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首页 [区隔:一种趣味判断的社会学批判]

[区隔:一种趣味判断的社会学批判].bourdieu_-_distinction

[区隔:一种趣味判断的社会学批判]

hanako
2010-01-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[区隔:一种趣味判断的社会学批判]pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

•••DlstlnctlnASocialCritiqueofteJuagementofTastePierreBouraieuTranslatedbyRichardNiceHarvardUniversityPressCambridge,MassachusettsCopyrightbythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeandRoutledgeKeganPaulLtdAllrightsreservedPrimedintheUnitedStatoofAmericaOriginallypublishedinbyLesEditionsdeMinuit,Paris,asLaDistinction:C,ili'lueJociaiedujugtmmlbyPierreBourdieuThepreparationofthisvolumewasassistedbygramsfromtheTranslationsProgramoftheNationalEndowmentfortheHumanitiesanindcpC'ndcm(rocralagency,andfromtheCulturalExchangeServiceoftheFrenchMinistryofForeignAffairsTheassistanccoftheMaisondeSciencesdeI'HommeisalsoappreciatedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPuhlicationDatBourdicu,PicrreDistinction:asocialcritiqueofthejudgementoftasteTranslationof:Ladistinction:critiquesociaJcdujugementIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexFrnceCiviJizationAestheticsFrenchSocialcasse:FranccITideDCHB'ISBN(paper)Par!IPartIIPartIIIContentsPrefacetotheEnglishLanguageEditionIntroductionIXIASocialCritiqueofthejudgementofTasteTheAristocracyofCultureTheTitlesofCulturalNobilityCulturalPedigreeTheEconomyofPradicesTheSocialSpaceandItsTransformationsClassConditionandSocialConditioningAThreeDimensionalSpaceReconversionStrategiesTheHabitusandtheSpaceofLifeStylesTheHomologybetweentheSpacesTheUniversesofStyliSticPossiblesTheDynamicsoftheFieldsTheCorrespondencebetweenGoodsProdunionandTasteProductionSymbolicStrugglesClassTas!esandLifeStylesTheSenseofDistinctionTheModesofAppropriationoftheWorkofArtTheVariantsoftheDominantTasteTheMarkofTimeTemporalandSpirirualPowersCulturalGoodwillKnowledgeandRecognitionEducationandtheAutOdidactSlopeandThrustTheVariantsofPetitBourgeoisTasteTheDecliningPetiteBourgeoisieTheExecucanrPetiteBourgeoisieTheNewPetiteBoutgeoisieFromDutytotheFunEthicTheChoiceoftheNecessaryTheTasteforNecessityandthePtincipleofConformityTheEffectsofDominationCultureandPoliticsSelectiveDemocracyStatusandCompetenceTheRighttoSpeakPersonalOpinionTheModesofProductionofOpinionDispossessionandMisappropriationMoralOrderandPoliticalOtderClassHabitusandPoliticalOpinionsSupplyandDemandThePoliticalSpaceTheSpecificEffectofTrajectoryPoliticalLanguageConclusion:ClassesandClassificationsEmbodiedSocialStructuresKnowledgewithoutConceptsAdvantageousAttributionsTheClassificationStruggleTheRealityofRepresentationandtheRepresentationofRealityPostscript:Towardsa'Vulgar'Critiqueof'Pure'CritiquesDisgustatthe'Facile'TheITasreofReflection'andthe'TasteofSense'ADeniedSocialRelationshipParetgaandParalipomenaThePleasuteoftheTextTablesAppendicesSomeReflectionsontheMethodComplementarySourcesSrlrisricalDataAssociarions:AParlourGameNotesCreditsIndexClasspreferencesforsingersandmusicAestheticdisposition,byeducationalcapitalAestheticdisposition,byclassandeducarionKnowledgeofcomposersandmusicalworks,byeducationandclassoforigin)Furniturepurchasesinthedominantclass,byeducationandsocialoriginSomeindicatorsofeconomiccapitalindifferentranionsofthedominantclass,Someindicatorsofculturalpracticeindifferentfranionsofthedomi­nantclass,Typesofhookspreferredbydifferent(ranionsofthedominantclass,Socialoriginofmembersofthedominantclass,byclassfranion,Rareofemploymentofwomenaged,byeducation,andChangesinmorphologyandassetstructureoftheclassfractions,�Changesinmorphologyandassetstructureoftheclassfranions,�RBMorphologicalchaogeswirhinthedominantclass,�Morphologicalchangeswithinthemiddleclass,�Changesinclassmorphologyanduseofeducationalsystem,�At:nnualhouseholdexpendituresonfood:skilledmanualworkers,aremenandclericalworkers,Yearlyspendinghyteachers,professionalsandindustrialandcommercialemployers,Annualhouseholdexpendituresonfood:fractionsofthedominantclass,Variationsinenterraining,byclassfraction,VariationsinvalueplacedbyFrenchwomenonbody,beautyandbeautycare,Classvariationsinsportsacrivitiesandopinionsonsporr,Class·fracrionvariarionsinmoralattirudesOpinionsonliteraryprizes,byclassfraction,Chancesofenteringthedominantclass,andfertilityrares,byclassfraction,Knowledgeandpreferencesofestablishedandnewpetitebourgeoisie,inParisandintheprovincesAwarenessofsocialfactorsineducationalandsocialsuccess,byclassfraction,Viewsonwaysofreducingineguality,byclassfraction,'Don'tknow'responsestopoliticalguestions,bysex,'Don'rknow'responsestoquestionsonteaching,byeducarionallevelTheimpositioneffect:responsestoquestiononthebusinessworldand,politics,byclassfraction,Theimpositioneffeccresponsestoquestiononthenewsocialism,bysex,classfractionandparty,Viewsonpoliticalorderandmoralorder,byclassfraction,Newspaperreadingbymen,byeducationallevel,Newspaperreadingbymen,byage,Newspaperreadingbymenandwomen,byclassfraction,PercentageofeachclassfcaccionreadingeachdailyandweeklypaperFiguresDistributionofpreferencesforthreemusicalworksTheaestheticdispositioninthepetitebourgeoisieTherelationshipbetweeninheritedculturalcapitalandeducationalcapitalSpecificcompetenceandtalkaboutartThespaceofsocialpositionsThespaceoflifestylesDisplacemenrofschoolingratesoftoyearolds,ofexistence,habitusandlifestyleconditIonsThefoodspacedIhomesOleaffthedominanttaste:thespacepropertiesVarIantSfthedominanttaSte:thespaceofmdividualsVariantS,!fthedominanttaste:SlmpltfiedplanedIagramofstandrdVanantSaxesofinertIaFilmsseen:tSofpetitbourgeoistaste:thespaceofpropertIesVarianofpetitbourgeoistaste:thespaceofmdlvldualsVartanrsofpetitbourgeoistaste:simplifiedplanediagramofstandrdVanantsaxesofinef(iaFilmsseen:IIPermissivenessandpoliticalpreferenceOpinionsonforeignpolicyandpoliticalpreferenceThepoliticalspace,�prefacetoteEngis­LanguageEaitionIhaveeveryreasontofearthatthisbookwillstriketbereaderas'veryFrench'whichIknowisnotalwaysacomplimentFrenchitis,ofcourse,byvirtueofitsempiricalobject,anditcanbereadasasortofethnographyofFrance,which,thoughIbelieveitshowsnoethnocentricindulgence,shouldhelptorenewtheratherstereotypedimageofFrenchsocietythatispresentedbytheAmericantraditionButIbelieveitispossibletoenterintothesingularityofanobjectwithoutrenouncingtheambitionofdrawingoutuniversalpropositionsItis,nodoubt,onlybyusingthecomparativemethod,whichtreatsitsobjectasa'particularcaseofthepossible',thatonecanhopetoavoidunjustifiablyuniversalizingtheparticularcaseWiththeaidofNorbertElias'sanaly­ses,IdoindeedemphasizetheparticularityoftheFrenchtradition,namely,thepersistence,throughdifferentepochsandpoliticalregimes,ofthearistocraticmodelof'courtsociety',personifiedbyaParisianhautebourgeoisiewhich,combiningallformsofprestigeandallthetitlesofeco­nomicandculturalnobility,hasnocounterpartelsewhere,atleastforthearroganceofitsculturaljudgements'Itwould,however,beamistaketoregardallthatissaidhereaboutthesocialusesofartandcultureasacol�ctionofParisiancuriositiesandfrivolitiesandnotonlybecause,asErvl,n"Gottmanoncepointedouttome,theParisianversionoftheartofhVlnghasneverceasedtoexertasortoffascinationinthe'Anglo­Saxon'world,evenbeyondthecircleofsnobsandsocialites,therebyat­talOlfigakindofuniversality�emodeloftherelationshipsbetweentheuniverseofeconomicandSOCIalconditionsandtheuniverseoflife�styleswhichisputforwardhere,•basedonanendeavourtorethinkMaxWeber'soppositionbetweenandStand,seemstometobevalidbeyondtheparticularFrenchcaseantl,nodoubt,foreverystratifiedsociety,evenifthesystemofdistinctivetureswhichexpressorrevealeconomicandsocialdifferencesvariableinscaleandstructure)variesconsiderablyftomoneperiod,onesociety,toanotherForexample,theslightestfamiliaritywithstructuralmodeofthoughttellsonethattheuseofFrenchwords,pCClp!!rnames,preferablynoble,orcommonnounsInstitutdeBeaute,Con:seur,Hautecouture,etcperformsthesamefunctionforshopsonAvenueorMadisonAvenueasEnglishwordslikehairdresser,s�:�:���:�,orinteriordesigneronshopfrontsintherueduFaubourgS,ore'But,morebtoadly,thesenseofdistance,evenstrangeness,WrllC)'scientificobjectificationitSelfproducesandwhichisintensifieddifferencesinhistoricaltraditions,givingdifferentcontentStorealizationsofthesamestructures,mustnotpreventthereaderfromfleetingootohisownsociety,ontohisownpositionwithinit,inrt'ontohimself,theanalysesheisofferedThatiswhy,thoughIamawareofthedangersofafacilesearchforpartialequivalenceswhichcannotstandinforamethodicalbetweensystems,Ishalltaketheriskofsuggesting,withinthemyknowledgeofAmericansocietyandculture,someguidelinesforreadingthatseekstoidentify,behindthespecificinstitutionofapaJrti(:u,·larsociety,thestructuralinvariantand,bythesametoken,theequivalent,institutioninanothersocialuniverseAtthelevelofthe'international"poleofthedominantclasstheproblemscarcelyarises,sincethecultural"ptoductsare(relatively)internationalOnecouldreplaceLesMotkrnesbyPartisanReview,'FranceMusiquebyeducationaltelevision'(Channel,WQXR,WGBHetc)andperhapsultraleftismbysixties,'camp','whiletheNewYorkReviewofBookswould(alas)representan:unlikelycombinationoftheweeklyNouvelObservateur,thereviewCri'tiqueand,especiallyinitssuccessiveenthusiasmsthejournalTelQue!As:regardsbourgeoistaste,theAmericanprofessionals,executivesandman:agersmightaskofthefilm,book,artandmusiccriticsoftheNewYork"TimesormagazineslikeTimeandNewsweekthesamebalanced,subtlydi­versifiedjudgementswhichtheirFrenchoppositenumbersexpectfromLeMontieorLeFigaroorweeklieslikeL'ExpressorLePointThetitlesandauthorsfavouredbythebestsellerreadershipwillvaryfromcountrytocountry,butineachcasetherewillbeapreponderanceofthelife­storiesandmemoirsofexemplaryheroesofbourgeoissuccessor'nonfic­tionnovels'TheundemandingentertainmentwhichParisiansexpectfromboulevardtheatre,NewYorkerswillseekinBroadwaymusicalsButIbelieveIhavesaidenoughtoencouragemyreaderstojoininthegame,atleastsoastocorrectmymistakesandperhapstopursuethesearchforequivalents,whichwouldhaverobesoughtinsongandcin­ema(IsBrigitteBardotlikeMarilynMonroe'IsJeanGabintheFrenchWayne,orHumphreyBogartorSpencerTracy')andalsoinJohn'ordecorationsportandcookingForItIScertamthatonInterl''bdress"doftheChannelortheAtlanticsomethingsarecompatlle,hSlerff'eae'not"andtheprclerencesacassorcassfactionconStltutehersare,h'h'hhotystemsTosupporrthishypoteSlS,wICateempmcaherentshhl'kCOnfirmIcaninvokeEdgarAllanPoe,wspesouttelysesco',cdanathemosteverydaychOIces,IndecoratIOn,lorexampe,anbetweenthe'finearts',seeingintheordinaryarrangementofthehOlcesiOffl'rdchparrmentsofhiscountrytheexpresSIOnawaylIeanwealt�"WespeakofthekeepingofaroomaswewouldofthekeepingthougrreforboththepictureandtheroomareamenabletothoseofdaPicrtUngprincipleSwhichregulateallvarietiesofartandverynearlyuneVla'flawsbywhichwedeCideonthehIghermentsapaInting,thesamefb,r,£IifordecisionontheadJustmentachamersuceCormtoOthisbookis'veryFrench'ThiswillbeundersroodifIoltSI',,thereaderacceptsthat,asItryroshow,themodeofexpresSIOncharacter­'faculturalproductionalwaysdependsonthelawsofthemarketInIS(lC"ffdhichitisofferedAlthoughthebooktransgressesoneatheuna:entaltaboosoftheintellectualworld,inrelatingintellectualproductsandproducerstotheirsocialconditionsofexistenceandalso,nodoubt,becauseitdoessoitcannotentirelyIgnoreordefythelawsofacademICorintellectualproprietywhichcondemnasbarbarousanyattempttotreatculture,thatpresentincarnationofthesacred,asanobjectofSCl­enceThatisoneofthereasonsalongwiththecostSofbookproduc­tion�whyIhaveonlyverypartiallyreproducedthesurveymaterialandthestatisticaldataused,andhavenotalwaysglventheexpOSItIOnofthemethodasmuchprominenceastherhetoricofscientificitywouldde­mand(AsintheFrenchedition,somepassagesofthetext,contaInIngdetailedstatisticalmaterial,illustrativeexamplesordiscussionofancillaryissues,areprintedinsmalltypesothatthereaderwhoseeksano�ervi�wofthemainargumentmaypassoverthemonafirstreading)LikeWISe,thestyleofthebook,whoselong,complexsentencesmayoffendwn­strucrcdastheyarewithaviewtoreconstitutingthecomplexityofthesocialworldinalanguagecapableofholdingtogetherthemostdiversethingswhilesettingtheminrigorousperspectivestemspartlyfromtheendeavourtomobilizealltheresourcesofthetraditionalmodesofex­pression,literary,philosophicalorscientific,soasrosaythingsthatweredefactoordejureexcludedfromthem,andropreventthereadingfromshppingbackintothesimplicitiesofthesmartessayorthepoliticalpo­lemicKFinally,IrealizehowmuchthespecificityoftheFrenchintellectualfieldmayhavecontributedtotheconceptionofthisbook,inparticulartoUsperhapsimmoderateambitionofgivingascientificanswertotheoldquestionsofKant'scritiqueofjudgement,byseekinginthestruc­tureofthesocialclassesthebasisofthesystemsofclassificationwhichstruCtureperceptionofthesocialworldanddesignatetheobjectsofaestheticenjoymentButinanagewhentheeffectsofaprematureoflabourseparateanthropologyfromsociology,and,withinthethesociologyofknowledgefromthesociologyofculture,notromc,"tionthesociologyoffoodorsport,itisperhapstheadvantageofawe,rlestillhauntedbytheultimateandtotalquestioningsoftheprophetictn,'tellectualthatoneisledtorefusetheselfinducedmyopiawhichmakesimpossibletoobserveandunderstandeverythingthathumanpractic:esrevealonlywhentheyareseenintheirmutualrelationships,thatis,astotaliry'"Atallevents,thereisnothingmoreuniversalthantheprojectofobjec:tifyingthementalstructuresassociatedwiththeparticularityofasocial,strucrureBecauseitpresupposesanepistemologicalbreakwhichisalsosocialbreak,asortofestrangementfromthefamiliar,domestic,nativeworld,thecritique(intheKantiansense)ofcultureinviteseachreaethroughthe'makingstrange'belovedoftheRussianformalists,toproduceonhisorherownbehalfthecriticalbreakofwhichitisproductForthisreasonitisperhapstheonlyrationalbasisforatrullvuniversalcultureDistinctionIntroauctionYousaidit,mygoodknight�ThereoughttobelawstoprotectthebodyofacquiredknowledgeTakeoneofourgoodpupils,forexample:modestanddiligent,fromhisearliestgrammarclasseshe'skeptalit­rIenorebookfullofphrasesAfterhangingonthelipsofhisteachersfortwentyyears,he'smanagedtobuildupanintellectualstockintradedoesn'titbelongtohimasifitwereahouse,ormoneyPaulClaude!,Lesoulierdesatin,DayIII,SceneiiThereisaneconomyofculturalgoods,butirhasaspecificlogicSociol­ogyendeavourstoestablishrhecondirionsinwhichtheconsumersofculturalgoods,andtheirtasteforthem,arCproduced,andatthesametimetodescribethedifferenrwaysofappropriatingsuchoftheseobjectsasareregardedaraparricularmomentasworksofarr,andthesocialconditionsofrheconstitutionofthemodeofappropriarionthariscon­sideredlegitimateButonecannotfullyunderstandculturalpracticesunless'culture',intherestricted,normativesenseofordinaryusage,isbroughtbackinto'culture'intheanthropologicalsense,andtheelabo­fatedtasteforthemostrefinedobjectsisreconnectedwiththeelemen­tarytastefortheflavoursoffoodWhereastheideologyofcharismaregardstasteinlegitimatecultureasagiftofnature,scientificobservationshowsthatculturalneedsaretheproductofupbringingandeducation:surveysestablishthatallculturalpractices(museumvisits,concertgoing,readingetc),andpreferencesinliterarure,paintingormusic,arecloselylinkedtoeducationallevel(measuredbyqualificationsorlengrhofschooling)andsecondarilytosocialorigin'Therelativeweightofhomebackgroundandofformaleducation(rheeffectivenessanddurationofwhicharecloselydependentonsocialorigin)variesaccordingtotheextenttowhichthedifferentculturalpraCticesarerecognizedandtaughtbytheeducationalsystem,andtheinfluenceofsocialoriginisstrongest{)therthingsbeingc'jualin'extracurricular'andavantgardecultureTothesociallyrecog­nizedhierarchyofthearts,andwithineachofthem,ofgenres,schoolsorperiods,correspondsasocialhierarchyoftheconsumersThispredisposesIntroductiontastestofunctionasmarkersof'class'Them�nneri�whichculturehasbeenacquiredlivesoninthemannerofusingIt:theImportanceattachedtomannerscanbeunderstoodonceitisseenthatitIStheseImponder�abI

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[区隔:一种趣味判断的社会学批判]

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