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首页 Manifesto of the Communist Party

Manifesto of the Communist Party.pdf

Manifesto of the Communist Party

牧马雾山
2010-01-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Manifesto of the Communist Partypdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)ManifestooftheCommunistPartyByKarlMarxandFredrickEngelsWritten:LateFirstPublished:FebruaryTranslated:FromGermanbySamuelMoore(edbyFredrickEngels)inOfflineversion:MarxEngelsInternetArchive(marxistsorg),Transcriptionmarkup:ZodiacManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)AspectreishauntingEuropethespectreofcommunismAllthepowersofoldEuropehaveenteredintoaholyalliancetoexorcisethisspectre:PopeandTsar,MetternichandGuizot,FrenchRadicalsandGermanpolicespiesWhereisthepartyinoppositionthathasnotbeendecriedascommunisticbyitsopponentsinpowerWhereistheoppositionthathasnothurledbackthebrandingreproachofcommunism,againstthemoreadvancedoppositionparties,aswellasagainstitsreactionaryadversariesTwothingsresultfromthisfact:ICommunismisalreadyacknowledgedbyallEuropeanpowerstobeitselfapowerIIItishightimethatCommunistsshouldopenly,inthefaceofthewholeworld,publishtheirviews,theiraims,theirtendencies,andmeetthisnurserytaleofthespectreofcommunismwithamanifestoofthepartyitselfTothisend,CommunistsofvariousnationalitieshaveassembledinLondonandsketchedthefollowingmanifesto,tobepublishedintheEnglish,French,German,Italian,FlemishandDanishlanguagesManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)BourgeoisandProletariansThehistoryofallhithertoexistingsocietyisthehistoryofclassstrugglesFreemanandslave,patricianandplebeian,lordandserf,guildmasterandjourneyman,inaword,oppressorandoppressed,stoodinconstantoppositiontooneanother,carriedonanuninterrupted,nowhidden,nowopenfight,afightthateachtimeended,eitherinarevolutionaryreconstitutionofsocietyatlarge,orinthecommonruinofthecontendingclassesIntheearlierepochsofhistory,wefindalmosteverywhereacomplicatedarrangementofsocietyintovariousorders,amanifoldgradationofsocialrankInancientRomewehavepatricians,knights,plebeians,slavesintheMiddleAges,feudallords,vassals,guildmasters,journeymen,apprentices,serfsinalmostalloftheseclasses,again,subordinategradationsThemodernbourgeoissocietythathassproutedfromtheruinsoffeudalsocietyhasnotdoneawaywithclassantagonismsIthasbutestablishednewclasses,newconditionsofoppression,newformsofstruggleinplaceoftheoldonesOurepoch,theepochofthebourgeoisie,possesses,however,thisdistinctfeature:ithassimplifiedclassantagonismsSocietyasawholeismoreandmoresplittingupintotwogreathostilecamps,intotwogreatclassesdirectlyfacingeachotherbourgeoisieandproletariatFromtheserfsoftheMiddleAgessprangthecharteredburghersoftheearliesttownsFromtheseburgessesthefirstelementsofthebourgeoisieweredevelopedBybourgeoisieismeanttheclassofmoderncapitalists,ownersofthemeansofsocialproductionandemployersofwagelaborByproletariat,theclassofmodernwagelaborerswho,havingnomeansofproductionoftheirown,arereducedtosellingtheirlaborpowerinordertoliveEngels,EnglisheditionThatis,allwrittenhistoryIn,theprehistoryofsociety,thesocialorganizationexistingprevioustorecordedhistory,allbutunknownSincethen,AugustvonHaxthausen()discoveredcommonownershipoflandinRussia,GeorgLudwigvonMaurerprovedittobethesocialfoundationfromwhichallTeutonicracesstartedinhistory,and,byandby,villagecommunitieswerefoundtobe,ortohavebeen,theprimitiveformofsocietyeverywherefromIndiatoIrelandTheinnerorganizationofthisprimitivecommunisticsocietywaslaidbare,initstypicalform,byLewisHenryMorgan's()crowningdiscoveryofthetruenatureofthegensanditsrelationtothetribeWiththedissolutionoftheprimevalcommunities,societybeginstobedifferentiatedintoseparateandfinallyantagonisticclassesIhaveattemptedtoretracethisdissolutioninDerUrsprungderFamilie,desPrivateigenthumusunddesStaats,secondedition,Stuttgart,Engels,EnglishEditionGuildmaster,thatis,afullmemberofaguild,amasterwithin,notaheadofaguildEngels,EnglishEditionManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)ThediscoveryofAmerica,theroundingoftheCape,openedupfreshgroundfortherisingbourgeoisieTheEastIndianandChinesemarkets,thecolonisationofAmerica,tradewiththecolonies,theincreaseinthemeansofexchangeandincommoditiesgenerally,gavetocommerce,tonavigation,toindustry,animpulseneverbeforeknown,andthereby,totherevolutionaryelementinthetotteringfeudalsociety,arapiddevelopmentThefeudalsystemofindustry,inwhichindustrialproductionwasmonopolizedbyclosedguilds,nownolongersufficesforthegrowingwantsofthenewmarketsThemanufacturingsystemtookitsplaceTheguildmasterswerepushedasidebythemanufacturingmiddleclassdivisionoflaborbetweenthedifferentcorporateguildsvanishedinthefaceofdivisionoflaborineachsingleworkshopMeantime,themarketskeptevergrowing,thedemandeverrisingEvenmanufacturersnolongersufficedThereupon,steamandmachineryrevolutionizedindustrialproductionTheplaceofmanufacturewastakenbythegiant,ModernIndustrytheplaceoftheindustrialmiddleclassbyindustrialmillionaires,theleadersofthewholeindustrialarmies,themodernbourgeoisModernindustryhasestablishedtheworldmarket,forwhichthediscoveryofAmericapavedthewayThismarkethasgivenanimmensedevelopmenttocommerce,tonavigation,tocommunicationbylandThisdevelopmenthas,inturn,reactedontheextensionofindustryandinproportionasindustry,commerce,navigation,railwaysextended,inthesameproportionthebourgeoisiedeveloped,increaseditscapital,andpushedintothebackgroundeveryclasshandeddownfromtheMiddleAgesWesee,therefore,howthemodernbourgeoisieisitselftheproductofalongcourseofdevelopment,ofaseriesofrevolutionsinthemodesofproductionandofexchangeEachstepinthedevelopmentofthebourgeoisiewasaccompaniedbyacorrespondingpoliticaladvanceinthatclassAnoppressedclassundertheswayofthefeudalnobility,anarmedandselfgoverningassociationofmedievalcommune:hereindependenturbanrepublic(asinItalyandGermany)theretaxable"thirdestate"ofthemonarchy(asinFrance)afterward,intheperiodofmanufacturingproper,servingeitherthesemifeudalortheabsolutemonarchyasacounterpoiseagainstthenobility,and,infact,cornerstoneofthegreatmonarchiesingeneralthebourgeoisiehasatlast,sincetheestablishmentofModernThiswasthenamegiventheirurbancommunitiesbythetownsmenofItalyandFrance,aftertheyhadpurchasedorconqueredtheirinitialrightsofselfgovernmentfromtheirfeudallordsEngels,Germanedition"Commune"wasthenametakeninFrancebythenascenttownsevenbeforetheyhadconqueredfromtheirfeudallordsandmasterslocalselfgovernmentandpoliticalrightsasthe"ThirdEstate"Generallyspeaking,fortheeconomicaldevelopmentofthebourgeoisie,Englandisheretakenasthetypicalcountry,foritspoliticaldevelopment,FranceEngels,EnglishEditionManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)Industryandoftheworldmarket,conqueredforitself,inthemodernrepresentativestate,exclusivepoliticalswayTheexecutiveofthemodernstateisbutacommitteeformanagingthecommonaffairsofthewholebourgeoisieThebourgeoisie,historically,hasplayedamostrevolutionarypartThebourgeoisie,whereverithasgottheupperhand,hasputanendtoallfeudal,patriarchal,idyllicrelationsIthaspitilesslytornasunderthemotleyfeudaltiesthatboundmantohis"naturalsuperiors",andhasleftnoothernexusbetweenmanandmanthannakedselfinterest,thancallous"cashpayment"Ithasdrownedoutthemostheavenlyecstasiesofreligiousfervour,ofchivalrousenthusiasm,ofphilistinesentimentalism,intheicywaterofegotisticalcalculationIthasresolvedpersonalworthintoexchangevalue,andinplaceofthenumberlessindefeasiblecharteredfreedoms,hassetupthatsingle,unconscionablefreedomFreeTradeInoneword,forexploitation,veiledbyreligiousandpoliticalillusions,ithassubstitutednaked,shameless,direct,brutalexploitationThebourgeoisiehasstrippedofitshaloeveryoccupationhithertohonoredandlookeduptowithreverentaweIthasconvertedthephysician,thelawyer,thepriest,thepoet,themanofscience,intoitspaidwagelaborersThebourgeoisiehastornawayfromthefamilyitssentimentalveil,andhasreducedthefamilyrelationintoameremoneyrelationThebourgeoisiehasdisclosedhowitcametopassthatthebrutaldisplayofvigourintheMiddleAges,whichreactionariessomuchadmire,founditsfittingcomplementinthemostslothfulindolenceIthasbeenthefirsttoshowwhatman'sactivitycanbringaboutIthasaccomplishedwondersfarsurpassingEgyptianpyramids,Romanaqueducts,andGothiccathedralsithasconductedexpeditionsthatputintheshadeallformerexodusesofnationsandcrusadesThebourgeoisiecannotexistwithoutconstantlyrevolutionizingtheinstrumentsofproduction,andtherebytherelationsofproduction,andwiththemthewholerelationsofsocietyConservationoftheoldmodesofproductioninunalteredform,was,onthecontrary,thefirstconditionofexistenceforallearlierindustrialclassesConstantrevolutionizingofproduction,uninterrupteddisturbanceofallsocialconditions,everlastinguncertaintyandagitationdistinguishthebourgeoisepochfromallearlieronesAllfixed,fastfrozenrelations,withtheirtrainofancientandvenerableprejudicesandopinions,aresweptaway,allnewformedonesbecomeantiquatedbeforetheycanossifyAllthatissolidmeltsintoair,allthatisholyisprofaned,andmanisatlastcompelledtofacewithsobersenseshisrealconditionoflifeandhisrelationswithhiskindManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)TheneedofaconstantlyexpandingmarketforitsproductschasesthebourgeoisieovertheentiresurfaceoftheglobeItmustnestleeverywhere,settleeverywhere,establishconnectionseverywhereThebourgeoisiehas,throughitsexploitationoftheworldmarket,givenacosmopolitancharactertoproductionandconsumptionineverycountryTothegreatchagrinofreactionaries,ithasdrawnfromunderthefeetofindustrythenationalgroundonwhichitstoodAlloldestablishednationalindustrieshavebeendestroyedoraredailybeingdestroyedTheyaredislodgedbynewindustries,whoseintroductionbecomesalifeanddeathquestionforallcivilizednations,byindustriesthatnolongerworkupindigenousrawmaterial,butrawmaterialdrawnfromtheremotestzonesindustrieswhoseproductsareconsumed,notonlyathome,butineveryquarteroftheglobeInplaceoftheoldwants,satisfiedbytheproductionofthecountry,wefindnewwants,requiringfortheirsatisfactiontheproductsofdistantlandsandclimesInplaceoftheoldlocalandnationalseclusionandselfsufficiency,wehaveintercourseineverydirection,universalinterdependenceofnationsAndasinmaterial,soalsoinintellectualproductionTheintellectualcreationsofindividualnationsbecomecommonpropertyNationalonesidednessandnarrowmindednessbecomemoreandmoreimpossible,andfromthenumerousnationalandlocalliteratures,therearisesaworldliteratureThebourgeoisie,bytherapidimprovementofallinstrumentsofproduction,bytheimmenselyfacilitatedmeansofcommunication,drawsall,eventhemostbarbarian,nationsintocivilizationThecheappricesofcommoditiesaretheheavyartillerywithwhichitforcesthebarbarians'intenselyobstinatehatredofforeignerstocapitulateItcompelsallnations,onpainofextinction,toadoptthebourgeoismodeofproductionitcompelsthemtointroducewhatitcallscivilizationintotheirmidst,ie,tobecomebourgeoisthemselvesInoneword,itcreatesaworldafteritsownimageThebourgeoisiehassubjectedthecountrytotheruleofthetownsIthascreatedenormouscities,hasgreatlyincreasedtheurbanpopulationascomparedwiththerural,andhasthusrescuedaconsiderablepartofthepopulationfromtheidiocyofrurallifeJustasithasmadethecountrydependentonthetowns,soithasmadebarbarianandsemibarbariancountriesdependentonthecivilizedones,nationsofpeasantsonnationsofbourgeois,theEastontheWestThebourgeoisiekeepsmoreandmoredoingawaywiththescatteredstateofthepopulation,ofthemeansofproduction,andofpropertyIthasagglomeratedpopulation,centralizedthemeansofproduction,andhasconcentratedpropertyinafewhandsThenecessaryconsequenceofthiswaspoliticalcentralizationIndependent,orbutlooselyconnectedprovinces,withseparateinterests,laws,governments,andsystemsoftaxation,ManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)becamelumpedtogetherintoonenation,withonegovernment,onecodeoflaws,onenationalclassinterest,onefrontier,andonecustomstariffThebourgeoisie,duringitsruleofscarceonehundredyears,hascreatedmoremassiveandmorecolossalproductiveforcesthanhaveallprecedinggenerationstogetherSubjectionofnature'sforcestoman,machinery,applicationofchemistrytoindustryandagriculture,steamnavigation,railways,electrictelegraphs,clearingofwholecontinentsforcultivation,canalizationorrivers,wholepopulationsconjuredoutofthegroundwhatearliercenturyhadevenapresentimentthatsuchproductiveforcesslumberedinthelapofsociallaborWeseethen:themeansofproductionandofexchange,onwhosefoundationthebourgeoisiebuiltitselfup,weregeneratedinfeudalsocietyAtacertainstageinthedevelopmentofthesemeansofproductionandofexchange,theconditionsunderwhichfeudalsocietyproducedandexchanged,thefeudalorganizationofagricultureandmanufacturingindustry,inoneword,thefeudalrelationsofpropertybecamenolongercompatiblewiththealreadydevelopedproductiveforcestheybecamesomanyfettersTheyhadtobeburstasundertheywereburstasunderIntotheirplacesteppedfreecompetition,accompaniedbyasocialandpoliticalconstitutionadaptedinit,andtheeconomicandpoliticalswayofthebourgeoisclassAsimilarmovementisgoingonbeforeourowneyesModernbourgeoissociety,withitsrelationsofproduction,ofexchangeandofproperty,asocietythathasconjuredupsuchgiganticmeansofproductionandofexchange,islikethesorcererwhoisnolongerabletocontrolthepowersofthenetherworldwhomhehascalledupbyhisspellsFormanyadecadepast,thehistoryofindustryandcommerceisbutthehistoryoftherevoltofmodernproductiveforcesagainstmodernconditionsofproduction,againstthepropertyrelationsthataretheconditionsfortheexistenceofthebourgeoisandofitsruleItisenoughtomentionthecommercialcrisesthat,bytheirperiodicalreturn,puttheexistenceoftheentirebourgeoissocietyonitstrial,eachtimemorethreateninglyInthesecrises,agreatpartnotonlyoftheexistingproducts,butalsoofthepreviouslycreatedproductiveforces,areperiodicallydestroyedInthesecrises,therebreaksoutanepidemicthat,inallearlierepochs,wouldhaveseemedanabsurditytheepidemicofoverproductionSocietysuddenlyfindsitselfputbackintoastateofmomentarybarbarismitappearsasifafamine,auniversalwarofdevastation,hadcutoffthesupplyofeverymeansofsubsistenceindustryandcommerceseemtobedestroyedAndwhyBecausethereistoomuchcivilization,toomuchmeansofsubsistence,toomuchindustry,toomuchcommerceTheproductiveforcesatthedisposalofsocietynolongertendtofurtherthedevelopmentoftheconditionsofbourgeoispropertyonthecontrary,theyhavebecometoopowerfulfortheseconditions,bywhichtheyarefettered,andsosoonastheyovercomethesefetters,theybringdisorderintothewholeofbourgeoissociety,endangertheexistenceofbourgeoispropertyManifestooftheCommunistPartyKarlMarxandFrederickEngelsMarxistsInternetArchive(marxistsorg)TheconditionsofbourgeoissocietyaretoonarrowtocomprisethewealthcreatedbythemAndhowdoesthebourgeoisiegetoverthesecrisesOntheonehand,byenforceddestructionofamassofproductiveforcesontheother,bytheconquestofnewmarkets,andbythemorethoroughexploitationoftheoldonesThatistosay,bypavingthewayformoreextensiveandmoredestructivecrises,andbydiminishingthemeanswherebycrisesarepreventedTheweaponswithwhichthebourgeoisiefelledfeudalismtothegroundarenowturnedagainstthebourgeoisieitselfButnotonlyhasthebourgeoisieforgedtheweaponsthatbringdeathtoitselfithasalsocalledintoexistencethemenwhoaretowieldthoseweaponsthemodernworkingclasstheproletariansInproportionasthebourgeoisie,ie,capital,isdeveloped,inthesameproportionistheproletariat,themodernworkingclass,developedaclassoflaborers,wholiveonlysolongastheyfindwork,andwhofindworkonlysolongastheirlaborincreasescapitalTheselaborers,whomustsellthemselvespiecemeal,areacommodity,likeeveryotherarticleofcommerce,andareconsequentlyexposedtoallthevicissitudesofcompetition,toallthefluctuationsofthemarketOwingtotheextensiveuseofmachinery,andtothedivisionoflabor,theworkoftheproletarianshaslostallindividualcharacter,and,consequently,allcharmfortheworkmanHebecomesanappendageofthemachine,anditisonlythemostsimple,mostmonotonous,andmosteasilyacquiredknack,thatisrequiredofhimHence,thecostofproductionofaworkmanisrestricted,almostentirely,tothemeansofsubsistencethatherequiresformaintenance,andforthepropagationofhisraceButthepriceofacommodity,andthereforealsooflabor,isequaltoitscostofproductionInproportion,therefore,astherepulsivenessoftheworkincreases,thewagedecreasesWhatismore,inproportionastheuseofmachineryanddivisionoflaborincreases,inthesameproportiontheburdenoftoilalsoincreases,whetherbyprolongationoftheworkinghours,bytheincreaseoftheworkexactedinagiventime,orbyincreasedspeedofmachinery,etcModernIndustryhasconvertedthelittleworkshopofthepatriarchalmasterintothegreatfactoryoftheindustrialcapitalistMassesoflaborers,crowdedintothefactory,areorganizedlikesoldiersAsprivatesoftheindustrialarmy,theyarep

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Manifesto of the Communist Party

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