswellastocontrolexpensesandcompelthemedicalinstitutionstoimprovetheirefficiencyCriticalillnessinsurancehasbeenincludedinthenewtypeofruralcooperativemedicalcaresystemBy,some,patientsofcongenitalheartdisease,advancedrentaldiseases,breastcancer,cervicalcancer,multidrugresistanttuberculosisandchildhoodleukemiahadbeengrantedsubsidiesformajorandseriousdiseases,withtheactualsubsidiesaccountingforoftheirtotalexpensesIn,lungcancer,esophaguscancer,gastriccancerandeightothermajordiseaseswereincludedintheruralpilotprogramofinsuranceforthetreatmentofmajordiseases,andthereimbursementratereachedashighasCriticalillnessinsurancehasbeenintroducedforbothurbanandruralresidents,inwhichcertainamountsofmoneyareearmarkedinthemedicalinsurancefundfornonworkingurbanresidentsandthatofthenewtypeofruralcooperativemedicalcaretobuycriticalillnessinsurancepoliciesfromcommercialinsurancecompanies,aimingtorelieveurbanandruralfamiliesoftheheavyburdenofcatastrophicmedicalspendingThepolicyofsubsidyforcriticalillnessinsurance,whichcoversnolessthanoftheactualmedicalcosts,providesaguaranteeforthecompliancecoststobeshoulderedbytheindividualafterreimbursementfromthebasicmedicalinsuranceThishaseffectivelyreducedthefinancialburdenofindividualsAnurbanruralmedicalassistancesystemhasbeenestablishedandimproved,whichatfirstcoveredurbanandruralsubsistenceallowancerecipientsandchildlessandinfirmruralresidentswhoreceivethesocalled“fiveguarantees,”andisnowextendedtocoverthosewhoareseverelyillandhavelowcomes,theseverelydisabled,seniorcitizensfromlowincomefamilies,andsomeothergroupswithspecialdifficultiesIn,theurbanruralmedicalassistancewasgrantedtomillioncasesacrossthecountry 基本药物制度从无到有。初步形成了基本药物遴选、生产供应、使用和医疗保险报销的体系。年基本药物制度实现基层全覆盖所有政府办基层医疗卫生机构全部配备使用基本药物并实行零差率销售取消了以药补医机制。制定国家基本药物临床应用指南和处方集规范基层用药行为促进合理用药。建立基本药物采购新机制基本药物实行以省为单位集中采购基层医疗卫生机构基本药物销售价格比改革前平均下降了。基本药物全部纳入基本医疗保障药品报销目录。有序推进基本药物制度向村卫生室和非政府办基层医疗卫生机构延伸。药品生产流通领域改革步伐加快药品供应保障水平进一步提高。 AbasicsystemofdrugshasbeendevelopedfromscratchAsystemfortheselection,production,supplyanduseofbasicdrugs,andcoveroftheminmedicalinsurancehasbeenputintoplaceIn,thecoverageofthissystemwasextendedtoallgrassrootsmedicalandhealthcareinstitutionsrunbythegovernment,wherethesedrugsweresoldatzeroprofit,practicallyeliminatingthepracticeofhospitalssubsidizingtheirmedicalserviceswithdrugsalesAnationalguidelinefortheclinicalapplicationofbasicdrugsandaformularyhavebeendrawnuptoensurethatbasicdrugsareusedaccordingtodueproceduresatgrassrootsmedicalinstitutionsAnewmechanismhasbeenestablishedfortheprocurementofbasicdrugs,underwhichthebasicdrugsaretobepurchasedbyprovincesAsaresult,thepricesofbasicdrugsatgrassrootsmedicalandhealthcareinstitutionshavedroppedbyonaverage,ascomparedwiththosebeforethereformThebasicdrugshaveallbeenincludedinthelistofreimbursabledrugscoveredbybasicmedicalinsuranceAlso,effortshavebeenmadetosupplybasicdrugsinanorderlywaytovillageclinicsandnongovernmentalmedicalinstitutionsatthegrassrootslevelThestepsofreformhavebeenquickenedindrugproductionandcirculation,andthesupplyofdrugshasbeenbetterensured 城乡基层医疗卫生服务体系进一步健全。加大政府投入完善基层医疗卫生机构经费保障机制年中央财政投资亿元人民币支持基层医疗机构建设发展。采取多种形式加强基层卫生人才队伍建设制定优惠政策为农村和社区培养、培训、引进卫生人才。建立全科医生制度开展全科医生规范化培养安排基层医疗卫生机构人员参加全科医生转岗培训组织实施中西部地区农村订单定向医学生免费培养等。实施万名医师支援农村卫生工程年余家城市三级医院支援了个县级医院中西部地区城市二级以上医疗卫生机构每年支援多所乡镇卫生院提高了县级医院和乡镇卫生院医疗技术水平和管理能力。转变基层医疗服务模式在乡镇卫生院开展巡回医疗服务在市辖区推行社区全科医生团队、家庭签约医生制度实行防治结合保障居民看病就医的基本需求使常见病、多发病等绝大多数疾病的诊疗在基层可以得到解决。经过努力基层医疗卫生服务体系不断强化农村和偏远地区医疗服务设施落后、服务能力薄弱的状况明显改变基层卫生人才队伍的数量、学历、知识结构出现向好趋势。年全国基层医疗卫生机构达到万个包括社区卫生服务机构万个、乡镇卫生院万所、村卫生室万个床位万张。 UrbanandruralgrassrootslevelmedicalandhealthserviceshavebeenfurtherimprovedThegovernmenthasinvestedmoretoensurethefundingforgrassrootsmedicalandhealthcareinstitutionsFromto,thecentralgovernmentinvestedbillionyuantosupportthebuildinganddevelopmentofgrassrootslevelmedicalinstitutionsDiverseformshavebeenadoptedtostrengthentheranksofhealthcareworkersatthegrassrootslevel,andpreferentialpolicieshavebeenmadetotrainandintroducecompetentpersonnelforruralandcommunityhealthcareAsystemofgeneralpractitioners(medicalworkerswithsufficientknowledgeinallbranchesofmedicine)hasbeenestablished,underwhichgeneralpractitionersaretrainedintheregularwaygrassrootsmedicalandhealthcareworkersareenrolledintrainingcoursesforupgradingthemtogeneralpractitionersandmedicalstudentsarespeciallytrainedfortheneedsofcentralandwesternurbanareas,forwhichtheydonothavetopaytheirtuitionfeesAproject,knownas“tenthousanddoctorsextendingsupporttoruralmedicalcare,”hasbeenlaunchedFromto,over,GradeIIIurbanhospitalsextendedsupporttoruralcountylevel

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/24

2012中国医疗卫生事业

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利