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首页 *新书上架*社会学对象:社会理论再构造

*新书上架*社会学对象:社会理论再构造.pdf

*新书上架*社会学对象:社会理论再构造

九月虺
2009-12-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*社会学对象:社会理论再构造pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SociologicalobjectSThispagehasbeenleftblankintentionallySociologicalobjectsRecongurationsofSocialTheoryEditedbygeoffcooperUniversityofSurrey,UKandrewKingKingstonUniversity,UKruthrettieKingstonUniversity,UK©GeoffCooper,AndrewKingandRuthRettieAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwisewithoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherGeoffCooper,AndrewKingandRuthRettiehaveassertedtheirmoralrightundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,tobeidentifiedastheeditorsofthisworkPublishedbyAshgatePublishingLimitedAshgatePublishingCompanyWeyCourtEastSuiteUnionRoadCherryStreetFarnhamBurlingtonSurrey,GUPTVTEnglandUSAwwwashgatecomBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataSociologicalobjects:reconfigurationofsocialtheorySociologyICooper,GeoffIIKing,AndrewIIIRettie,RuthLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataSociologicalobjects:reconfigurationsofsocialtheoryeditedbyGeoffCooper,AndrewKingandRuthRettiepcmIncludesindexISBNSociologySociologyPhilosophySociologyMethodologyICooper,GeoffIIKing,AndrewIIIRettie,RuthHMSdcISBN(Hbk)ISBN(eBook)contentsNotesonContributorsviiPrefacexiTheObjectsofSociology:AnIntroductionGeoffCooperPARTSOCIALTHINGSDurkheim’sGlobalityDavidInglisandRolandRobertsonBacktotheThingsThemselves:OnSimmelianObjectsOlliPyyhtinenDurkheim’sSocialFactsandthePerformativeModel:ReconsideringtheObjectiveNatureofSocialPhenomenaIreneRafanellPARTSOCIALPRACTICESCommunitiesofPracticevsTraditionalCommunities:TheStateofSociologyinaContextofGlobalizationAnneWareldRawlsWorkingOutWhatGarfinkelCouldPossiblybeDoingwith“Durkheim’sAphorism”MichaelLynchMathematicalEquationsasDurkheimianSocialFactsChristianGreiffenhagenandWesSharrockPARTSOCIALTHEORIESSocialTheoryinSituatedPractice:TheoreticalCategoriesinEverydayDiscourseNannaMikMeyerSociologicalObjectsviAppropriation,TranslationandtheOpeningofTheoryAnnaTsatsaroniandGeoffCooper‘Identity’after‘TheMomentofTheory’PaulduGay––––––––––––ConcludingThoughts:ReconfigurationsofSocialTheoryAndrewKingandRuthRettieIndexNotesonContributorsGeoffCooperisReaderinSociologyattheUniversityofSurreyHisintellectualinterestsliewithinsocialtheoryandscienceandtechnologystudies,andhehascarriedoutresearchontherhetoricalstructureofdisciplines,formsofaccountabilityinchangingresearchcultures,thesocialshapingofmobiletelecommunications,anddecisionstoinvestinnanotechnologyHehaspublishedinanumberofjournalsincludingtheBritishJournalofSociology,SocialStudiesofScience,andSociology,andiscurrentlyresearchingaspectsoftherelationbetweenlifestyleandenergyconsumptionPaulduGayisProfessorofOrganizationalBehaviouratWarwickBusinessSchoolandAdjunctProfessorinOrganizationStudiesatCopenhagenBusinessSchoolHisrecentpublicationsincludeTheValuesofBureaucracy(edOUP,),OrganizingIdentity:PersonsandOrganizations‘AfterTheory’(Sage,),Conduct:SociologyandSocialWorlds(edswithEMcFallandSCarter,ManchesterUniversityPress),andIdentityinQuestion(edwithAElliott,Sage,)ChristianGreiffenhagenisaBritishAcademyPostdoctoralFellowattheUniversityofManchester,currentlyconductingethnographicresearchonmathematicalpracticeHisdoctoralresearchwasavideobasedethnographicstudyofhowanewinnovativestoryboardingsoftwarewasembeddedineverydayclassroompracticeandhowthisreconfiguredclassroominteractionHisrecentpublicationsinclude‘UnpackingTasks’,InternationalJournalofComputerSupportedCooperativeWork,‘MathematicalRelativism’,JournalfortheTheoryofSocialBehaviour(withWesSharrock),and‘KuhnandConceptualChange’,ScienceEducation(withWendySherman)DavidInglisisProfessorofSociologyattheUniversityofAberdeenHewritesintheareasofsocialtheoryandthesociologyofcultureHehasparticularresearchinterestsinthehistoryofsocialtheory,especiallyinlightofconsiderationsofglobalizationAndrewKingisaLecturerinSociologyatKingstonUniversity,LondonHespecializesinteachingsocialtheoryanditsapplicationsHisresearchcoversarangeoftopics,typicallyfocusingonidentityHisdoctoralresearchfocusedonyoungpeople’stransitionstoadulthood,drawingonethnomethodology,conversationanalysisandpoststructuralismCurrently,heisinvolvedintworesearchprojects:SociologicalObjectsviiitheinteractionbetweenlearning,spaceandidentityandthecareexperiencesofolderlesbian,gayandbisexualadultsMichaelLynchisaProfessorintheDepartmentofScienceandTechnologyStudiesatCornellUniversityHisresearchisonpracticalactionsandsocialinteractionsinlaboratories,criminalcourts,andotherinstitutionalsettingsHeisauthorofArtandArtifactinLaboratoryScience(),ScientificPracticeandOrdinaryAction:EthnomethodologyandSocialStudiesofScience(),andTruthMachine:TheContentiousHistoryofDNAProfiling(,withSimonCole,RuthMcNallyandKathleenJordan)HealsoisEditorofSocialStudiesofScienceandPresidentoftheSocietyforSocialStudiesofScience(–)NannaMikMeyerisAssociateProfessorintheDepartmentofOrganization,CopenhagenBusinessSchool,andhermainresearchareaiswithinthefieldsofsociology,organizationalidentityresearchandqualitativemethodsShehasaPhDfromtheDepartmentofSociology,CopenhagenUniversity,andaMAfromtheInstituteofAnthropoloty,CopenhagenUniverstityShehasjustfinishedapostdoctoralprojectatCopenhagenBusinessSchool(DepartmentofManagement,PoliticsandPhilosophy)onobesityandriskdiscourse,awardedinJanuarybytheDanishIndependentResearchCouncil’sYoungResearcher’sAwardOlliPyyhtinenworksasaResearchandTeachingAssociateattheDepartmentofSociologyattheUniversityofTurku,FinlandHeiscurrentlycompletinghisPhDthesisonSimmel’ssocialtheoryandhasalsotranslatedSimmelintoFinnishHisotherresearchinterestsincludemateriality,eventthinking,socialontology,andartIreneRafanellisaSociologylecturerattheUniversityoftheWestofScotlandandanHonoraryFellowoftheSchoolofSocialandPoliticalStudiesatEdinburghUniversityShecompletedherPhDinatEdinburghUniversityandherworkexplorestheconnectionsbetweensocialtheory,socialconstructionism,sociologyofknowledgeandthebodyAnneWareldRawlsisProfessorofSociologyatBentleyCollegeHerresearchfocusesonrespecifyingethics,information,work,socialorderandintelligibilityinsociologicalandinteractionaltermsRecentpublicationsincludeEpistemologyandPractice:Durkheim’sElementaryForms(Cambridge,),Garfinkel’sNotionofTime(TimeandSociety,)andHaroldGarfinkel,EthnomethodologyandWorkplaceStudies(OrganizationStudies,)AnnehaseditedandintroducedseveralbooksbyGarfinkelincludingEthnomethodology’sProgram:WorkingOutDurkheim’sAphorism(),SeeingSociologically:TheRoutineGroundsofSocialAction(),andTowardaSociologicalTheoryofInformation()NotesonContributorsixRuthRettieisaSeniorLectureratKingstonUniversityShehasdegreesinphilosophy,anMBA,andaPhDinsociologyfromtheUniversityofSurreyHerresearchinterestsincludesocialtheory,STS,mediatedinteraction,socialnetworkingsites,andtheroleofmarketinginshapingconsumerattitudestosustainabilityHerdoctoralresearchfocusedonmobilephonecommunicationHerresearchhasbeenpublishedinseveraldisciplines,includingsociology,psychology,humancomputerinteraction,andmanagementRolandRobertsonisProfessorofSociologyandGlobalSocietyattheUniversityofAberdeenandisalsoDistinguishedServiceProfessorofSociologyEmeritusattheUniversityofPittsburghHeistheauthorofnumerousbooksandarticlesonglobalization,socialtheory,culturaltheory,sociologyofreligion,andpoliticalsociologyHisworkhasbeentranslatedintoovertwentylanguagesandhehasheldvisitingappointmentsintheUSA,Japan,Sweden,England,Brazil,Italy,Austria,andThailandHeispresentlyworkingonabookaboutthenewtotalitarianism,centeredupontheideasofexhibitionism,voyeurism,transparencyandsecurityWesSharrockhasbeenattheUniversityofManchester,whereheisnowprofessorofsociology,sinceHehasresearchinterestsinphilosophy,philosophyofthesocialsciences,ethnomethodology,andstudiesofworkHeiscurrentlyinvolvedinresearchontheworkofontologybuildersinbioinformaticsRecentpublicationsincludeBrain,MindandHumanBehaviorinContemporaryCognitiveScience(withJeffCoulter),EdwinMellenPress,,TheoryandMethodinSociology(withJohnHughes),Palgrave,,andThereisNoSuchThingasaSocialScience(withPhilHutchinsonandRupertRead),Ashgate,AnnaTsatsaroniisAssociateProfessorofSociologyofEducationintheDepartmentofSocialandEducationalPolicyoftheUniversityofPeloponnese,GreeceHerresearchinterestsareinthesociologyofeducationalknowledgeandpractices,andinexploringchangesinknowledgeincrucialsubfieldsofEducationalStudies,especiallywithinthecontextofcurrentreformsTheseinterestshavebeenpursuedincollaborationwithcolleaguesspecializinginsuchsubjectsasmathematicseducationandscienceeducationHerpublicationsappearininternationalJournalssuchasTheBritishJournalofSociologyofEducation,SocialEpistemology,BritishEducationalResearchJournal,InternationalJournalofScienceandMathematicsEducation,andEducationalStudiesinMathematicsThispagehasbeenleftblankintentionallyPrefaceThisbookhaditsoriginsinaonedayconference,‘SociologyAfterDurkheim’heldattheUniversityofSurrey,JuneTheeditorsaregratefultoTheDepartmentofSociologyatSurrey,andtotheBritishSociologicalAssociationTheoryStudyGroupfortheirsupportofthiseventThispagehasbeenleftblankintentionallyChapterTheObjectsofSociology:AnIntroductionGeoffCooperSociologicalObjects,SociologicalSubjectsWhataretheobjectsofsociologySuchaquestionischaracteristicofsociologicaldiscourse,whichthroughoutitshistoryhasencompassedreflectionuponandinterrogationoftheprecisenature,andreferents,ofparticularformsofsociologicalknowledgeHowever,althougharecurrentquestion,eachrepetitionisnecessarilymarkedbynewrelevancies,andtheoccasionsandcontextsofitsaskinginthemselvesprovidesomeoftheresourcesforformulatinganswersToaskwhataretheobjectsofsociology,orwhatismeantbysuchaquestion,isthereforebothtoraisequestionsaboutthehistoricalspecificityofsociologyandthephenomenaitstudiestoday,andtorelatethosequestionstothehistoryofthedisciplineanditsquestioningAlreadyitisapparentthatthequestionisonethatopensupothersindeed,simplethoughitmaybe,itpointstowardstheconsiderationofawiderangeofpossibleissuesTheobjectsofsociologymaybetakentorefertothegoalsorpurposesofthediscipline–what,inthefinalanalysis,shouldsociologybedoing,andwhatkindsofsociologicalworkarebestsuitedtoaccomplishthesegoalsInanimportantsense,thisbroadandfundamentalquestionliesbeneathorbehindtheotherinterpretationsofthephraseorquestiontowhichthecontributionstothisbookare,perhaps,moredirectlyaddressedWhatis,orshouldbe,sociology’sobjectofstudyArethere,asDurkheim–akeyreferencepointforthisbook–appearedtothink,socialphenomenawhichprovidethedisciplinewithbothitsowndistinctivesubjectmatterand,thereby,muchofitslegitimacyOr,ashasbeenarguedonmorethanoneoccasionandwithparticularforceinrecentwork,doesthisvisionofsociologyrestonsomefundamentalmisconceptions–notleastofwhatismeantby‘social’–and,partlybecauseofitsdisciplinaryaspirations,endupwitharestrictedfieldofanalysisthatisunabletodojusticetotheheterogeneityoftheworldThislineofcriticismnotonlysuggeststhatsociologistsshouldbroadentheirviewtoencompassdifferentcategoriesofphenomenaincluding–toflaganotherimportantdimensionoftheRecentargumentsforarevisiontotheideathatsociologyhasitsowndomainofRecentargumentsforarevisiontotheideathatsociologyhasitsowndomainofobjectsincludeLatour(),andUrry()seealsothesubsequentdiscussionofthislineofargumentbyUrryetal()SociologicalObjectsterm–materialobjectsofvariouskinds,butmayalsohaveimplicationsforhowwethinkaboutthesubjectofknowledge,thesociologist‘Object’carriesfurthermeaningsthatcomplicateanysimpledemarcationbetweenobjectofstudyand(material)object,particularlyifconsideredinhistoricaltermsForexampleitispossibletoreadLatour()asclaiming,evenifitisnothismainpoint,thatacumulativeprocessofdelegationoffunctionstotechnologiesisunderway,whichwouldimplythattheinclusionoftechnologieswithinsocialanalysisissomethingthatbecomesmorenecessaryovertime:theobjectofstudyischanging,andmustincludeobjectsHowever,thisrelationshipcanbeseeninquitedifferentwaysFollowingFoucault,itispossibletolookmorecriticallyatthewayinwhichhumansciencessuchassociologyareengagedinprocessesofobjectification,wherepeoplehavebecometheobjectsofadisciplinarygazewhichconfigurestheminparticularways(Foucault)Objectificationwithintheresearchprocessisalsoanimportantcriticalfocusoffeministwork(OakleySmith)Ineachcase,‘objectofstudy’becomesnotaneutraltermofdesignationbutanindicatorofsomethingmorecomplexandproblematicIfwehavehere,ontheonehand,arecommendationtoincludeobjectsinsociologicalworkand,ontheother,apointingtothewaysinwhichsociology,inits‘traditional’form,hastreatedpeopleasobjects,therearealsoargumentsthatsomeofthephenomenaofpotentialinteresttosociologistsarebecomingmoreobjectlikeLashandLury()forexamplearguethatnewtechnologicallyenabledculturalformsofglobalcapitalismimplyamoveawayfromrepresentationsto‘mediatized’objectswhicharebothmaterialandoperationalInterestingly,hereandelsewhere,‘theobject’coexistswiththelanguageof‘flows’thatisdeployedinmuchcontemporarytheory,notablyinCastells’()descriptionoftheoperationofinformationinglobalcapitalism,butalsoinBauman()andMolandLaw(),wheresimilarmetaphorsareusedtoaidthedescriptionofthecurrentstateofmodernityontheonehand,andthecapturingandconveyingofdynamicprocessontheotherWhilstnotopposed,thesediscursivefiguresexhibitadegreeoftension,andtheirarticulationmayinitselfimplyatransformationofwhatismeantby‘object’Thesepointsbynomeansexhausttheconnotationsof‘objects’Theappealtotheobjectcananddoesbecomeimplicatedinargumentsaboutorbetweenrealismandconstructivism,materialismandidealism,objectivismandsubjectivism(seeforexampleDaston(),wheretheideaofbiographiesofobjectsisusedtocountertheperceivedtendencytowardsoversubjectivizedconstructionsinsocialscience),evencapitalismandsocialismifwefollowLukacs’earlierargumentsabouttheprocessesofreificationwhichareendemictotheformerandhaveshaped,interalia,modernwesternthoughtfromatleastKantonwards(Lukacs)Furtherdistinctionscanbemade,forexamplebetweenobjectsandthings(Heidegger,bLatour)NorcanthesequestionsabouttheobjectSeealsothepresenceof‘objects’and‘flows’inAppadurai’s()influentialSeealsothepresenceof‘objects’and‘flows’inAppadurai’s()influentialtreatmentofthecirculationofcommoditiesTheObjectsofSociology:AnIntroductionbesafelyrestrictedtothechoiceofappropriateanalyticalterminologyforagivenstateofaffairs:whenDurkheim()urgessociologiststo‘treatsocialfactsasthings’,orMolandLaw(opcit)proposealanguageoffluidsandflows,arethesestatementsintended,ortoberead,asmoreorlessusefulanalogiesormetaphors,asdenotingsomethingconcreteabouttheworldbeingdescribed,orperhapsdoingotherkindsof,performative,discursivework(cfGarfinkelandSacks)Wehavethenaclusterofissues,manyofwhichcentreonthequestionofthestatusofthesocial,havebothconceptualandhistoricaldimensions,andfrequentlyimply,ifnotexplicitlyinvoke,anormativeelementinsofarasacaseismadeforpreferredwaysofdoingsociologyThelattercanbeformulated,asalreadynoted,intermsofthesociologicalsubjectCanthissubjectstillbethoughtindisciplinarytermsif,forinstance,theheterogeneityoftheworldrequiresanapproachwhichcannotbeconfinedwithintheboundariesofonedisciplineWhatisthe(preferred)relationbetweentheknowingsubjectandsociologicalobjectInwhatwayscanorshouldprofessionalandlaysociologicalsubjectsandtheirrespectiveunderstandingsbedistinguishedCantheobjectsofsociologybemeaningfullyconsideredwithoutreferencetothestructureofthesociologicalfieldswithinwhichtheyarearticulated(BourdieuetalBernstein)Thesequestionscan,atleastinpart,beconsideredinhistoricaltermsIssociology,orshoulditbe,changingOneanswertothisisthatofcoursesociologyischangingandshouldchangeifitisnottobeconsignedtoirrelevanceButhowshouldweunderstandthischange,particularlyinrelationtothecanonicalbodyofestablishedworkOneapproachtothisissuehasbeentoorientdiscussionaroundtheideaofsomekindofepistemologicalbreakasapparentlyconnotedby‘postmodern’Whilstthisparadoxicaltermhasbeencreativelyusedpreciselytoproblematizeideasofprogressandtheprogressiveaccumulationofknowledgethroughtime(Vattimo),itremainsthecasethatithasoften,forunderstandablereasons,beentakentoimplyjustthelinearmodelofhistoryandhistoricaltimethatitputsintoquestionInthisbook,wethereforeleavethelanguageof‘postisms’(Derrida)toonesidetolookattheongoingreconfigurationofsociologyandsocialtheoryReconfigurationistakentoincludenotonlynewdevelopmentsinthefield,butalsothewayinwhichthehistoryofthedisciplineisitselfreformulated,thewaythatolddebatesreturnbutaregivendifferentinflect

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*新书上架*社会学对象:社会理论再构造

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