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首页 Arrow and the Olive Branch Practical Idealism i…

Arrow and the Olive Branch Practical Idealism in U.S. Foreign Policy.pdf

Arrow and the Olive Branch Pra…

旋风2012071
2013-11-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Arrow and the Olive Branch Practical Idealism in U.S. Foreign Policypdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

TheArrowandtheOliveBranchPraegerSecurityInternationalAdvisoryBoardBoardCochairsLochKJohnson,RegentsProfessorofPublicandInternationalAffairs,SchoolofPublicandInternationalAffairs,UniversityofGeorgia(USA)PaulWilkinson,ProfessorofInternationalRelationsandChairmanoftheAdvisoryBoard,CentrefortheStudyofTerrorismandPoliticalViolence,UniversityofStAndrews(UK)MembersAnthonyHCordesman,ArleighABurkeChairinStrategy,CenterforStrategicandInternationalStudies(USA)The´re`seDelpech,DirectorofStrategicAffairs,AtomicEnergyCommission,andSeniorResearchFellow,CERI(FondationNationaledesSciencesPolitiques),Paris(France)SirMichaelHoward,formerChicheleProfessoroftheHistoryofWarandRegisProfessorofModernHistory,OxfordUniversity,andRobertALovettProfessorofMilitaryandNavalHistory,YaleUniversity(UK)LieutenantGeneralClaudiaJKennedy,USA(Ret),formerDeputyChiefofStaffforIntelligence,DepartmentoftheArmy(USA)PaulMKennedy,JRichardsonDilworthProfessorofHistoryandDirector,InternationalSecurityStudies,YaleUniversity(USA)RobertJO’Neill,formerChicheleProfessoroftheHistoryofWar,AllSoulsCollege,OxfordUniversity(Australia)ShibleyTelhami,AnwarSadatChairforPeaceandDevelopment,DepartmentofGovernmentandPolitics,UniversityofMaryland(USA)FareedZakaria,Editor,NewsweekInternational(USA)THEARROWANDTHEOLIVEBRANCHPracticalIdealisminUSForeignPolicyJACKGODWINForewordbyLeonEPanettaTheEthicsofAmericanForeignPolicyDavidAWelchandRobertGPatman,SeriesEditorsPRAEGERSECURITYINTERNATIONALWestport,Connecticut·LondonLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataGodwin,JackThearrowandtheolivebranch:practicalidealisminUSforeignpolicyJackGodwinforewordbyLeonEPanettapcm(TheethicsofAmericanforeignpolicy,ISSN–)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:––––(alkpaper)UnitedStatesForeignrelationsITitleEGdcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataisavailableCopyright©byJackGodwinAllrightsreservedNoportionofthisbookmaybereproduced,byanyprocessortechnique,withouttheexpresswrittenconsentofthepublisherLibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:ISBN:––––ISSN:–FirstpublishedinPraegerSecurityInternational,PostRoadWest,Westport,CTAnimprintofGreenwoodPublishingGroup,IncwwwpraegercomPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThepaperusedinthisbookcomplieswiththePermanentPaperStandardissuedbytheNationalInformationStandardsOrganization(Z–)TomymentorsRichardChadwickoftheUniversityofHawaiiEdwinDuerrofSanFranciscoStateUniversityContentsSERIESFOREWORDxiFOREWORDBYLEONEPANETTAxiiiACKNOWLEDGMENTSxviiPREFACExixINTRODUCTIONPARTI:PURCHASE,ANNEXATION,ANDCONQUEST,–CHAPTER:EUROPEANINFLUENCEANDMONROEDOCTRINELouisianaPurchaseEuropeanInfluenceFreeNavigationAnnexingTexasMexicanAmericanWarGunboatDiplomacyPARTII:TWOOCEANSANDTWOWORLDWARS,–CHAPTER:MONROEDOCTRINEIIANDDOLLARDIPLOMACYPanamaCanalSpanishAmericanWarAcquiringthePhilippinesAcquiringHawaiiOpenDoorPolicyinChinaCHAPTER:WORLDWARIANDNEWWORLDORDERInterventioninMexicoFreeNavigationtheSpecialRelationshipExpeditionaryForceTreatyofVersaillesLeagueofNationsCHAPTER:ARMSCONTROLWashingtonNavalLimitationTreatyLeagueofNationsKelloggBriandPactCrashofSmootHawleyTariffActCHAPTER:WORLDWARIIGoodNeighborGermanyAnnexestheSudetenland,ThreePowersFourFreedomsPearlHarborEuropeFirstGermanyandJapanSurrenderPARTIII:COLDWARANDLIMITEDWAR,–CHAPTER:LIMITEDWARI:KOREATrumanDoctrineMarshallPlanNationalSecurityActDesegregatingtheMilitaryNorthAtlanticTreatyOrganizationKoreanWarCHAPTER:STRATEGICDEFENSEArmisticeinSouthKoreaDominoTheoryPublicDiplomacyEisenhowerDoctrineSuezCrisisTroopsinLebanonCHAPTER:MONROEDOCTRINEIIIANDLIMITEDWARII:VIETNAMAllianceforProgressBerlinWallCubanMissileCrisisGulfofTonkinWarEscalationTetOffensiveCHAPTER:ARMSCONTROLIIANDLIMITEDWARIII:VIETNAMNixonDoctrineRapprochementwithChinaPeaceTalksOPECOilEmbargoWarPowersResolutionCHAPTER:ARMSCONTROLIIIANDSTRATEGICDEFENSEIICampDavidAccordIranHostageCrisisSovietsInvadeAfghanistanStrategicDefenseInitiativeTerroristAttackinLebanonInvasionofGrenadaIranContraAffairPARTIV:GLOBALSUPREMACYANDGLOBALSTEWARDSHIP,–CHAPTER:NEWWORLDORDERIIANDLIMITEDWARIV:IRAQTiananmenSquareBerlinWallFallsInvasionofPanamaIraqInvadesKuwaitGulfWarGorbachevResignstheSovietUnionDisintegratesviiiCONTENTSCHAPTER:DOLLARDIPLOMACYIIANDMONROEDOCTRINEIVFirefightinMogadishuNAFTACrisisinHaitiCrisisinMexicoDaytonPeaceAccordsAirStrikesinIraqandSerbiaCHAPTER:LIMITEDWARV:IRAQANDTHEWARONTERRORDefenseReformAttackInvasionofAfghanistanDisarmamentCrisisIraqWarandOccupationEPILOGUENOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXCONTENTSixSeriesForewordTheArrowandtheOliveBranchinauguratesPraegerSecurityInternational’snewbookseries,EthicsofAmericanForeignPolicyThepurposeoftheseriesistoexploretheethicaldimensionsofthehistory,theory,andcurrentpracticeofUSforeignpolicyinawaythatwillhelpscholars,policymakers,andtheinterestedpublicbetterunderstandthemainsprings,challenges,successes,andfailuresofWashington’sconductofinternationalaffairsTheUnitedStatesisunusualinhavingbeenfoundedonthebasisofanexplicitcommitmenttoabstractmoralprinciplessuchasliberty,equality,anddemocracyButabstractprinciples,weallknow,seldomtranslateeasilyintoconcretepolicychoices,conflictingastheyoftendonotonlywithoneanother,butalsowithvaluessuchassecurityandinterestInthehistoryofUSforeignpolicytheseconflictsabound,oftenwiththeresultthatitdifficultattimestosquareWashington’sbehaviorintheworldstagewiththeloftyidealsAmericanleadersunfailinglyprofessWhataccountsforthesegapsHypocrisyTragedyErrorConfusionabouttheappropriateethicalstandardsandmodesofmoralreasoningErrorsofjudgment,inference,orapplicationWhenAmericagetsitright,howandwhydoesitavoidthetraps,errors,andtemptationsthatwouldotherwisehaveleditastrayThesearethekindsofquestionsthevolumesinthisseriesareintendedtohelpanswerThebooksinthisseriesareintended,inasense,asantidotestothecynicismandapologytoooftenevidentinpopularcommentaryCitizensofallcountries,ofcourse,holdtheirleaderstocertainstandardsofethicalconduct,andonemightequallywelcomeaseriesontheethicsofFrench,Chinese,orAustralianforeignpolicybutthisseriesisdevotedtoAmericanforeignpolicyquitesimplybecauseofthesingularenormityofWashington’sinfluenceinthecomplex,confusing,andinsomerespectschaoticpostColdWarworldaworldwhosecontoursarestillnotinfocusafteralmosttwentyyears,butwhichissurelybeingshapedinlargepartbyAmericanchoicesYettheUnitedStatesfindsitselfinaparadoxicalpositionItistheworld’ssolesuperpower,buthastoexerciseitspowerandinfluenceinaninternationalenvironmentthatissubjecttotheforcesofdeepeningglobalizationContemporaryproblemsrelatingtotheworldeconomy,globalwarming,humanrightsprotection,terrorism,andtheproliferationofweaponsofmassdestructionarenowlargelybeyondthecapacityofanyindividualstate,howeverpowerful,tosolvebythemselvesAsthesechallengesgrow,thereisinAmerica,andaroundtheworld,arisinginterestinethicsanditsrelationshiptoforeignpolicySuchatrendseemstobeerodingtheolddichotomybetweenpowerandmoralityininternationalrelationsItisinstructivethattheAmericaninvasionofIraqinwasbothbackedandopposedonethicalgroundsWearepleasedtoserveascoeditorsofthisexcitingandimportantventure,andhopethatourrespectivevantagepointshelptheseriesmaintainahealthydistancefrombothcynicismandapologyCreditfortheindividualtitlesintheserieswillrest,ofcourse,withtheauthorsalonebutwewouldliketoacknowledgeheretheindispensableroleofHilaryClaggett,whofirstproposedtheseries,recruitedusaseditors,andacquiredthefirstseveralvolumesbeforemovingontonewprofessionalchallengesWebothfoundHilary’sinspiration,energy,andenthusiasmirresistible,andofferhereourthanksforthiswonderfulopportunityRobertGPatman,UniversityofOtagoDavidAWelch,UniversityofTorontoxiiSERIESFOREWORDForewordInMarch,membersofCongresstookactiontocreatethebipartisanIraqStudyGrouptoconductanindependentassessmentofthesituationinIraqandmakeforwardlookingrecommendationsCochairedbyJamesABakerIIIandLeeHHamilton,membersoftheIraqStudyGroupincludedLawrenceSEagleburger,VernonEJordanJr,EdwinMeeseIII,SandraDayO’Connor,WilliamJPerry,CharlesSRobb,AlanKSimpson,andmyselfFormorethaneightmonths,weexploredfourbroadpolicyareas:thestrategicenvironmentinIraqandtheregionkeychallengesregardingIraq’sinternalsecuritypoliticalchallengesfacingIraq’snewlyelectedgovernmentandIraq’seconomyandreconstructionWeconvenedseveralplenarysessions,interviewednumerouscurrentandformerUSgovernmentofficials,militaryofficers,intelligenceofficers,diplomats,legislators,academics,journalists,andotherexpertsWetraveledtoIraqandintervieweddozensofIraqigovernmentofficialsandrepresentativestoassessUSpolicyinIraq,itsimpactonthesurroundingregion,andpotentialconsequencesforUSinterestsInDecember,weissuedourofficialreport,TheIraqStudyGroupReport:TheWayForwardANewApproachThereportrecognizestherealitiesofthesituationonthegroundandmakesseventyninespecificrecommendationsnecessarytoovercomethoserealitiesandachieveourgoalsThereport’sfindingsandrecommendationsareneitheramagicformulanoraguaranteeofsuccess,butthebestalternativeto‘‘giveIraqanopportunityforabetterfuture,combatterrorism,stabilizeacriticalregionoftheworld,andprotectAmerica’scredibility,interests,andvalues’’Mostimportant,thereportreflectsthebipartisanconsensusofthestudygroupWhileitmaynotseemveryextraordinary,thetenmembersofthestudygroup(fiveRepublicans,fiveDemocrats)workedveryhardtoreachacrosstheaisleanddotherightthingThereisanoldadageworthrepeating:whenitcomestoforeignpolicy,partypoliticsshouldendatthewater’sedgeAnyonewhobelievesthisnationisatitsbestwhenourleadersworktogethertofindsolutionswillfindTheArrowandtheOliveBranchtobeaninvaluableresourceThebookopensonSeptember,thedaynineteenmenhijackedfourcommercialjetsandturnedthemintoweaponsofmassdestructionThenittravelsbackintimetoSeptember,,thedayGeorgeWashingtongavehisfarewelladdressandadvisedustorefrainfromforeignentanglementsBuildingonthisfirstprinciple,JackGodwintracksdowneveryforeignpolicyprecedentsetbyeverypresidentsinceWashingtonHereconstructsthedoctrineofpracticalidealismandguidesthereaderonajourneytorediscoverthehistoric,timeless,bipartisanidealsoftheAmericanschoolofdiplomacyAlthoughpracticalidealismisopentointerpretation,andfullofcomplexitiesandcontradictions,Godwin’sresearchrevealsasurprisingdegreeofcontinuityovertime,acrosschangesofpowerfromonepartytoanother,throughadversityandnumerousadjustmentsimposedbyeventsIn,JamesMonroeandhissecretaryofstateJohnQAdamsproclaimedtheMonroeDoctrine,whichnominallyforbidfutureEuropeancolonizationintheWesternHemisphereAttheendofthenineteenthandbeginningofthetwentiethcentury,WilliamMcKinleyandTheodoreRooseveltredefinedtheMonroeDoctrineandexpandeditsgeographicscopebeyondtheWesternHemisphereTheUnitedStatesdefeatedSpain,occupiedGuanta´namoBayinCuba,acquiredthePhilippinesandHawaii,andbeganconstructionofthePanamaCanalFollowingthehorrorsofWWI,WoodrowWilsonenvisionedanewworldorderbasedonuniversalprinciplesofopenness,justice,andofcourseselfdeterminationAnyonewhobelievesWilson’sidealismwasexceptionalmaybesurprisedtolearneverypresidentelectedsinceFranklinRoosevelt(RepublicansandDemocratsalike)hasexpressedtheirsupportforselfdeterminationOneofthemostenduringaspectsofpracticalidealism(andcertainlyrelevanttocurrentandfuturechallenges)comesfromanunlikelysource,UlyssesSGrantIn,GrantrefusedtointerveneinCuba’sinsurrectionagainstSpainandadvocatedusingAmericanpowerwithrestraintIn,followingGrant’sprecedent,HarryTrumanchosetofightalimitedwarinKoreaInthesandearlys,LyndonJohnsonandRichardNixonfoughttheVietnamWarasalimitedwarIn,GeorgeHWBushdescribedthelimitedobjectivesofthemissioninSomaliaIn,BillClintondescribedthelimitedobjectivesofhisinterventioninHaitiIntheearlymonthsoftheIraqWar,GeorgeWBushtriedtolimitthedurationoftheIraqWarbyusingwhathebelievedwasdecisiveforceTheArrowandtheOliveBranchmakesanimportantcontributionnotbecauseofGeorgeSantayana’swarningthatthosewhocannotrememberxivFOREWORDthepastarecondemnedtorepeatitRather,itisimportantbecauseofWinstonChurchill’sadvicetostudyhistory,becausehistoryisthereceptacleforthesecretsofstatecraftForthosenotwellversedinhistory,theproblemswefacetodaymayseemunprecedentedForthosenotwellversedinhistory,theideathatconservativesandliberalscouldworktogether,letalonereachunanimousagreement,mayseemunthinkableIn–,theUnitedStatesandGreatBritainwererecoveringfromaseriesofmilitarydisastersPresidentFranklinRooseveltandPrimeMinisterWinstonChurchillcommunicatedfrequentlywitheachotherandtheirconstituentsastheydevelopedtheirwarplansandpreparedforthedifficultdaysaheadThesetwogreatleadersbelievedpeoplewouldrespecttheircandoriftheytoldthetruthabouttherealitiestheyfacedInTheHingeofFate,volumefourofChurchill’smassiveWWIIhistory,hesaidtherewasnoworsemistakeinpublicleadershipthantogivepeoplefalsehopePeoplecouldendurehardshipiftheyhadto,butbitterlyresentedbeingdeceivedordiscoveringtheirleadersweredeceivingthemselvesDecadeslater,itisinstructivetorememberChurchill’sadviceandfollowRooseveltandChurchill’sexampleItisequallyinstructivetoconsidertheadviceofGeorgeWashingtonandhissuccessorsIntheyearsanddecadestocome,weshouldbemindfulofthefullrangeofforeignpolicyoptionsavailabletous,skepticaloffalsehistoricalanalogiesandvigilantindefenseofAmerica’scredibility,values,andinterestsLeonEPanettaJuneTheLeonSylviaPanettaInstituteforPublicPolicyCSUMontereyBay,Seaside,CaliforniaFOREWORDxvAcknowledgmentsThankstoallmycolleaguesatCaliforniaStateUniversity,Sacramento,particularlyMonicaFreemanandEricMerchant,aswellasEdmundoAguilar,MattAltier,PatrickCannon,KevinCornwell,TraceyCulbertson,BobCurry,DavidEarwicker,RuediEgger,LeoEvangelista,BuzzFozouni,SpencerFreund,DonaldGerth,LarryGlasmire,ShoHayashigatani,KimHarrington,LoriHarrison,CeleneHarwell,CristyJensen,TerryManns,PamMilchrist,KathyMine,JenniferNarodzonek,KimNava,DanielOrey,SamParsons,RobertoPomo,JanisSilvers,PrestonStegenga,DonTaylor,DonnaThomason,LeonardValdez,MikiVohryzekBolden,DavidWagner,MlimaWells,andLenWycoskyThankstoPattiGaramendi,SusanGrivas,MarkosKounalakis,JohnMorris,andMarshaVandeBergformerlyoftheCaliforniaStateWorldTradeCommissionThankstoDavidSatterwhiteandeveryoneattheJapanUnitedStatesEducationalCommissionThankstoBrooksOhlsonoftheSacramentoCenterforInternationalTradeDevelopmentThankstoGwenRobinsonandEugeneRobinsonJrofSacramento,CaliforniaThankstoMicheleGaultoftheNorthernCaliforniaWorldTradeCenterThankstoEduardoBermudezandBrettPerkinsofKaiserPermanenteThankstoKenBrownoftheCaliforniaStateUniversity,LongBeachThankstoSusanneStirlingoftheCaliforniaChamberofCommerceThankstoRobertoSainzoftheUniversityofCalifornia,DavisThankstoLeeFritschlerofGeorgeMasonUniversityThankstoFrankMalaretofSacramentoCityCollegeThankstoJockO’ConnelloftheClarkStreetGroupThankstoHilaryClaggettandeveryoneatPraegerThankstoAnneBeerandNMagendraVarmanatBeaconPMGThankstoJefferyMcGrawoftheAugustAgencyThankstoSteffanandMargaritaTodorovSpecialthankstoEmeandAudreyxviiiACKNOWLEDGMENTSPrefaceIfGeorgeWashingtonwerealivetoday,wouldyouconsulthimabouttheMiddleEastHowaboutRonaldReaganorFranklinRooseveltIfyoucould,wouldyouaskRichardNixonaboutChinaWouldyouaskDwightEisenhoweraboutstrategicdefenseWouldyouaskHarryTrumanaboutweaponsofmassdestructionWouldyouaskhimaboutKoreaIfyouwerethecurrentincumbent,facingalltheseproblemssomeinherited,someselfinflictedwhoseadvicewouldyouaskWhoseexamplewouldyoufollowIntheAmericansystemofgovernment,thepowertoconductforeignpolicybelongstothepresident,commanderinchiefaccordingtoArticleII,SectionTheConstitutionplacesafewspecificlimitationsonthepresident’sauthority,forexample,requiringthepresidenttogettheSenate’sadviceandconsentonpoliticalappointmentsandatwothirdsmajorityontreatiesTheConstitutionalsogivesCongressthepowertoregulateinternationaltrade,appropriatefundsforthearmedforces,anddeclarewarHowever,thatisthefullextentoftheConstitution’slanguageregardingtheconductofforeignpolicy,andTheFederalistPaperstheinstructionsAlexanderHamilton,JamesMadison,andJohnJaywroteexplaininghowtheConstitutionshouldworkaddlittleclarificationPresidentsrarelysufferfromtoolittleadviceTherearethousandsofpundits,lobbyists,andscholars(someofthemformerspeechwriters)andothersofferingtheirexpertadviceVeryfewofthemeversatinthebigchair,andthosewhohaveareoftenignored,reluctanttospeakordeceasedWiththisinmind,mygoalwastowriteareferencebookforforeignpolicypractitioners,acrossbetweenTheFederalistPapersandThePrince,Niccolo`Machiavelli’ssixteenthcenturytreatiseonstatecraftMyresearchentailedtrackingdowneverymajorpresidentialstatementonforeignpolicyfromGeorgeWashingtontoGeorgeW

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Arrow and the Olive Branch Practical Idealism in U.S. Foreign Policy

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