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首页 William_Wordsworth

William_Wordsworth.doc

William_Wordsworth

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2013-11-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《William_Wordsworthdoc》,可适用于考试题库领域

ChapterWordsworth    WilliamWordsworth,therepresentativepoetoftheearlyromanticism,wasbornin,inalawyer'sfamilyatCockermouth,CumberlandHismotherdiedwhenhewasonlyeightHisfatherfollowedhersixyearslaterTheorphanwastakeninchargebyrelatives,whosenthimtoschoolatHawksheadinthebeautifullakedistrictinNorthwesternEnglandHere,theunroofedschoolofnatureattractedhimmorethantheclassroom,andhelearnedmoreeagerlyfromflowersandhillsandstarsthanfromhisbooksSothechildearlycherishedaloveofnature,whichhelaterexpressedinhispoetry    HestudiedatCambridgefromtoWhileatuniversity,heassociatedwiththoseyoungRepublicanswhosepoliticalenthusiasmhadbeenrousedbytheFrenchRevolutionIntheyearshetwicevisitedFranceOnhissecondvisithebecameacquaintedwithBeaupuy,anarmyofficerofthenewbornRepublicofFrance,whokindledtheheartoftheyoungEnglishmanwithaspiritofrevoltagainstallsocialiniquitiesandasympathyforthepoor,humblefolkWordsworthjoinedtheGerondists,iethemoderateRepublicansButhewasforcedtoreturntoEnglandbecausehisrelativescutoffhisallowance    In,Wordsworthsettled,withhissisterDorothy,atRacedowninSomersetshireTheylivedafrugallifeandDorothy,ashisconfidanteandinspirer,madehimturnhiseyesto"thefaceofnature"andtakeaninterestinthepeasantslivingintheirneighbourhoodShealsoinducedhimtotransformhisobservationofthelandscapeintotherevelationofthebeautyofnatureinpoetry,andthus"preservedthepoetinhim"Wordsworthwroteofher:    "Shegavemeeyes,shegavemeears    Andhumblecares,anddelicatefears    Aheart,thefountainofsweettears    Andlove,andthought,andjoy"    InhemadefriendswithColeridgeThentheylivedtogetherintheQuantockHills,Somerset,devotingtheirtimetowritingofpoetryIntheirpartnership,Coleridgewastotakeupthe"supernatural,oratleastromantic"subjects,whileWordsworthwas"togivethecharmofnoveltytothingsofeveryday"Intheyjointlypublishedthe"LyricalBallads"Coleridge'scontributionwashismasterpiece"TheRimeoftheAncientMariner"Themajorityofpoemsinthiscollection,however,werewrittenbyWordsworth    Thepublicationofthe"LyricalBallads"markedthebreakwiththeconventionalpoeticaltraditionofthethcentury,ie,withclassicism,andthebeginningoftheRomanticrevivalinEngland    InthePrefacetothe"LyricalBallads",WordsworthsetforthhisprinciplesofpoetryAscontrastedwiththeclassicistswhomadereason,orderandtheold,classicaltraditionsthecriteriaintheirpoeticalcreations,Wordsworthbasedhisownpoeticalprincipleonthepremisethat"allgoodpoetryisthespontaneousoverflowofpowerfulfeeling"Heappealeddirectlytoindividualsensations,ie,pleasure,excitementandenjoyment,asthefoundationinthecreationandappreciationofpoetryPoetry"takesitsoriginfromemotionrecollectedintranquillity"Apoet'semotionextendsfromhumanaffairstonature,butemotionimmediatelyexpressedisasrawaswinenewlybottledTranquilcontemplationofanemotionalexperiencematuresthefeelingandsensation,andmakespossiblethecreationofgoodpoetryliketherefiningofoldwineThefunctionofpoetryliesinitspowertogiveanunexpectedsplendourtofamiliarandcommonplacethings,toincidentsandsituationsfromcommonlifejustasaprismcangivearayofcommonplacesunlightthemanifoldmiracleofcolourOrdinarypeasants,children,evenoutcasts,allmaybeusedassubjectsinpoeticalcreationAstothelanguageusedinpoetry,Wordsworth"endeavouredtobring(his)languageneartothereallanguageofmen","byfittingtometricalarrangementaselectionofthereallanguageofmen"toastateofvividsensationTheseprincipleshelpedtocrumblethetheoreticalfoundationsoftheclassicalschoolofEnglishpoetryandtoinspireanewgenerationofpoetsThePrefacetothe"LyricalBallads"servedasthemanifestooftheEnglishRomanticMovementinpoetry    WiththeestablishmentoftheJacobindictatorship(MayJuly)andtheriseofNapoleon(NovemberApril)inFrance,Wordsworth'sattitudetowardstherevolutionchangedandhegaveuphisformerpoliticalenthusiasmHeretiredtothenorthernlakedistrict,firstlivingatGrasmereandthenatRydalMountHerehelivedinseclusionforafullhalfcenturyHebecameaToryandupheldthereactionarypolicyoftheBritishgovernmentThenheacceptedtheofficeofadistributorofstampsandwasmadepoetlaureateHewaseightywhenhediedin    Wordsworth,ColeridgeandSoutheyhaveoftenbeenmentionedasthe"LakePoets"becausetheylivedintheLakeDistrictinthenorthwesternpartofEnglandThethreetraversedthesamepathinpoliticsandinpoetry,beginningasradicalsandclosingasconservatives    WordsworthlivedalonglifeandwrotealotofpoemsHewasathisbestindescriptionsofmountainsandrivers,flowersandbirds,childrenandpeasants,andreminiscencesofhisownchildhoodandyouthAsagreatpoetofnature,hewasthefirsttofindwordsforthemostelementarysensationsofmanfacetofacewithnaturalphenomenaThesesensationsareuniversalandoldbut,onceexpressedinhispoetry,becomecharminglybeautifulandnewHisdeeplovefornaturerunsthroughsuchshortlyricsas"LinesWritteninEarlySpring","TotheCuckoo","IWanderedLonelyasaCloud","MyHeartLeapsUp","IntimationsofImmortality"and"LinesComposedaFewMilesAboveTinternAbbey"Thelastiscalledhis"lyricalhymnofthankstonature":    "Fornaturethen    (Thecoarserpleasuresofmyboyishdays,    Andtheirgladanimalmovementsallgoneby)    TomewasallinallIcannotpaint    WhatthenIwasThesoundingcataract    Hauntedmelikeapassion:thetallrock,    Themountain,andthedeepandgloomywood,    Theircoloursandtheirforms,werethentome    Anappetite:afeelingandalove,    Thathadnoneedofaremotercharm,    Bythoughtsupplied,noranyinterest    Unborrowedfromtheeye"    Hispoemsofnaturewerewrittenaccordingtohisownargumentthat"ourcontinuedinfluxesoffeelingaredirectedandmodifiedbyourthoughts,whichareindeedtherepresentativesofallourpastfeelings"Hestoredupnaturalimpressionsand"thoughtlonganddeeply"overthembeforereproducingtheminpoetryAndthen    "Thesebeauteousforms,    Throughalongabsence,havenotbeentome    Asisalandscapetoablindman'seye:    Butoft,inlonelyrooms,and'midthedin    Oftownsandcities,Ihaveowedtothem,    Inhoursofweariness,sensationsweet,    Feltintheblood,andfeltalongtheheart,    Andpassingevenintomypurermind,    Withtranquilrestoration:feelings,too,    Ofunrememberedpleasure:such,perhaps,    Ashavenoslightortrivialinfluence    Onthatbestportionofagoodman'slife,    Hislittle,nameless,unrememberedacts    Ofkindnessandoflove"(Ibid)    Wordsworth'swayofwritingpoetryissummedupbyGeorgeBrandesthus:"Hecollectsawinterstoreofbrightsummermoments"    WordsworthwasalsoamasterhandinsearchingandrevealingthefeelingsofthecommonpeopleThethemesofmanyofhispoemsweredrawnfromrurallifeandhischaractersbelongtothelowerclassesintheEnglishcountrysideThisissobecausehewasintimatelyacquaintedwithrurallifeandbelievedthatinruralconditionsman'selementaryfeelingsfindabettersoilthanintownlifeandcanbebettercultivatedandstrengthenedinconstantassociationwithnatureDeeprootedinhisnativesoil,Wordsworthsucceededindrawingpatheticpicturesofthelabouringpeople("TheSolitaryReaper"),indepictingthenaivetyofsimplepeasantchildren("WeAreSeven")andindelineatingwithdeepsympathythesufferingsofthepoor,humblepeasants("Michael","TheRuinedCottage","SimonLee",and"TheOldCumberlandBeggar")His"Lucy"poemsareaseriesofshortpatheticlyricsonthethemeofharmonybetweenhumanityandnature:    "Shedweltamongtheuntroddenways    BesidethespringsofDove,    Amaidwhomtherewerenonetopraise    Andveryfewtolove    Avioletbyamossystone    Halfhiddenfromtheeye!    Fairasastar,whenonlyone    Isshininginthesky    Shelivedunknown,andfewcouldknow    WhenLucyceasedtobe    Butsheisinhergrave,and,oh,    Thedifferencetome!"    Aslumberdidmyspiritseal    Ihadnohumanfears:    Sheseemedathingthatcouldnotfeel    Thetouchofearthlyyears    Nomotionhasshenow,noforce    Sheneitherhearsnorsees    Rolledroundinearth'sdiurnalcourse,    Withrocks,andstones,andtrees"    Wordsworth'spoetryisdistinguishedbythesimplicityandpurityofhislanguageItwashistheorythatthelanguagespokenbythepeasantswas,whenpurifiedfromitsdefects,thebestofall,"becausesuchmenhourlycommunicatewiththebestobjectsfromwhichthebestpartoflanguageisoriginallyderivedandbecause,fromtheirrankinsocietyandthesamenessandnarrowcircleoftheirintercourse,beinglessundertheinfluenceofsocialvanity,theyconveytheirfeelingsandemotionsinsimpleandunelaboratedexpressions"Histheoryandpracticeinpoeticalcreationstartedfromadissatisfactionwiththesocialrealityundercapitalism,andhintedatthethoughtof"backtonature"and"backtothepatriarchalsystemoftheoldtime"    "ThePrelude"isWordsworth'sautobiographicalpoem,inbooks,whichwaswritteninbutnotpublisheduntilItisthespiritualrecordofthepoet'smind,honestlyrecordinghisownintimatementalexperienceswhichcoverhischildhood,schooldays,yearsatCambridge,hisfirstimpressionsofLondon,hisfirstvisittoFrance,hisresidenceinFranceduringtheRevolution,andhisreactiontothesevariousexperiences,showingthedevelopmentofhisownthoughtandsentiment    ManyacritichaspointedoutthatnearlyallWordsworth'sgoodpoetrywaswrittenduringthefirstdecadeofhisliterarycareer(),whenhestillkepthisearly,politicalenthusiasmoratleastretainedsomecontactwiththereallifeofhistimeAfterthat,hispoeticaltalentobviouslydeclinedwithhislivingintotalseclusionandhisturningmoreandmoreconservativeinthoughtHislaterwritingswerefullofmysticismandmanyofthemunreadableWordsworth's"declineandfall"hasbecomeafrequenttopicofcriticismShelleywrotethus:    "Inhonouredpovertythyvoicedidweave    Songsconsecratetotruthandliberty    Desertingthese,thouleavestmetogrieve,    Thushavingbeen,thatthoushouldestceasetobe"PAGE

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